2. Anemia -Classification Class 2 for students by akashyap

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									Describe the RBC Morphology

What is your inference from this CBC

Identify the stain and the cell with arrow

Identify the cell

Describe the RBC morphology

Red cell disorders

Anemias
↓ red cell mass

Polycythemia
↑ red cell mass

ANEMIA
“Defined as reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of blood.” - reduction in the RBC count or or the haemoglobin concentration of the blood.

Anemia
• Incidence: 2-15 % in US and Great Britain • Much higher in developing countries • Females more commonly affected than males • Race: African American : Sickle cell anemia, G6PD deficiency Mediterrenean : ß thalessemia

Symptoms of Anemia

Signs of anemia
Pallor

Classification

MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION

ETIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION

Morphological Classification
1. Normocytic Normochromic 2. Microcytic hypochromic 3. Macrocytic normochromic

Normocytic Normochromic Anemia

Microcytic Hypochromic anemia

Iron deficiency anemia Thalessemia Anemia of chronic disease Sideroblastic anemia

Macrocytic Normochromic anemia

Vitamin B12 deficiency Folic acid deficiency Liver disease

ANEMIA

ETIOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION

1) Blood loss 2) Decreased production of red blood cells (Marrow failure) 3) Increased destruction of red blood cells
(Hemolytic anaemia)

I Blood loss
• A) Acute Blood Loss - Normocytic Normochromic
– Reticulocytosis, reaching 10% to 15% after

2-3 days

• B) Chronic Blood Loss
– Regardless of underlying cause -Iron deficiency anemia (IDA)

II Decreased red cell production
A.Disturbance of proliferation and differentiation of stem cells :
Aplastic anaemia

B.Disturbance of maturation of erythroblasts
1. Defective DNA synthesis:
Vitamin and B12 deficiency

2. Defective haemoglobin synthesis:
a. Defective haem synthesis-Iron deficiency anaemia

b. Defective globin synthesis-Thalessemia

III. Increased red cell destruction (Haemolysis)
1.Intrinsic (Intracorpuscular) Hereditary or Congenital Acquired II Extrinsic (Extracorpuscular)

Increased Destruction- Congenital
1. Membrane Disorders:
– Spherocytosis, Elliptocytosis
3

1
2

2. Hemoglobin Disorders:
– Hemoglobinopathies - Sickle cell anemia

3. Enzyme disorders:
– G6PD deficiency , Pyruvate kinase deficiency

Acquired
Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria

Extrinsic or Extracorpuscular
1. Antibody mediated 2. Mechanical trauma 3. Infections

Anemia?

Production?

Destruction ?

The key test is the …..

Reticulocyte Count


								
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