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					Constitution and
    Rules




September 2007
Kent Union Constitution – Final Draft for Approval


                           CORE CONSTITUTION

1.0   Name

      1.1    The name of the students‟ union at the University of Kent shall
             be Kent Union. Throughout this document it is referred to as
             “Kent Union” or “The Union”.

      1.2    Kent Union is recognised as the organisation of students as
             prescribed by Article 16 of the University Charter and constituted
             in accordance with Ordinance XXXVII of the University of Kent
             Statutes and Ordinances, and shall be thus recognised by the
             University Council and Senate.

2.0   Aims and Objectives

      Kent Union exists:

      2.1    To promote the interests of students at the University of Kent
             during their course of study and to represent, support and
             advise members.

      2.2    To provide social and recreational activities for members.

      2.3    To organise mutual trade between members.

      2.4    To be the recognised representation channel between students
             and the University and any other external body.

      In pursuit of the above objectives Kent Union will seek to ensure that
      the diversity of its membership is recognised and represented without
      prejudice or discrimination of any kind.

3.0   Membership

      3.1    There shall be the following categories of membership.
              Full Members
              Special Membership Holders

      3.2    All enrolled students currently on a programme of study,
             including those on years abroad and in industry, shall be full
             members of Kent Union unless they have decided to relinquish
             their membership in accordance with the Code of Practice.

      3.3    Sabbatical Officers and Student Trustees of Kent Union shall be
             full members of Kent Union

      3.4    Full Members are entitled to:
              Attend, speak and vote at all General Meetings
              Attend and speak at all meetings of Union Council


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                Nominate, be nominated and stand for election to Union
                 office as specified in this Constitution and Rules
                Vote in Union elections as specified in this Constitution and
                 Rules
                Join and participate in all activities of the Union
                Utilise Union facilities and services

      3.5    The entitlements of those who hold special memberships shall
             be outlined in the Special Membership Rules.

      3.6    The procedure for bestowing special memberships shall be
             outlined in the Special Membership Rules.

4.0   Governance and Government

      4.1    The Union‟s Board of Trustees will be ultimately responsible for
             the governance of Kent Union.

      4.2    The Board of Trustees shall comprise:
              The Sabbatical Officers
              Two (2) Student Trustees
              Two (2) External Members

      4.3    The Sabbatical Officers of Kent Union shall be elected in
             accordance with the Election Rules, and shall be paid an
             allowance, approved by Union Council, as laid down in the
             guidelines of office. This allowance shall be in recognition of
             their Sabbatical Office and not their Trusteeship.

      4.4    Notwithstanding point 4.3 above, the Sabbatical Officers shall
             abstain themselves from any debate or vote in any Union
             meeting in which the level or nature of their remuneration is
             discussed.

      4.5    The Student Trustees shall be elected in a cross-campus ballot,
             in accordance with the Election Rules and not be paid an
             allowance beyond reasonable out-of-pocket expenses.

      4.6    The External Members of the Board of Trustees shall be
             appointed by the Board of Trustees, using a recruitment and
             selection process approved by Union Council. The External
             Members will not be paid an allowance beyond reasonable out-
             of-pocket expenses.

      4.7    The Board of Trustees will normally be chaired by the Union
             President, unless the Board of Trustees decides otherwise.

      4.8    The policy and direction of Kent Union shall be governed by its
             members. The key policy-making bodies shall be as follows,
             stated in order of level of authority, starting from the highest:


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Kent Union Constitution – Final Draft for Approval



                The Referendum
                The General Meeting
                The Union Council
                The Board of Trustees

      4.9    A referendum may be held on any matter and shall be called
             and conducted in accordance with the Referenda Rules.

      4.10   The Annual General Meeting shall be held once per academic
             year during term time and conducted in accordance with the
             meeting rules. Quorum for this meeting will be 150 members.

      4.11   Additional General Meetings may be called by a simple majority
             of Union Council or a petition of 150 full members of the Union.

      4.12   The core functions of the Annual General Meeting shall be:

                To decide policy for the Union.
                To receive, discuss and approve reports from Union Council.
                To amend the Constitution and Rules.
                To hold the Union officers accountable.
                To discuss and approve the Union‟s budget and financial
                 statements.
                To approve the Union‟s annual report.
                To approve external affiliations.

      4.13   The Union Council shall meet at least once every four (4)
             academic weeks and shall be run in accordance with the
             meeting rules.

      4.14   The core functions of Union Council will be:

                To elect delegates to committees, meetings and conferences
                 where appropriate and eligible to do so
                To decide policy for the Union
                To interpret the Constitution when required.
                To amend and interpret the Rules
                To receive and approve reports from relevant committees,
                 union officers and working groups
                To co-opt non-voting members onto Union Council where
                 necessary
                To approve and amend the Union‟s code of conduct

      4.15   Union Council‟s membership shall be defined in the meeting
             rules.

      4.16   The Board of Trustees may employ permanent staff to work for
             the Union. Specifically, staff members will:


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                    Take responsibility for operational aspects of the Union
                    Work with Union officers to ensure consistency of service
                     delivery
                    Advise the officers on the policy and direction of the
                     Union as appropriate.

      4.17   The Board of Trustees may develop and approve a Mission,
             Vision and Values statement for Kent Union.

      4.18   The Board of Trustees may develop and establish working
             groups, scrutiny committees or other groups to advise the
             Trustees on policy and practice.

      4.19   The Board of Trustees may establish partnership arrangements
             and establish representative organisations for Kent students
             studying at specific sites. The Kent Union Trustees will be
             ultimately responsible for these operations, and all activities in
             this regard must comply with this Constitution and Rules.

5.0   Finance

      5.1    Kent Union shall receive an allocation of funds from the
             University in the form of a block grant.

      5.2    The Union, acting through the Board of Trustees, shall be
             empowered, in pursuit of its aims and objectives, to open bank
             accounts in the name of Kent Union, to lend monies, to invest
             monies, to borrow monies, to offer its material assets as security
             and do all other such things as are necessary for the prudent
             conduct of its financial affairs as though it were a legal person
             and subject to no other restrictions save any which may be
             imposed by properly approved Union policy.

      5.3    The Union, acting through the Board of Trustees, shall ensure
             that proper accounts are maintained and that accounts shall be
             audited annually by a public accountant appointed by the Board
             of Trustees.

      5.4    The Union, acting through the Board of Trustees, shall ensure
             that the annual budget, amendments to the budget and financial
             statements are submitted to the Union Council or the Annual
             General Meeting for discussion and approval.

      5.5    A copy of the Union‟s financial statements shall be provided to
             the University‟s Council in accordance with Ordinance XXXVIII.

      5.6    A copy of the Union‟s budget will be submitted to the
             University‟s Finance and Resources Committee annually for
             approval.


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      5.7    The Trustees of the Union will approve financial procedures for
             the Union and ensure adherence to these procedures.

      5.8    The Trustees of the Union shall have overall responsibility for
             the Union‟s financial affairs and for ensuring that the
             requirements set out above are met.

6.0   Affiliations to external bodies

      6.1    All affiliations to external organisations with an affiliation fee of
             less than 1% of the block grant, shall be approved annually by
             the membership, at a body with no lower level of authority than
             the Union Council.

      6.2    All affiliations to external organisations with an affiliation fee of
             1% or greater of the block grant shall be approved annually by
             the membership, at a body with no lower level of authority than
             the General Meeting.

      6.3    Details of all affiliations to external organisations, including the
             name of the organisation and the affiliation fee in each case,
             shall be made available to students and the University Council.

      6.4    In the event of a challenge to an existing affiliation to any
             external organisation, a petition signed by at least 150 full
             members of the Union must be submitted to the Union Chair. A
             Referendum shall be held on the issue, which shall be
             conducted in accordance with the Referenda Rules.

7.0   Companies

      7.1    The Board of Trustees shall have the power to establish Limited
             Companies

      7.2    At least one director of each company shall be a Trustee of the
             Union.

8.0   Complaints

      8.1    Complaints about Union Officers, Sabbatical Officers, Trustees
             or any member of the Union Council shall be dealt with in
             accordance with the Comments and Complaints Procedure.

      8.2    Any complaint about a member of Union Staff shall be dealt with
             in accordance with the Staff and Student Protocol.




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9.0    Removal from Office

       9.1    Any elected representative of the Union may be removed from
              office according to the Removal from Office Rules.

       9.2    Any elected representative of the Union can lose privileges of
              membership under the Student Disciplinary procedure, and thus
              may cease to hold Union office.

       9.3    In addition to 9.1 above, External Trustees may be removed
              from office by a simple majority of the Board of Trustees. The
              Trustee in question would not be allowed to take part in such a
              vote.

10.0   Freedom of Information

       10.1   The Union shall make steps to ensure that all relevant, non-
              reserved, information is made available to its members and
              stakeholders.

       10.2   The following documents shall be available at the Union‟s
              Offices and on its website:

                    The Constitution and Rules
                    Minutes of all Union meetings
                    The Annual Report
                    The Budget

       10.3   All meeting of the Union shall be considered open within the
              terms of the relevant meeting‟s rules.

       10.4   Papers and minutes relating to particular individuals (staff and
              students) and commercial in confidence matters shall be
              designated as reserved and not for discussion or circulation
              beyond the body concerned.

11.0   Amendments

       11.1   General Meetings and Referenda shall be the sole bodies
              empowered to amend the Constitution.

       11.2   Union Council, General Meetings and Referenda shall be the
              sole bodies empowered to amend the Rules.

       11.3   Amendments to the Constitution shall require the support of two-
              thirds of those voting at a General Meeting or a simple majority
              at a Referendum.




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       11.4   Amendments to the Rules shall require a simple majority in
              support, of those present and entitled to vote at a Union Council
              or General Meeting.

       11.5   Any approved amendments to the Core Constitution will be
              presented to the University Council for approval.

       11.6   The Constitution shall be reviewed every five (5) years.

12.0   Indemnity

       12.1   Kent Union, acting through the Board of Trustees, will ensure
              that arrangements are made to indemnify all officers, appointees,
              staff members and Trustees of the Union against all liability,
              financial or otherwise, incurred through the execution of their
              duties, save for consequences of unlawful or negligent activity
              on their part.

13.0   Interpretation

       13.1   In the event of a dispute as to the interpretation of any part of
              the Constitution or Rules, the ruling of the Union Chair shall be
              sought.

       13.2   The Union Chair shall undertake to ensure that adequate advice,
              including legal advice if appropriate, is taken before making
              rulings of this nature.

       13.3   In the event of a challenge to the ruling of the Union Chair, the
              decision of the Union Council is final.




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RULES: ELECTIONS

E1    Application

      E1.1 These rules shall apply for all elections conducted by cross
           campus ballot.

E2    The Returning Officer (RO)

      E2.1 Union Council will, for each election, appoint an appropriately
           qualified person to act as the Returning Officer.

      E2.2 The RO shall:
            Be the final interpreter of the Elections Rules.
            Appoint (and dismiss if necessary) deputy returning officers
              and other officials to ensure the good conduct and
              administration of the elections.
            Oversee the count and declare the results of the elections.
            Set rules, regulations and guidelines other than these
              election rules to govern the conduct of the election.
            Seek legal advice if he/she believes that statements made or
              the contents of publicity could leave the Union open to legal
              action.
            Rule out of order any statement or the content of any
              publicity which in the RO‟s view is in breach of this
              constitution, the law or any other appropriate rules and
              guidelines.
            Be empowered to issue warnings to candidates or remove
              candidates from the election at any point in accordance with
              these election rules and any rules and regulations issued in
              accordance with the above.
            Be empowered to order recounts, or declare election
              processes null and void.
            Deliver, or ensure the delivery of, appropriate training to all
              election candidates.
            Make available an information pack to potential candidates
              for each election outlining relevant rules and procedures.

E3    Complaints

      E3.1 The RO is the ultimate official competent to deal with complaints
           regarding the conduct of candidates, their supporters and
           campaigns, and the administration of elections.

      E3.2 Complaints regarding the conduct of the RO shall be dealt with
           under the Comments and Complaints Procedure.

E4    The Process of Elections




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      E4.1 The RO shall produce an election timetable, which shall outline:
            Arrangements for absentee ballots
            The process for nomination
            Details of candidates‟ training
            Details for the submission of manifestos
            Details of a question time (if appropriate)
            Arrangements for the ballot
            Arrangements for the count

      E4.2 The RO shall produce details of the arrangements for balloting
           and for complaints procedures, and ensure that they are
           publicised to all students.

      E4.3 The RO shall ensure that any additional details, or amendments
           to the arrangements, are publicised to all students in a timely
           fashion.

E5    Absentee Voting

      E5.1 Full members of the Union shall be entitled to an absentee vote
           if they are unable to vote in person.

      E5.2 The RO shall produce and publicise regulations for the
           application and issue of absentee votes.

E6    Nominations

      E6.1 Nomination forms will be available to all students.

      E6.2 It shall be the responsibility of nominees to ensure that
           nomination forms are completed accurately and submitted
           before the deadline.

      E6.3 Any full member of the Union may propose any number of
           candidates, but may not nominate more than one candidate for
           any one position.

      E6.4 Nomination forms shall require at least ten (10) proposers.

      E6.5 The RO shall have the sole responsibility for declaring a
           submitted nomination form valid.

      E6.6 In the event of two or more candidates having the same
           proposer in an election for a single position, the RO may allow
           up to twenty-four (24) hours for the candidates to find fresh
           proposers.

      E6.7 When the RO is satisfied, all valid nominations shall be
           confirmed with the candidates and published.



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E7    Manifestos

      E7.1 Manifestos must be submitted by the date laid down in the
           election timetable and must comply with any format
           requirements stipulated by the RO.

      E7.2 The RO will ensure that manifestos are available to voters at the
           point of ballot.

E8    Campaign Publicity

      E8.1 The RO will determine the allowance for publicity available to
           each candidates for each election.

      E8.2 The RO may also stipulate an amount that candidates may also
           spend on their own election campaigns.

      E8.3 All candidates in each election shall have an equal publicity
           allowance.

      E8.4. The RO shall draw up regulations for the conduct of candidates‟
            campaigns. Any breach of these regulations could lead to
            disqualification from the election.

E9    Question Time

      E9.1 The RO may arrange a question time for the candidates in an
           election.

      E9.2 The question time will be conducted in a manner agreed at the
           candidates‟ training

E10   Withdrawal

      E10.1 Any candidate may withdraw from the election at any point by
            informing the RO.

      E10.2 If a candidate withdraws during the ballot, or after a point at
            which the ballots cannot be amended, the RO will ensure that
            the voters next preference is counted.

E11   Voting

      E11.1 The RO will ensure that all eligible members of the Union can
            vote.

      E11.2 The RO shall decide the method of voting and publicise it
            appropriately.



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      E11.3 The Voters shall be able to express preferences for as few or as
            many candidates as they wish subject to the rubric on ballot
            papers.

      E11.4 Ballots shall bear the chosen name of each candidate, and of
            the position being contested.

      E11.5 The order of names on the ballot shall be decided by the
            drawing of lots.

      E11.6 There will be a facility for voting for “No Suitable Candidate”.

      E11.7 Voting shall be by secret ballot.

E12   The Count

      E12.1 Candidates or their appointed representative may, if they wish,
            attend the counting of the votes, as observers only.

      E13.2 The count will commence only after the RO is satisfied that all
            complaints relating to the conduct and administration of the
            election have been resolved.

      E13.3 The count will be conducted in accordance with the rules
            outlined by the Electoral Reform Society for running elections by
            Single Transferable Vote.

      E13.4 Any candidate may request a recount within five (5) calendar
            days by writing to the RO. The RO‟s decision is final in this
            regard.

E13   Declaration

      E13.1 Results of the election shall be declared by the RO when the
            count for each post has been successfully completed.

      E13.2 A list of successful candidates will be made available within one
            (1) academic day of the declaration of the results.


E14   Bye-Elections and Co-Options

      E14.1 If any Union Office falls vacant, Union Council shall determine if
            and when a bye-election should be called.

      E14.2 In the interim period before any such bye-election, Union
            Council may co-opt a full member of the Union into the Office as
            a non-voting officer, with the exception of the Sabbatical Officers.




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      E14.3 If a bye-election fails to fill an office, Union Council may co-opt a
            full member of the Union as a non-voting officer, with the
            exception of the Sabbatical Officers.




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RULES: REFERENDA

R1    Calling a Referendum

      R1.1 A referendum shall be held on any issue if the Union Council
           resolves by a two-thirds majority to hold a referendum.

      R 1.2 In addition the Union Chair must call a referendum if handed a
            petition containing the name, University email address and
            signature of at least 150 students who are full members.

      R 1.3 The Union Chair may accept a petition gathered electronically,
            provided the Chair is satisfied as to its authenticity.

R2    Before a Referendum

      R 2.1 Union Council shall appoint an appropriately qualified person to
            act as the Referendum Returning Officer.

      R 2.2 The RRO shall be responsible for the good conduct and
            administration of the referendum.

      R 2.3 In particular, the RRO shall:
                 Call an open meeting to outline the purpose of the
                    referendum
                 Appoint one (1) campaign manager per option available
                    in the referendum
                 Decide the wording of the question(s) and options on the
                    referendum ballot paper in consultation with those who
                    requested the referendum and the campaign managers
                    for each campaign.

      R 2.4 Each campaign manager shall be given an equal publicity
            allowance.

      R 2.5 Referendum publicity rules shall be determined by the RRO.

R3    Voting

      R 3.1 The referendum shall be supervised by the RRO.

      R 3.2 The times and locations of voting shall be determined and
            publicised by the RRO.

      R 3.3 The RRO shall advertise arrangements for absentee votes.

R4    Methods of voting

      R 4.1 For referenda in which there are two (2) options the outcome will
            be determined by a simple majority.


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      R 4.2 For referenda in which there are three (3) or more options,
            voting and counting shall be undertaken via the Single
            Transferable Vote (STV) in accordance with Electoral Reform
            Society (ERS) guidelines.

R5    Complaints

      R 5.1 Complaints about the conduct of individuals during the
            Referendum shall be dealt with by the RRO, who may refer the
            matter to the standard Union disciplinary procedure.

      R 5.2 The RRO shall have the power to withdraw publicity allowances
            if the RO has evidence that publicity rules are being breached.

      R 5.3 In the event of a complaint being upheld, the RRO may revoke
            the status of a campaign manager.

      R 5.4 Complaints regarding the conduct of the RRO and any appeal of
            a decision of the RRO shall be referred to the Comments and
            Complaints Procedure.

R6    Results

      R 6.1 The RRO shall be responsible for declaring the result of the
            referendum once the RO is satisfied that the referendum has
            been conducted properly.

      R 6.2 For the result to be valid, at least three hundred (300) full
            members of the Union must vote in the referendum.

      R 6.3 The result of a referendum will take precedence over any
            existing policy on the same issue as laid out in the policy rules.

      R 6.4 The Union Chair shall have the authority to decide whether an
            issue proposed for a referendum is already covered by existing
            policy.




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RULES: DEBATING

DE1   Principles of Debate

      DE1.1 The Chair shall be responsible for ensuring that all debates are
            fair, inclusive and robust. In particular, the Chair shall:
             Be impartial and not participate in debate.
             Ensure that debates are „balanced‟.
             Ensure that students are given an equal opportunity to
                participate.
             Ensure that only one item is discussed at any one point in
                time.
             Ensure that, as far as is possible, all items on the Agenda
                get discussed.
             Advise the meeting as to proper conduct with regard to this
                Constitution, its Rules and the Law.
             Adjourn the meeting, or remove speaking rights from
                individuals, if necessary to ensure the good conduct and
                course of business of the meeting.

DE2   Order of Debate

      DE2.1 Debates should follow the following structure:
             A speech for the proposal
             A speech against the proposal
             An equal number of speeches for and against the proposal
             Summation speeches

      DE2.2 The proposer and seconder of a motion will be given the
            opportunity to make the first two speeches for the motion.

      DE2.3 The proposer of a motion will be given the opportunity to make
            the Summation Speech.

DE3   Process of Debates

      DE3.1 Before a debate:
             The Chair will indicate the amount of time after which the
               debate will conclude (the Guillotine)
             The Chair will indicate the amount of time available for each
               speech.

      DE3.2 During a Debate:
             Members should address themselves to the Chair
             Members wishing to speak should raise their hand.
             The Chair will call the first member observed.
             All speakers should be given an equal amount of time to
               speak.



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                       Members may ask a question, raise a point of order, raise a
                        point of information or propose a procedural motion.
                       The Chair may move to a vote should the meeting agree that
                        no further discussion is required.
                       The proposer of a motion may withdraw the motion

      DE3.3 After a Debate:
            The proposer and first opposer of a motion shall be invited to
               make a summation speech, which shall contain no new
               information.
            A vote will take place, conducted by a show of hands.
            The Chair will record votes for, votes against and abstentions.
            The Chair will indicate if a clear majority is demonstrated.
            If a clear majority is not demonstrated the Chair will conduct
               a count.
            Once the Chair is satisfied as to the result of a count, the
               Chair‟s ruling on the result will be final.
            Members shall not enter or leave the room during a vote.
            Debates will require a simple majority, except where
               otherwise specified in the Constitution.

DE4   Interventions

      DE4.1 At any time, any member may raise any of the following points
            of order in order to challenge the conduct of the meeting:

             PO1: A request for a count of those present to ensure that the
                  meeting is quorate
             PO2: A request that the Chair make a ruling as to the conduct
                  of the meeting
             PO3 A request for a Constitutional Interpretation

      DE4.2 The Chair will respond to the point of order immediately.

      DE4.3 At any time, any member may raise a point of information.
            Points of information:
             Must only contain „matters of fact‟.
             May only be given with the permission of the current speaker,
               or the Chair.

      DE4.4 At any time, except during a vote, any member may propose
            one of the following procedural motions:

                   i.      That the meeting has no confidence in the chair and that
                           s/he should be replaced for the remainder of the meeting
                  ii.      To challenge the ruling of the Chair
                 iii.      That there should be a further round of speeches
                 iv.       To move straight to a vote
                  v.       To adjourn the meeting for a break


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              vi.    That the current discussion should be resolved with a
                     secret ballot
             vii.    That a vote should be recounted
             viii.   That the debate should be split into parts and voted on
                     separately
              ix.    To allow non-members to speak in the meeting.
               x.    To remove speaking rights from a member of the meeting
              xi.    To amend the order of items on the Agenda.

      DE4.5 The proposer of the motion will be given one (1) minute to speak
            in favour of the procedural motion. The Chair will then seek one
            (1) opposer to speak for one (1) minute against the procedural
            motion. This will be followed by a vote.

      DE4.6 In the event of procedural motion i. is proposed, the Chair will
            immediately give way to a Vice-Chair for the duration of the
            debate and vote on the procedural motion.

DE5   Amendments and Emergency Debates

      DE5.1 Any member of the meeting may propose an amendment to a
            debate.

      DE5.2 The Chair will allow for the proposer of an amendment and one
            opposer to speak for two (2) minutes on the amendment.

      DE5.3 If no opposer is found, the amendment will be carried.

      DE5.4 If, following the amendment of a debate, the original proposer of
            the motion no longer wishes to propose the debate, the
            proposer of the amendment will become the proposer.

      DE5.5 Requests for emergency debates can be handed to the chair at
            any point before the start of the meeting.

      DE5.6 Emergency debates may only be discussed during Any Other
            Business, and only if the meeting agrees to hear the debate
            following a vote.




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RULES: POLICY

PL1   Making Policy

      PL1.1 Debates that are passed by Union Council, General Meetings or
            Referenda become Union Policy.
      PL1.2 Policy can be overruled by a body of equal or higher status.
      PL1.3 Policy cannot be passed if it contravenes an existing policy
            made by a higher Union body.
      PL1.4 Amendments to this Constitution and Rules are not classed as
            policy and serve until amended in accordance with the rules.

PL2   Policy Lapse

      PL2.1 Union Policy will be valid for two years, and after this time will
            automatically „lapse‟.
      PL2.2 The Union Chair will inform Union Council of upcoming lapses of
            policy, and give the option of renewing the policy.
      PL2.3 Renewals or Amendments must follow a debate, held in the
            normal manner, in accordance with the debating rules.

PL3   Recording Policy

      PL3.1 The Union Chair will be responsible for ensuring the
            maintenance and publication of a record of active policy.




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Rules: General Meetings

GM1 Attendance and Voting

      GM1.1Full members of the Union are entitled to attend General
           Meetings in accordance with this Constitution and Rules. Non-
           members must obtain permission to attend from the meeting.

      GM1.2Full members of the Union are entitled to speak at a General
           Meeting. Other individuals may only speak with the permission
           of the meeting.

      GM1.3Only full members who are present at the meeting shall be
           entitled to vote.

      GM1.4The Quorum for General Meetings is 150 full members

      GM1.5If the meeting is found to be inquorate, the Chair may dissolve
           the meeting.

      GM1.6Any business passed during an inquorate period must be ratified
           by the next quorate session of a General Meeting or Union
           Council.

GM2 Agenda and Business

      GM2.1All items for discussion shall be submitted to the Union Chair at
           least seven (7) days before the meeting.

      GM2.2All items for discussion shall require the signature of at least two
           full members of the Union, known as the Proposer and
           Seconder(s).

      GM2.3All debates and discussions shall be conducted according to the
           Debating Rules.

      GM2.4The Union Chair shall be responsible for ensuring that the
           meeting runs smoothly.

      GM2.5The Agenda shall allow for the Meeting to fulfil all of its
           responsibilities outlined in section four of the Constitution.

      GM2.6The details of all General Meetings shall be publicised to all
           members at least one week before the meeting.

      GM2.7 Details of submitted debates shall be publicised at least three (3)
            days before the start of the meeting.




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GM3 Calling of Meetings

      GM3.1A General Meeting may be called by:
                 i. The Board of Trustees
                ii. A resolution from Union Council
               iii. A petition signed by 150 full members submitted to the
                    Union Chair




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RULES: UNION COUNCIL

UC1   Membership

      UC1.1 Union Council shall consist of the following members:

                The Union Chair
                The Sabbatical Officers
                The Site Committee Presidents
                The following representative officers
                    o International Students‟ Officer
                    o Mature Students‟ Officer
                    o Part-Time Students‟ Officer
                    o Postgraduate Students‟ Officer
                    o Students with Dependants‟ Officer
                    o Students with Disabilities Officer
                    o Ethnic Minorities Officer
                    o Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students
                        Officer
                    o Men‟s Officer
                    o Women‟s Officer
                    o Ethical and Environmental Officer
                Three (3) Faculty Representatives
                Two (2) University Senate Representatives
                One (1) University Council Representative
                One (1) Societies Federation Representative
                One (1) Sports Federation Representative
                RAG President
                Ten (10) Ordinary Members elected by cross-campus ballot.

      UC1.2 If an individual member of the Union holds more than one office,
            that individual is still only entitled to one (1) vote on Council.

      UC1.3 Ordinary members of Union Council may not hold any other
            Council Office

UC2   Meetings

      UC2.1 Union Council shall meet at least every four (4) weeks during
            term time.

      UC2.2 The Chair will advertise the time and location of each meeting at
            least seven (7) days before each meeting

      UC2.3 Any full member of the Union may attend and speak at Union
            Council Meetings. Any other person must obtain permission
            from the meeting.

      UC2.4 Only members of Union Council may vote in Council Meetings



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      UC2.5 The Union Chair may only cast a vote in the event of a tie.

      UC2.6 Voting shall normally be by the show of hands, unless the
            relevant procedural motion is passed. Voting Cards will be
            issued to members.

      UC2.7 Multiple Choice votes will be conducted via the STV procedure
            outlined in the elections and referenda rules.

UC3 Quorum

      UC3.1 Quorum for Union Council shall be 50%+1 of elected full
            members.

      UC3.2 A Quorum check must take place at the start of each meeting.

      UC3.3 If the meeting is found to be inquorate, the Union Chair may
            dissolve the meeting.

      UC3.4 Any decisions made whilst Council is inquorate must be ratified
            by the next quorate session of Union Council.

UC4   Debates and Discussion

      UC4.1 All items for debate and discussion must be submitted to the
            Union Chair at least three (3) working days before the meeting.

      UC4.2 All items for debate must have the declared support of two full
            members of the Union, known as the proposer and the seconder.

      UC4.3 All debates should be conducted according to the Debating
            Rules.

UC5   Union Chair

      UC5.1 The Union Chair shall be any full member of the Union, elected
            at the last Union Council meeting of the academic year and
            taking office at first Union Council meeting of the next academic
            year

      UC5.2 The period of office shall until the end of the academic year.

      UC5.3 Union Council may elect up to two Vice-Chairs, who must be full
            members of the Union.

      UC5.4 If the Union Chair leaves office, a Vice-Chair will assume the
            responsibilities of the role until the next Union Council meeting,
            at which Union Council will elect a new Chair.



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      UC5.5 The Union Chair must declare any interest that they have in any
            debate or discussion, and relinquish the chair during any
            debates in which they have an interest.

UC6   Agenda

      UC6.1 The Union Chair will be responsible for compiling and publicising
            the Agenda.

      UC6.2 The Chair is responsible for ensuring that the Council Agenda
            ensures that the Union Council is fulfilling its obligations under
            section 4 of the Constitution.

      UC6.3 The Agenda must also include:

                i.   Apologies for absence
               ii.   The checking of previous minutes for accuracy.
              iii.   Matters arising from the previous minutes.
              iv.    Reports from officers and committees (followed by
                     questions)
              v.     Any other Business
              vi.    Time, Date and place for next meeting.

UC7   Emergency Meetings

      UC7.1 An Emergency Meeting of Council can be called by:
               i. A resolution from Union Council
              ii. A written request from a simple majority of current
                  members of Union Council
             iii. A petition from 150 full members of the Union submitted
                  to the Union Chair.

      UC7.2 The Union Chair will make arrangements for the Emergency
            Meeting to be held within seven (7) days from receipt of the
            notice of the request

      UC7.3 The Meeting shall only discuss the issue(s) for which the
            meeting was called.




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RULES: BOARD OF TRUSTEES

BT1   Function of the Board of Trustees

      BT1.1 The Membership of the Board of Trustees shall be outlined in
            the Core Constitution.

      BT1.2 The Managing Director of the Union shall normally attend
            meetings in an advisory capacity.

      BT1.3 The Board of Trustees may invite any other appropriate
            person(s) to attend meetings in an advisory capacity.

      BT1.4 The Board of Trustees shall satisfy itself that the regularity of
            meetings, and the nature of the business discussed, enables the
            Trustees to apply an adequate level of scrutiny to the
            organisation.

      BT1.5 In particular, the Board of Trustees will normally
                 Oversee the management of the Union‟s financial affairs.
                 Approve the Union‟s Financial Statements.
                 Approve the Union‟s annual budget.
                 Select, and receive reports from, the Union‟s external
                    auditors.
                 Ensure that Union activities are subject to regular audit
                    and risk management review.
                 Scrutinise the Union‟s management.
                 Oversee the Union‟s employment practices.
                 Oversee the performance management of the Managing
                    Director

BT2   Meetings of the Board of Trustees

      BT2.1 The Quorum for any meeting shall be 50%+1 of current voting
            members.

      BT2.2The Board of Trustees shall meet at least four (4) times per year,
           and at least once every University Term.

      BT2.3Meetings of the Board of Trustees shall only be open to
           members of the Board and other persons invited to attend at the
           discretion of the Board.

      BT2.4Minutes shall be taken of each meeting and ratified at the
           subsequent meeting. Ratified minutes shall be made available to
           students and staff in accordance with Section 10 of the Core
           Constitution.




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RULES: SITE COMMITTEES

SC1 Role and Function Of Site Commitees

      SC1.1 Kent Union shall run Site Committees, in order to:
               Facilitate student involvement in the Union
               Act as a channel of communication between students
                  from that site and Union Council
               Act as a channel of communication between students
                  from that site and relevant University staff and
                  committees.
               Represent the interests of the students from that site to
                  the Union and the University
               Organise social, sporting and other events at that site, in
                  conjunction with other areas of the union, so as to
                  enhance the experience of students from that site.

      SC1.2 Each designated University „College‟ will have its own site
            committee.

      SC1.3 At least one Site Committee shall exist for the students of
            Parkwood.

      SC1.4 Union Council may decide to create and disband other
            committees.

SC2   Operation of Site Commitees.

      SC2.1 Each Site Committee shall have its own Constitution, which shall
            be approved by Union Council, and shall not contradict any part
            of this Constitution and Rules.

      SC2.2 Each Site Committee shall have the following elected positions,
                 plus any others in accordance with its Constitution:
                         President
                         Vice-President

      SC2.3 All members, residents or students of the relevant site shall be
            empowered to stand and vote in elections for the above
            positions.

      SC2.4 All elections must be conducted in accordance with the
            Elections Rules.

      SC2.4 All Site Committee must hold at least one General Meeting each
            academic year.




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RULES: STUDENT ACTIVITIES

SA1   The Sports Federation

      SA1.1 There shall be a Sports Federation and Sports Federation
            Committee.

      SA1.2 The Sports Federation and Sports Federation Committee shall
            have a Constitution which shall be approved by Union Council.

SA2   The Societies Federation

      SA2.1 There shall be a Societies Federation and Societies Federation
            Committee.
      SA2.2 The Societies Federation and Societies Federation Committee
            shall have a constitution which shall be approved by Union
            Council.

SA3   Student Activities

      SA3.1 The Union will facilitate Student Activities, including Student
            Media and Volunteering and will ensure that all activities operate
            under the principle of student direction and leadership.




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RULES: REMOVAL FROM OFFICE

RO1 Removal from office of Union Officers

      RO1.1 All Union Officers and Trustees may be removed from office by:
                 A referendum, conducted in accordance with the
                   Referenda Rules.
                 A two-thirds majority vote at a General Meeting
                 By a breach of the Student Disciplinary Regulations on
                   the grounds of gross misconduct resulting in dismissal.
                 By exclusion from the University

      RO1.2 In addition, Site Committee Members may be removed from
            office by a two-thirds majority at a General Meeting of that Site
            Committee.

      RO1.3Any member of a body of the Union may be removed from office
           by a simple majority vote of that body if they fail to attend three
           consecutive meetings of that body without submitting apologies.

      RO1.4 The Union‟s External Trustees may also be removed from office
            by the Board of Trustees, in accordance with section nine of the
            core constitution.

RO2 Resignations from Office

      RO2.1 Any Union Officer or Trustee may tender their resignation at any
            time.

      RO2.2 Resignations must be made in writing to the Chair of the
            relevant body.

RO3 Removal from Office debates and replacements

      RO3.1 Proposals to remove any member from Union Office shall be
            treated as a debate under the Debating Rules.

      RO3.2 In the case of a vacancy arising from a resignation, Union
            Council will determine if and when to hold a bye-election in
            accordance with the election rules.




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RULES: SPECIAL MEMBERSHIPS

SM1 Special Memberships

      SM1.1 Kent Union may bestow Honorary, Life or Associate
            membership of the Union on any person, subject to these Rules.

      SM2.2 Special Membership may be awarded by a majority vote of
            Union Council or any higher body.

SM2 Honorary Membership

      SM2.1 The status of Honorary Member of the Union may be conferred
            on any person.

      SM2.2 Such status shall be held for life, excepting any repudiation
            outlined in these rules.

SM3 Life Membership

      SM3.1 Any full member of the Union or former full member of the Union
            may be conferred the status of Life Member of the Union.

      SM3.2 Such status shall be held for life, excepting any repudiation
            outlined in these rules.

SM4 Associate Membership

      SM4.1 All members of a student-led organisation which desires to enter
            into agreement with the Union on terms acceptable to Union
            Council may be conferred the status of Associate Members of
            Kent Union.

SM5 Repudiation of Special Memberships

      SM5.1 Any Special Membership status may be repudiated at any time
            with immediate effect by Union Council or a higher body.




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RULES: JOB DESCRIPTIONS

JD1: Elected Officers

      JD1.1 It shall be the responsibility of all elected officers to:
                 Represent the views of students within their remit to the
                    Union and University.
                 Build and maintain effective working relationships with
                        o Other Union Officers
                        o Student Volunteers
                        o Union Staff
                        o University Staff
                        o Staff and Officers from External Organisations
                 Promote the interests of students and the Union in all
                    activities.
                 Develop, promote and uphold Union Policy at all times.
                 Attend and report regularly to Union Council and any
                    other relevant Union or University bodies.
                 Attend all training courses relevant to the role, as
                    required.
                 Convene, organise, attend and chair any appropriate
                    Union committees, working groups or informal groups as
                    appropriate and required by the membership.
                 Work alongside appropriate Union staff members to
                    ensure that services and activities within their remit
                    exceed the expectations of the membership.
                 Abide by the Staff and Student Protocol agreement at all
                    times.

      JD1.2 The role and remit of all individual Student Officers shall be
            annually approved by Union Council.

JD2: Sabbatical Officers

      JD2.1 The following positions shall be Sabbatical Officers:
                Union President
                Vice-President (Education)
                Vice-President (Welfare)
                Vice-President (Student Activities)
                Vice-Presidents(Sports)

      JD2.2 Sabbatical Officers shall conform to the Sabbatical Guidelines of
            Office.

      JD2.3 Sabbatical Officers shall be paid an allowance in accordance
            with the Core Constitution.

      JD2.4 Sabbatical Officers shall be ex-officio Trustees of the Union and
            shall conform to the Trustee role descriptions in these rules.


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JD3   Union Trustees

      JD3.1 Union Trustees shall:

                    Ensure that Kent Union acts in accordance with its
                     Constitution and other guiding documents and in
                     particular that its remains true to its Mission, Vision and
                     Values.

                    Help Kent Union achieve its objectives and improve the
                     lives of its members.

                    Ensure that Kent Union complies with all relevant
                     legislation and regulations, including relevant charity acts
                     and education acts.

                    Monitor the financial performance of Kent Union and
                     ensure that it remains solvent and financially secure.

                    Ensure that Kent Union‟s funds are spent in accordance
                     with its charitable aims and objectives.

                    Ensure that Kent Union does not undertake activities that
                     put its financial stability, members or reputation at undue
                     risk.

                    Use their personal skills and experience to ensure Kent
                     Union is well-run and efficient.

                    Seek external professional advice where there may be
                     material risk to Kent Union or where the Trustees may be
                     in breach of their duties, or at any other appropriate
                     moment.

                    Recruit, appraise      and       performance-manage     the
                     Managing Director.

      JD3.2 In particular, External Trustees shall:

                    Use their relevant skills/knowledge to help the Board of
                     Trustees to come to informed decisions.

                    Use their relevant skills/knowledge to scrutinise the work
                     of the Managing Director.




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      JD3.3 In particular, Student Trustees (including Sabbatical Officers)
            shall:

                    Ensure that the direction of Kent Union is in accordance
                     with its members‟ wishes.

                    Ensure effective communication between Kent Union and
                     its members.


      JD3.4 In practical terms, Trustees are expected to:

                    Attend Meetings of the Board of Trustees (approximately
                     8 per year) and to be adequately prepared for such
                     meetings.

                    Attend any other meetings, functions and events as
                     deemed appropriate by the Board of Trustees and in
                     particular to sit on at least one Kent Union Scrutiny
                     Committee (3-4 meetings per year).




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