motorcycle accident rate in iloilo city by lencil

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                                         CHAPTER I

                                      INTRODUCTION



Background of the Study:



       Everyday, news about accidents is headlines in newspapers. An accident is a specific,

identifiable, unexpected, unusual and unintended external action which occurs in a particular

time and place, without apparent or deliberate cause but with marked effects. It implies a

generally negative probabilistic outcome which may have been avoided or prevented had

circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to its

occurrence. Accidents are inevitable but they can be minimized. Accidents are always present, it

may come in many ways may it be good or bad, but the most frequent accident that is often heard

are vehicular accidents. These vehicular accidents cause injuries and worst even death to those

who are involved. The frequent vehicles that encounter accidents are jeepneys, busses, private

vehicles but one of the major contributors to this accidents are motorcycles. A motorcycle is a

single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task

for which they are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic,

cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions. Motorcycles are the most affordable form of

motorized transport in many parts of the world, and for most of the world's population, they are

also the most common type of motor vehicle.
                                                                                                 2


Statement of the Problem:


      The purpose of the researchers is to determine the motorcycle accident rate in Iloilo City

from 2007 to 2008.


Researchers Problem:


      This study sought to answer the following questions:


   1. What is the motorcycle accident rate in Iloilo City from year 2007 to 2008 when they are

      group according to (a.) age, (b.) gender, (c.) district and (d.) time?


   2. Are there significant differences in the motorcycle accident rate in Iloilo City for the year

      2008 and 2009?
                                                                                                     3


Hypothesis:


       There is no significant difference in the motorcycle accident rate in Iloilo City for 2007

and 2008.


                Independent Variable                             Dependent Variable

                                                      Motorcycle accident rate in Iloilo City from
   Age:                                               year 2007-2008:
           Age not specified
           18 years old and above                              High
           Below 18 years old                                  Moderate
                                                               Low
   Gender:
        Male
        Female

   District:
          City Proper
          Jaro
          Lapaz
          Molo
          Arevalo
          Mandurriao

   Time:
           AM
           PM

 Figure 1: The paradigm showing the relationship between the dependent variable with the
independent variable.



Significance of Study:


       If the factors that have caused these motorcycle accidents to increase have been

determined and the areas have been identified, this study will benefit the motorists especially the

motorcyclists and it may also benefit and help the traffic management agencies. This study will

be significant to those who own and drive motorcycles.


       In the Philippines, people are shifting moods from automobiles to motorcycles, some of

the reasons are people are becoming aware of the advantages of having a motorcycle, it is cost
                                                                                                 4


efficient in terms of fuel consumption and maintenance. It is also easy to handle and most of all

it is easy to maneuver. It can easily pass through busy streets with out experiencing heavy traffic

congestions.


Definition of Terms:


Accident – is a specific, identifiable, unexpected, unusual and unintended external action which

occurs in a particular time and place, without apparent or deliberate cause but with marked

effects. It implies a generally negative probabilistic outcome which may have been avoided or

prevented had circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to

its occurrence. It is constrained to an immediate incident, the occurrence of which results in an

unplanned outcome.


Accident rate – is the probability of the occurrence of an accident.


Motorcycle – is a single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably

depending on the task for which they are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating

congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions.


Scope and Limitations:


       This study is limited only to determining the accident rate of the motorcycles in Iloilo

City which comprises the following districts: Jaro, Lapaz, Molo, Arevalo, Mandurriao and Iloilo

City Proper from the year 2007 to 2008.
                                                                                              5


                                          CHAPTER II


                           REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Motorcycles:


       A motorcycle is a single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary

considerably depending on the task for which they are designed, such as long distance travel,

navigating congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions.


       Motorcycles are the most affordable form of motorized transport in many parts of the

world, and for most of the world's population, they are also the most common type of motor

vehicle. There are around 200 million motorcycles in use worldwide, or about 33 motorcycles

per 1000 people. This compares to around 590 million cars, or about 91 per 1000 people. Most of

the motorcycles, 58%, are in the developing countries of Asia, while 33% of the cars are

concentrated in the US and Japan. In the two countries of India and China, there are a total of

only 6 million cars, but 71 million motorcycles. These numbers, worldwide, are dwarfed by the

number of bicycles in use, estimated to be near twice the number of cars, or close to five times

the number of motorcycles.


Technical Aspects:


Construction:


       Motorcycle construction is the engineering, manufacturing, and assembly of components

and systems for a motorcycle which results in performance, cost and aesthetics desired by the

designer. With some exceptions, construction of modern mass-produced motorcycles has

standardized on a steel or aluminum frame, telescopic forks holding the front wheel, and disc
                                                                                                 6


brakes. Some other body parts, designed for either aesthetic or performance reasons may be

added. A petrol powered engine typically consisting of between one and four cylinders coupled

to a manual five- or six-speed sequential transmission drives the swing arm-mounted rear wheel

by a chain, driveshaft or belt.


Fuel economy:


         Motorcycle fuel economy varies greatly with engine displacement and riding style

ranging from a low of 29 mpg-US (8.1 L/100 km; 35 mpg-imp) reported by a Honda VTR1000F

rider, to 107 mpg-US (2.20 L/100 km; 129 mpg-imp) reported for the Verucci Nitro 50 cc Scooter.

A specially designed Matzu Matsuzawa Honda XL125 achieved 470 mpg-US (0.50 L/100 km;

560 mpg-imp) "on real highways - in real conditions. Due to lower engine displacements (100 cc–

200 cc) the motorcycles in developing countries offer good fuel economy. In the Indian market,

the second most selling company, Bajaj, offers two models with superior fuel economy: XCD

125 and Platina. Both are 125 cc motorbikes with a company-claimed fuel economy of 256 mpg-

US   (0.919 L/100 km; 307 mpg-imp) and 261 mpg-US (0.901 L/100 km; 313 mpg-imp), respectively.


Dynamics:


         Different types of motorcycles have different dynamics and these play a role in how a

motorcycle performs in given conditions. For example, a longer wheelbase provides more

stability in a straight line. Motorcycle tires have a large influence over handling.


         Motorcycles must be leaned in order to make turns. This lean is induced by the method

known as counter steering, in which the rider steers the handlebars in the direction opposite of

the desired turn. Because it is counter-intuitive this practice is often very confusing to novices—

and even too many experienced motorcyclists.
                                                                                                7


       Short wheelbase motorcycles, such as sport bikes, can generate enough torque at the rear

wheel, and enough stopping force at the front wheel, to lift the opposite wheel off the pavement.

These actions, if performed on purpose, are known as wheelies and stop pies respectively. If

carried past the point of recovery the resulting upset is known as "looping" the vehicle


Social Aspect of Motorcycles:


Popularity:


       In many cultures, motorcycles are the primary means of motorized transport. According

to the Taiwanese government, for example, "the number of automobiles per ten thousand

populations is around 2,500, and the number of motorcycles is about 5,000." In places such as

Vietnam, motorcycle use is extremely high due to a lack of public transport and low income

levels that put automobiles out of reach for many. In Vietnam, motorized traffic consists of

mostly motorbikes. The four largest motorcycle markets in the world are all in Asia: China,

India, Indonesia, and Vietnam. The motorcycle is also popular in Brazil's frontier towns. Amid

the global economic downturn of 2008, the motorcycle market grew by 6.5%.


       Recent years have seen an increase in the popularity of motorcycles elsewhere. In the

USA, registrations increased by 51% between 2000 and 2005. This is mainly attributed to

increasing fuel prices and urban congestion, but is also partly due to television programmes such

as reality show American Chopper, or adventure-travel shows such as Long Way Down.


Mobility:

       While people choose to ride motorcycles for various reasons, those reasons are

increasingly practical, with riders opting for a powered two-wheeler as a cost-efficient

alternative to infrequent and expensive public transport systems, or as a means of avoiding or
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reducing the effects of urban congestion. In places where it is permitted, lane splitting, also

known as filtering, allows motorcycles to use the space between vehicles to move through

stationary or slow traffic.


. Types of Motorcycles:


        There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, and dual purpose. Within

these types, there are many different sub-types of motorcycles for many different purposes.


        Street bikes include cruisers, sport bikes, scooters and mopeds, and many other types.

Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as

motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style

are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as

well.


        Each configuration offers either specialized advantage or broad capability, and each

design creates a different riding posture.
                                                                                                      9


                                            CHAPTER III


             THE STUDY AREA, RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY


          Chapter Three consists of four parts: (1) Study Area, (2) Purpose of the Study and

Research Design, (3) Method and (4) Statistical Data Analysis Procedure.


          Part One, Study Area, provides the information about the location of the study.


          Part Two, Purpose of the Study and Research Design, restates the purpose of the study,

describes the plan to be employed for the conduct of the study, and restates the hypothesis to be

tested.


          Part Three, Method, describe the respondent, data gathering instrument, and the research

procedure employed in the study.


          Part Four, Statistical Data Analysis Procedure, reports on the procedures for scoring and

the statistical analysis used to test the hypothesis.


Study Area:




                             Figure 2: Shows the location of Philippines.
                                 10




Figure 3: (Map of Iloilo City)
                                                                                                11


       Iloilo is a province of Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. Its capital is

Iloilo City and is located at the southeast portion of Panay Island, bordering Antique to the west

and Capiz to the north. Just off Iloilo's southeast coast is the island-province of Guimaras and

across Panay Gulf and Guimaras Strait is Negros Occidental .Iloilo City is politically subdivided

into 180 barangays. The barangays are grouped into six districts: Arevalo (13 barangays) ,City

Proper (45 barangays), Jaro (42 barangays), La Paz (37 barangays), Mandurriao (18 barangays),

Molo (25 barangays) .


       All of the districts of Iloilo City were once individual towns. They were incorporated into

Iloilo when it became a city in 1937.


Purpose of the Study and Research Design:


       This descriptive study aimed to determine the motorcycle accident rate. The dependent

variable in this study were the age, gender, districts and time; the independent variable was

Motorcycle accident rate in Iloilo City from 2007 – 2008.


Method:


Respondent


       The researchers of this study personally interview SPO4 Armando R. Dullesco,

Operation TMEU, Iloilo City Police Office.


Data-Gathering Instrument


       All the information needed by the researchers is sufficiently provided by the respondent

of Traffic Management and Engineering Unit, Iloilo City Police Office.
                                                                                                 12


Procedure


       The researchers personally interview and asked SPO4 Armando R. Dullesco, Operation

TMEU, Iloilo City Police Office if they have the data regarding in motorcycle accident rate.

Upon retrieval of the data and information, the researcher tabulated, graph, computerized, and

interpreted the data.


Statistical Data Analysis Procedure:


       For this dissertation, descriptive research method was utilised. The research described in

this document is based on quantitative research method. The method used involves a graphical

and interpretative approach to its subject matter. And make a graphical relationship and analysis

of the collected data. Then, the researchers analysed and summarised all the data and

information.


       The data gathered for this study were computed by percentage and quantity and

illustrated in graphical form using the Microsoft Excel.
                                                                                                    13


                                         CHAPTER IV


                                      DATA ANALYSIS


       This chapter presents the findings of the investigation through the use of the descriptive

and inferential data analysis.


Total Number of Accidents:


       Traffic accidents involving motorcycles increases every year, it is because people are

starting to appreciate the efficiency of motorcycles. They tend to occupy large distance with a

small amount of fuel and they can easily pass through congested highways and are easy to

handle. In Iloilo City the accident involving motorcycles increased greatly each year. The graph

shows the increase in motorcycle accident rate.


                                             2007
           Month          Quantity                              Quantity
          January           41                                                     January
          February          50                                                     February
           March            51                                                     March
            April           40                                                     April
            May             39                                                     May
            June            45                                                     June
            July            55                                                     July
           August           64                                                     August
         September          76                                                     September
          October           56                                                     October
         November           55                                                     November
         December           56
                                                                                   December
            Total           628


               Figure 4: Total number of accidents that happened for the year 2007.
                                                                                            14


                                           2008
          Month         Quantity
                                                              Quantity
         January           58
         February          55                                                  January
          March            72                                                  February
           April           63                                                  March
           May             67                                                  April
           June            58                                                  May
           July            67                                                  June
          August           58                                                  July
        September          42                                                  August
         October           42                                                  September
        November           66                                                  October
        December           63                                                  November
           Total          711                                                  December



             Figure 5: Total number of accidents that happened for the year 2008.


       The graph in Figure 4 shows that for the month of September, it has the highest number

of motorcycle accident in 2007.The number of accident happened in September is 76 which is

27%. While the lowest motorcycle accident rate in the year 2007 is in the month of April is 40

which is only 6%.


       In Figure 5, it shows that in the year 2008 the highest number of motorcycle accident is

the month of March with the total number of 72 which is 11%. The lowest rate is the months of

September and October it had 42 accidents in each month which are 6%.
                                                                                             15


                                    2007 vs. 2008
                                                           Quantity
         year        Quantity
       year 2007       628
       year 2008       711
                                    year 2008


                                                                                  Quantity


                                    year 2007



                                            550      600   650        700   750


     Figure 6: Comparison between the numbers of accidents between year 2007 and 2008.


       The graph above shows the comparison on the increase in the traffic accidents involving

motorcycles. The total accident rate in 2007 involving motorcycles was 628; in 2008 it increased

into 711. This shows the accident rate regarding to motorcycle increases by 12%. This also

shows that the production of motorcycle increases.
                                                                                                   16


Total number of Accident by Age:


                                    Age             year 2007     year 2008
                               14-20 years old          45            34
                               21-25 years old         123            79
                               26-30 years old         142           111
                               31-35 years old         127           105
                               36-40 years old         103            76
                               41-45 years old          35            43
                               46-50 years old          31            26
                               51-55 years old          17            19
                              56 - 60 years old         3             9
                               61-65 years old          2             9
                              age not specified         0            188


               age not specif ied

                 61-65 years old

                56 - 60 years old
                 51-55 years old

                 46-50 years old

                 41-45 years old                                           year 2008

                 36-40 years old                                           year 2007

                 31-35 years old

                 26-30 years old

                 21-25 years old

                 14-20 years old

                                    0    50       100       150     200




                       Figure 7: Show the age with the highest accident rate.


       Figure 14 shows that the age with highest accident rate is ages 26 to 30 years old it had
142 accidents in 2007, in 2008 it had 111accidents it decreases 22%. In the data gathered by the
researchers there were ages that were not been specified.
                                                                                                                   17


                                                                       year                year
                                        Age                            2007                2008
                               18 years old and above                     615              503
                                 below 18 years old                        13               8
                                    not specified                           0              188


                       not
                     specified


                     below 18                                                                     year 2008
                     years old                                                                    year 2007


                     18 years
                      old and
                       above

                                     0         200        400         600            800


         Figure 8: Comparison of the number of accident between minors and legal age.


       The graph shows, minors had 13 accidents in 2007 and decreases to 8 accident in 2008

while legal age had 615 accidents and decreases to 503 in 2008. In 2007, accident rate for minors

was decreases by 39% and for legal age decreases by 18%.


Total number of Accident by Gender:


                                 80

                                 70
                                 60

                                 50

                                 40

                                 30

                                 20

                                 10

                                     0
                                         Jan   Feb Mar    Apr   May   Jun   Jul      Aug Sept Oct      Nov   Dec
                    year 2007 male       28    43    40   35    25    30        40   62    74     54   54    53
                    year 2007 female     13     7    11    5    14    15        15    2     2      2    1     3
                    year 2008 male       58    53    70   60    66    58        66   56    40     41   63    61
                    year 2008 female      0    2     2     3     1    0         1     2     2     1     3     2



                Figure 9: Comparison of accidents caused by Male and Female.
                                                                                              18



                                   1500

                                   1000

                                   500

                                     0
                                           Male           Female
                           Year 2007        538             90
                           Year 2008        692             19
                           Total           1230             109


             Figure 10: Comparison between Male and Female involved in accident.


        In Figure 10, the number of females driving motorcycle is less than the number of males

driving motorcycles. Females have 90 accident rate is 14% while males have 538 is 86% in

2007. While in 2008, female have 19 which is 3%, male have 692 which is 97%. The male

accident rate was increase 22% while female accident rate was decrease by 79% from 2007 to

2008.


        The comparison of accident involving male and female by month is shown in Figure 9. It

shows in 2007 the highest number of accident in male is on the month of September which is 74

number of accident while female is on the months of June and July has 15 accidents. In 2008, the

highest in male is on the months of May and July which is 66 while on female have 3 number of

accident on the months of April and November.


        The lowest number of accident in 2007 for male have 25 accidents is on the month of

May while for female is on the month of November which is only one accident. In 2008, the

lowest for male is on the month of September having a number of accidents of 40 while for

female is on the months of January and June which no accident happened.
                                                                                                 19


Total number of Accident by District:


                                             2007
      District        Quantity                                      Year 2007
     City Proper        140
         Jaro           270                              Mandurriao
        Lapaz            73                               District
         Molo           110                                11%                  City Proper
       Arevalo           58                                                         19%
                                                      Arevalo
     Mandurriao          77                           District
                                                        8%

                                                Molo District
                                                   15%



                                                   Lapaz District                Jaro District
                                                       10%                           37%


             Figure 11: Total number of accident in 2007 in the district of Iloilo city



       In Figure 11 it shows, that Jaro district has the most number of accidents that happened in

the year 2007, the number of accidents that happened in Jaro reach to 270 which is 37% for the

whole year. The district that has the lowest number of accident was the district of Arevalo. It had

58 accidents which is 8% in the total number of accident. The total number of accident happened

in the year 2007 is 628, 8% is from Arevalo, 11% is from Mandurriao, 19% is from City proper,

37% is from Jaro, 10% is from Lapaz, and 15 % of it is from the district Molo.
                                                                                                    20


                                               2008
    District       Quantity                                         Year 2008
   City Proper       164                            Mandurriao
       Jaro          213                             District
      Lapaz          103                              13%
       Molo          137                                                        City Proper
                                                Arevalo
     Arevalo          53                                                            21%
                                                District
   Mandurriao        100                          7%

                                          Molo District
                                             18%                                   Jaro District
                                                   Lapaz District                     28%
                                                       13%




                 Figure 12: Total number of accident in 2008 in the district of Iloilo city


       Figure 12 shows the number of motorcycle accident that happened in the year 2008 in

Iloilo City. In the City Proper, it had 164 accidents which is 21%; Jaro district has 213 number of

accident and it is the highest in this year which 28%.; Lapaz District, had 103 which is 13%;

Molo district, had 137 number of accident happened it is 18%; Arevalo district, had 53 which is

7% in the total number of accident and had the lowest number of accidents in year 2008; and

lastly Mandurriao District, it had 100 number of accident which is 13% in the whole year. In

year 2008 the number of accident in Jaro District had from 270 to 213, even though it had

decreased but still Jaro has the highest in the number of motorcycle accidents.


       To summarize, the District of Jaro is the number one contributor of motorcycle accident

in Iloilo city. Jaro district is one of the busiest districts in Iloilo city. Almost all motor vehicles

like motorcycle, jepneeys and private vehicles from other town or municipality pass Jaro before

entering Iloilo City Proper. The district of Jaro serves as an intersection between two major roads

going to the municipalities of the province of Iloilo; this is road going to the Municipality of
                                                                                             21


Leganes and the road going to the Municipality of Pavia. This is one of the reasons why Jaro has

the most number of motorcycle accidents each year.


        Arevalo is the lowest contributor of motorcycle accident in the year 2007 and 2008

because Arevalo District has the lowest number of barangay in Iloilo City comprising only of 13

barangays. Moreover, Arevalo is not densely populated and it is not a centre of business

transactions in Iloilo city.


Total number of Accident by Time:

                                                       Year     Year
                                        time           2007     2008
                                 12:00 PM - 2:00 PM     57       53
                                  2:00 PM - 4:00PM      41       68
                                  4:00 PM - 6:00 PM     59       69
                                  6:00 PM - 8:00 PM     58       71
                                 8: 00 PM - 10:00 PM    57       73
                                 10:00 PM- 12:00 AM     64       69
                                 12:00 AM - 2:00 AM     37       35
                                  2:00 AM - 4:00 AM     31       42
                                  4:00 AM- 6:00 AM      38       28
                                  6:00 AM - 8:00 AM     59       61
                                 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM     68       82
                                 10:00 AM - 12:00 PM    59       57

                     90
                     80
                     70
                     60
                     50                                                          Year 2007
                     40                                                          Year 2008
                     30
                     20
                     10
                      0
                                        M
                                        M

                           AM 0 AM
                                       M




                                      AM




                                       M
                                      PM

                                       M




                             M- AM



                                      AM
                                      PM




                                      AM




                                     0P
                           PM 0 P
                         0 P 00 P




                                     0A
                          PM 00 P
                         0 P :00




                         0 A :00
                         0 P :00




                                    0



                                  :00
                         0 A :00




                                 2:0
                                 0:0

                                 2:0




                                 0:0
                      4:0 - 4:0
                                  :




                                  :
                               -4
                               -2




                               -2
                               -6

                               -8




                               -8
                                6




                              -1
                              -1

                              -1




                              -1
                             M
                PM




                             M

                             M




                             M




                             M



                          AM
                            M
                         0A



                        0A
            :00




                       :00
                      :00
                  2:0




                     :00
                      00
                    4:0

                    6:0




                    2:0




                    6:0

                   8:0
           12




                   12
                  10




                  10
                  8:




                     Figure 13: The time where the most number of accidents occur.
                                                                                                 22


       Based on the graph above the time where most accidents occur is between 8-10 am, this

is because that during this hour, the streets are busy, and this is said to be a peak hour where all

tends to travel to school and to work. This is also the time where traffic congestions take place,

because of the motorcycles size they tend to pass through even small spaces and because of this

sometimes they are not being noticed that is why they end up having an accident.


                                       Year           AM         PM
                               Year 2007                   255    275
                                              Ye ar 2007




                                   PM                             AM
                                  52%                            48%




                         Figure 14: Comparison of AM and PM in 2007.



      This graph shows that in 2007 52% of accident rate happened during PM while during
AM accident rate is 48%.



                                       Year           AM         PM
                               Year 2008                   270    317
                                              Ye ar 2008




                                                                  AM
                                  PM                             46%
                                 54%




                         Figure 15: Comparison of AM and PM in 2008.



      This graph shows that in 2008 54% of accident rate happened during PM while during
AM accident rate is 46%.
                                                                                              23


                                            CHAPTER V


                          CONCLUSION and RECOMMENDATION


       Based on the study, the researchers found out that the t motorcycle accidents increased by

12% from 2007 to 2008 which indicates that the accident rate is high. This increase due to the

peoples’ mood is shifting to motorcycles over automobiles and its manoeuvrability when it

comes to passing through congested areas. Its only draw back that drivers are not knowledgeable

when it comes to proper road courtesies and traffic rules and regulations which results to more

accidents. Most accidents happened between 8 to 10 am, which is the peak hours for most

people. Furthermore during this time of the day most of the city loop roads are congested. It was

found out that most of the people committing these accidents ages 26 to 30. The male accident

rate was increase 22% while female accident rate was decrease by 79% from 2007 to 2008.


       The researchers would like to recommend possible training and seminar regarding proper

highway courtesies. Education must also be given to road users. And for motorcycle drivers, they

should avoid driving when they are at the height of their emotion, or under the influence of

alcohol or drugs for it lead to further accident.
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                                   REFERENCES


1. Traffic Management and Engineering Unit, Iloilo Police Station


2. http://ezineseeker.com/why-do-road-accidents-happen-149e18de87.html

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motorcycle

4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motorcycle#History

								
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