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					                                         CHAPTER I

                                      INTRODUCTION



Background:



       Everyday news about accidents are headlines in newspapers. An accident is a specific,

identifiable, unexpected, unusual and unintended external action which occurs in a particular

time and place, without apparent or deliberate cause but with marked effects. It implies a

generally negative probabilistic outcome which may have been avoided or prevented had

circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to its

occurrence. Accidents are inevitable but they can be minimized. Accidents are always present, it

may come in many ways may it be good or bad, but the most frequent accident that is often heard

are vehicular accidents. These vehicular accidents cause injuries and worst even death to those

who are involved. The frequent vehicles that encounter accidents are jeepneys, busses, private

vehicles but one of the major contributors to this accidents are motorcycles. A motorcycle is a

single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task

for which they are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic,

cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions. Motorcycles are the most affordable form of

motorized transport in many parts of the world, and for most of the world's population, they are

also the most common type of motor vehicle.




                                                                                              1
       Perhaps some of the reasons why motorcycles are the major contributors of accidents

because of the reasons of reckless driving, lack of sufficient knowledge of the driver, and the

motorcycle itself cannot protect the one riding.


Objectives:


       The researchers chose this study in order to:


           1. Determine the accident rate regarding to motorcycles in Iloilo City on the year

                2007, 2008 and 2009.

           2. To find out what are the major factors that affect this accidents to happen.

           3. To find out what age are the frequent victim, what time does it usually happened,

                and what is the fatality rate of this accidents.

           4.    To warn the motorist of a more careful driving and awareness to motor vehicle

                accidents.


Significance of Study:


       If the factors that have caused these motorcycle accidents to increase has been

determined and the areas have been identified, this study will benefit the motorists especially the

motorcyclists and it may also benefit and help the traffic management agencies. This study will

be significant to those who own and drive motorcycles.


Scope and Limitations:


       This study is limited only to determining the accident rate of the motorcycles and the

factors affecting with in Iloilo City and its districts comprising Jaro, Lapaz, Molo, Arevalo,

Mandurriao and Iloilo City Proper from the year 2007, 2008 and up to the end of August 2009.


                                                                                                 2
                                         CHAPTER II


                           REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


What are Motorcycles?:


       A motorcycle (also called a motorbicycle, motorbike, bike, or cycle) is a single-track,

two-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task for which they

are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and

racing, or off-road conditions.


       Motorcycles are the most affordable form of motorised transport in many parts of the

world, and for most of the world's population, they are also the most common type of motor

vehicle. There are around 200 million motorcycles (including mopeds, motor scooters and other

powered two- and three-wheelers) in use worldwide, or about 33 motorcycles per 1000 people.

This compares to around 590 million cars, or about 91 per 1000 people. Most of the motorcycles,

58%, are in the developing countries of Asia, while 33% of the cars (195 million) are

concentrated in the US and Japan. In the two countries of India and China, there are a total of

only 6 million cars, but 71 million motorcycles. These numbers, worldwide, are dwarfed by the

number of bicycles in use, estimated to be near twice the number of cars, or close to five times

the number of motorcycles.


History of Motorcycles:


       Arguably, the first motorcycle was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb

Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt (since 1905 a city district of Stuttgart) in 1885.

The first petroleum-powered vehicle was essentially a motorized bicycle, although the inventors

                                                                                                 3
called their invention the Reitwagen ("riding car"). It was designed as an expedient test bed for

their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. However, if a two-wheeled vehicle with

steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle, then the first one may have been American. One

such machine was demonstrated at fairs and circuses in the eastern U.S. in 1867, built by

Sylvester Howard Roper of Roxbury, Massachusetts.


       In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first motorcycle available for purchase. In

the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to

accommodate the new internal combustion engine. As the engines became more powerful and

designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased.


       Until the First World War, the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world was Indian,

producing over 20,000 bikes per year. By 1920, this honor went to Harley-Davidson, with their

motorcycles being sold by dealers in 67 countries. By the late 1920s or early 1930s, DKW took

over as the largest manufacturer.


       After the Second World War, the BSA Group became the largest producer of motorcycles

in the world, producing up to 75,000 bikes per year in the 1950s. The German company NSU

held the position of largest manufacturer from 1955 until the 1970s.


       In the 1950s, streamlining began to play an increasing part in the development of racing

motorcycles and the "dustbin fairing" held out the possibility of radical changes to motorcycle

design. NSU and Moto-Guzzi were in the vanguard of this development both producing very

radical designs well ahead of their time. NSU produced the most advanced design, but after the

deaths of four NSU riders in the 1954–1956 seasons, they abandoned further development and

quit Grand Prix motorcycle racing. Moto-Guzzi produced competitive race machines, and by


                                                                                               4
1957 nearly all the Grand Prix races were being won by streamlined machines. The following

year, 1958, full enclosure fairings were banned from racing by the FIM in the light of the safety

concerns.


       From the 1960s through the 1990s, small two-stroke motorcycles were popular

worldwide, partly as a result of East German Walter Kaaden's engine work in the 1950s.


       Today, the motorcycle industry is mainly dominated by Japanese companies such as

Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki, and Yamaha, although Harley-Davidson and BMW continue to be

popular and supply considerable markets. Other major manufacturers include Piaggio group of

Italy, KTM, Triumph and Ducati.


       In addition to the large capacity motorcycles, there is a large market in smaller capacity

(less than 300 cc) motorcycles, mostly concentrated in Asian and African countries. An example

is the 1958 Honda Super Cub, which went on to become the biggest selling vehicle of all time,

with its 60 millionth unit produced in April 2008. Today, this area is dominated by mostly Indian

companies with Hero Honda emerging as the world's largest manufacturer of two wheelers.


Technical Aspects:


Construction:


       Motorcycle construction is the engineering, manufacturing, and assembly of components

and systems for a motorcycle which results in performance, cost and aesthetics desired by the

designer. With some exceptions, construction of modern mass-produced motorcycles has

standardised on a steel or aluminium frame, telescopic forks holding the front wheel, and disc

brakes. Some other body parts, designed for either aesthetic or performance reasons may be


                                                                                               5
added. A petrol powered engine typically consisting of between one and four cylinders (and less

commonly, up to eight cylinders) coupled to a manual five- or six-speed sequential transmission

drives the swingarm-mounted rear wheel by a chain, driveshaft or belt.


Fuel economy:


       Motorcycle fuel economy varies greatly with engine displacement and riding style

ranging from a low of 29 mpg-US (8.1 L/100 km; 35 mpg-imp) reported by a Honda VTR1000F

rider, to 107 mpg-US (2.20 L/100 km; 129 mpg-imp) reported for the Verucci Nitro 50 cc Scooter.

A specially designed Matzu Matsuzawa Honda XL125 achieved 470 mpg-US (0.50 L/100 km;

560 mpg-imp) "on real highways - in real conditions." Due to lower engine displacements

(100 cc–200 cc), motorcycles in developing countries offer good fuel economy. In the Indian

market, the second most selling company, Bajaj, offers two models with superior fuel economy:

XCD 125 and Platina. Both are 125 cc motorbikes with a company-claimed fuel economy of

256 mpg-US (0.919 L/100 km; 307 mpg-imp) and 261 mpg-US (0.901 L/100 km; 313 mpg-imp),

respectively.


Dynamics:


       Different types of motorcycles have different dynamics and these play a role in how a

motorcycle performs in given conditions. For example, a longer wheelbase provides more

stability in a straight line. Motorcycle tires have a large influence over handling.


       Motorcycles must be leaned in order to make turns. This lean is induced by the method

known as counter steering, in which the rider steers the handlebars in the direction opposite of

the desired turn. Because it is counter-intuitive this practice is often very confusing to novices—

and even to many experienced motorcyclists.

                                                                                                 6
       Short wheelbase motorcycles, such as sport bikes, can generate enough torque at the rear

wheel, and enough stopping force at the front wheel, to lift the opposite wheel off the pavement.

These actions, if performed on purpose, are known as wheelies and stop pies respectively. If

carried past the point of recovery the resulting upset is known as "looping" the vehicle


Social Aspect of Motorcycles:


Popularity:


       In many cultures, motorcycles are the primary means of motorised transport. According

to the Taiwanese government, for example, "the number of automobiles per ten thousand

population is around 2,500, and the number of motorcycles is about 5,000." In places such as

Vietnam, motorcycle use is extremely high due to a lack of public transport and low income

levels that put automobiles out of reach for many. In Vietnam, motorised traffic consist of mostly

motorbikes. The four largest motorcycle markets in the world are all in Asia: China, India,

Indonesia, and Vietnam. The motorcycle is also popular in Brazil's frontier towns. Amid the

global economic downturn of 2008, the motorcycle market grew by 6.5%.


       Recent years have seen an increase in the popularity of motorcycles elsewhere. In the

USA, registrations increased by 51% between 2000 and 2005. This is mainly attributed to

increasing fuel prices and urban congestion, but is also partly due to television programmes such

as reality show American Chopper, or adventure-travel shows such as Long Way Down.


Mobility:

       While people choose to ride motorcycles for various reasons, those reasons are

increasingly practical, with riders opting for a powered two-wheeler as a cost-efficient

alternative to infrequent and expensive public transport systems, or as a means of avoiding or

                                                                                                7
reducing the effects of urban congestion. In places where it is permitted, lane splitting, also

known as filtering, allows motorcycles to use the space between vehicles to move through

stationary or slow traffic.


        In the UK, motorcycles are exempt from the £8 per day London congestion charge other

vehicles must pay to enter the city during the day. Motorcycles are also exempt from toll charges

at some river crossings, such as the Severn Bridge, Dartford Crossing, and Mersey Tunnels.

Some cities, such as Bristol, allow motorcycles to use bus lanes and provide dedicated free

parking. In the United States, those states that have high-occupancy vehicle lanes also allow for

motorcycle travel in them. Other countries have similar policies.


        In New Zealand motorcycle riders are not required to pay for parking that is controlled by

a barrier arm; the arm does not occupy the entire width of the lane, and the motorcyclist simply

rides around it. Many car parks controlled in this way supply special areas for motorcycles to

park, so as not to unnecessarily consume spaces.


        In many cities that have serious parking challenges for cars, such as San Francisco,

motorcycles are generally permitted to park on the sidewalk, rather than occupy a space on the

street which might otherwise be used by a car.


        In the Philippines people are shifting moods from automobiles to motorcycles, some of

the reasons are people are becoming aware of the advantages of having a motorcycle, it is cost

efficient in terms of fuel consumption and maintenance. It is also easy to handle and most of all

it is easy to maneuver it can easily pass through busy streets with out experiencing heavy traffic

congestions.




                                                                                                8
Types of Motorcycles:


        There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, and dual purpose. Within

these types, there are many different sub-types of motorcycles for many different purposes.


        Street bikes include cruisers, sport bikes, scooters and mopeds, and many other types.

Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as

motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style

are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as

well.


        Each configuration offers either specialized advantage or broad capability, and each

design creates a different riding posture.


Why do Traffic Accidents Happen?:


        Road accident and mishaps are not uncommon. They can happen for a variety of reasons,

and have as many consequences. Some merely cause a few scratches – on the car or to your

person, while some are much more impactful damaging your property and handicapping the

victim, for a decent amount of time. Whatever the impact, determining the cause is very

important. Largely these road accidents can be attributed by the following 5 causes:


   1. Driving under Influence: This is one of the most common reasons for accidents. Drunken

        driving or driving under any kind of influence leads to a lot of accidents, mostly with

        fatalities. If this is the cause of your accident, then as a victim you're not only entitled to

        compensation, but the driver responsible could be punished by law depending on other

        factors of the accident.


                                                                                                     9
2. Speeding: Speeding, specifically reckless driving by those on a joyride is another cause

   of road accidents. Speeding is often compounded by other factors like bad weather, bad

   roads, and also if the driver is intoxicated or inexperienced. In all cases, the victim is

   eligible for compensation.


3. Road conditions: Often, roads themselves are quite bad – full of potholes, the occasional

   un-cleared oil spill, no signs, no street lights, no barricades over bridges, no neon signs to

   warn of objects in the way, malfunctioning signals at junctions. An inexperienced driver

   could easily meet with an accident. At such times, the authorities or city administrations

   can be held directly responsible for accidents.


4. Vehicle Failure: This could be a direct catalyst for the accident. Brake fail, worn out tires,

   fault in any parts of the car could easily lead to disastrous incidents. At such times, it is

   necessary to investigate what led to the malfunction or non-function of the parts. For

   example, it could be the driver's negligence in not maintaining the car properly and

   ignoring warnings, it could be sabotage or certain other factor may have complicated an

   under-control scenario. An investigation is required at this point, to determine exactly

   who's at fault and what kind of compensation is warranted.


5. Human Error: At times, the driver may not be intoxicated, he may not be speeding, the

   roads could be okay and the vehicle will also be in ship-shape, yet there will be accidents.

   This happens purely because the driver is either distracted while driving (talking on the

   phone, changing tracks on the player) or he isn't able to anticipate and reach quickly

   enough. Driving is a matter of skill and experience and at times, lack of these could also

   result in an accident.



                                                                                              10
Definition of Terms:


Accident – is a specific, identifiable, unexpected, unusual and unintended external action which

occurs in a particular time and place, without apparent or deliberate cause but with marked

effects. It implies a generally negative probabilistic outcome which may have been avoided or

prevented had circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to

its occurrence. It is constrained to an immediate incident, the occurrence of which results in an

unplanned outcome.


Accident rate – is the probability of the occurrence of an accident.


Fatality - A death resulting from an accident or disaster.


Joy ride – a ride taken for fun and often for the thrills provided by reckless driving


Motorcycle – is a single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably

depending on the task for which they are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating

congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions.


Motorcycle helmet – is a type of protective headgear used by motorcycle riders. The primary

goal of a motorcycle helmet is motorcycle safety - to protect the rider's head during impact, thus

preventing or reducing head injury or saving the rider's life.


Obstruction – Something that impedes or prevents entry or passage


Over speeding- it is a speed which exceeds the maximum speed allowed by law for road

vehicles.




                                                                                                 11
Speed limit- is the maximum speed allowed by law for road vehicles. Speed limits are commonly

set and enforced by the legislative bodies of nations or provincial governments, such as countries

within the world.


Testbed – is a platform for experimentation of large development projects. Testbeds allow for

rigorous, transparent and replicable testing of scientific theories, computational tools, and other

new technologies




.




                                                                                                  12
              CHAPTER III


              THE STUDY


Study Area:




                            13
Methodology:


       For this dissertation, descriptive research method will be utilised. The research described

in this document is based on quantitative research method. The methods used involves a

graphical and interpretative approach to its subject matter. For this research, the researchers

gathered data, from SPO4 Armando R. Dullesco Operation TMEU Iloilo City Police station; and

makes a graphical relationship and analysis of the collected data. Afterwards, the researcher will

analyse and summarise all the data and information.




Total Number of Accidents:


       Traffic accidents involving motorcycles increases every year, it is because that people are

starting to appreciate the efficiency of motorcycles, they tend to occupy large distance with a

small amount of fuel and they can easily pass through congested highways and are easy to

handle. In Iloilo city the accident involving motorcycles increased greatly each year. The graphs

below show the increase in motorcycle accident rate.




                                            2007
           Month         Quantity                               Quantity
          January          41                                                     January
          February         50                                                     February
           March           51                                                     March
                                                                                  April
                                                                                  May          14
                                                                                  June
                                                                                  July
                                                                                  August
  April           40
   May            39
  June            45
   July           55
 August           64
September         76
 October          56
November          55
December          56
  Total          628


    Figure 1: Total number of accidents that happened for the year 2007.




                                 2008
  Month        Quantity
                                                    Quantity
 January          58
 February         55                                                  January
  March           72                                                  February
   April          63                                                  March
   May            67                                                  April
   June           58                                                  May
   July           67                                                  June
  August          58                                                  July
September         42                                                  August
 October          42                                                  September
November          66                                                  October
December          63                                                  November
   Total         711                                                  December



    Figure 2: Total number of accidents that happened for the year 2008




                                 2009

                                                                                  15
            Month        Quantity
                                                                   Quantity
       January                  58                                                      January
       February                 47
                                                                                        February
       March                    51
                                                                                        March
       April                    60
                                                                                        April
       May                      69
                                                                                        May
       June                     94
       July                     83                                                      June

       August                  103                                                      July
       September                                                                        August
       October                                                                          September
       November                                                                         October
       December                                                                         November
       Total                   565                                                      December




              Figure 3: Total number of accidents that happened for the year 2009



                            2007 vs. 2008 vs. 2009
           year         Quantity                                Quantity
      year 2007                628
      year 2008                711
      year 2009                565
                                          Year 2009



                                          Year 2008
                                                                                       Quantity


                                          Year 2007


                                                      0   200    400       600   800




                    Figure 4: Comparison between the numbers of accidents.


       The graph above shows the comparison on the increase in the traffic accidents involving

motorcycles. The total accident number in the year 2007 involving motorcycles was 628, in 2008



                                                                                                    16
it increased into 711 and at the end of the third quarter in 2009 the total accident number ranged

to 565. This shows that every year the accident rate regarding to motorcycle increases.


Major factors of Motorcycle Accident:


Over speeding (recklessness, driving over the influence, emotionally upset, aggressiveness):


       Many motorists ignore the dangers that over-speeding pose to their safety and to those of

others as well. Vehicle crashes have been the leading cause of death in the nation and have

caused millions worth of property damage and compensation to the victims.


       Speed limits are implemented in highways and other roads so that motorists would be

aware when they are faster or slower than other vehicles. Those who are speeding or slowing

down in a highway can get into much trouble as other vehicles might miscalculate their speed

and both will end up in a collision.


High Speed Car Collisions had claimed several lives. It will continue to cause tragic accidents,

especially to young drivers if motorists would not be cautious enough.


Why Drivers Speed Up:


       There are motorists who would want to cut their travel time by speeding up without fully

understanding that they can get into further trouble if they are caught speeding and would have to

pay fine or be involved in accident.


       One of the determinants of who is at fault in the accident is the rate of speed of parties

involved. If there have been a collision in a highway between two vehicles bound on the same

direction, it can be caused by low or high speed driving.



                                                                                               17
         There are also intoxicated drivers who speed up as their judgments are failing and are no

longer capable of making good decisions. These drunk drivers must never over estimate their

skills as a driver as alcohol and other prohibited drugs will affect their vision and decision-

making.


Slippery Roads:


         During rainy seasons, the continuing rain makes the road slippery. This slipperiness of

the road causes several vehicular accidents, which some times involves motorcycles, a slippery

road provides less traction on the tires of the vehicle causing it to skid and crash. When the road

is slippery it is difficult for the driver of the motor cycles or any vehicle to control and

manoeuvre.


Obstructions or Barriers:


         These are barriers that are put to separate the lane, and some times these barriers serves

as a guide for motorist to where to pass. But some of the accidents are caused by these barriers, if

not put in the right place and not properly lighted. These barriers are difficult to see especially a

night.


No streetlights:


         Some accidents happen on road with out sufficient lighting system. These streetlights are

very important for a road. This helps the driver to have a clearer vision while driving. It will help

the driver see the object right a head of him which will help to minimize and even avoid

accidents.


High beam light of approaching vehicle/s:

                                                                                                  18
       A high beam light from and approaching vehicle can cause an accident. A high beam

light can temporarily impair the vision of the driver of an approaching vehicle. This light will

affect the driver; this will lessen the drivers’ peripheral vision and also shorten his line of sight.

During night time proper courtesy with approaching vehicles should be observed in order to

avoid accident.




Mechanical trouble such as no brakes and no signal lights:


       Mechanical problems such as malfunctions on brakes and signal lights on motorcycle and

other motor vehicles are sometimes the cause of accidents. Sudden turning on a curve or an

intersection with out proper signal caused by the malfunction of the signal lights have caused

several deaths and accidents and even the brakes which does not work well. Before leaving one

should always check the brakes and signal lights to function well for their safety.


Fatality of Accidents:


       High risk regarding to injuries on motorcycle is understandable, motorcycle compared to

other vehicles are small in size and when it will come in to collision with other vehicle the

impact received by the motorcycle and the one riding it is greater than other vehicles like

automobiles. And the motorcycle itself is open which cannot fully protect the rider.




                                                                                                   19
                         700
                         600
                         500
                         400
                         300
                         200
                         100
                              0
                                  year 2007     year 2008       year 2009

                     killed          15             17               2
                     Injured        521            683             537
                     Total          536            700             539



                        Figure 5: Comparison of the number of Injured and killed


       Motorcycle accidents, as all other accidents, are events that take place without one’s

foresight or expectations ordinarily they happened very rapidly furthermore there are the

culmination of a chain of unfortunate events. Motorcycle accidents claim an appalling toll

throughout the entire world. In the Iloilo city alone, 2007 deaths totaled 15. In addition 521 were

injured. In all there were 628 individual accidents happened in that year. In 2008 the number of

death increased to 17, and 683 were injured, that year alone gave a total number of 711 accidents

happened. At the end of the third quarter of 2009 the number of deaths ranged to 2, and the

number of injured 537, the total number of accidents that happened during this period was 565.

This data shows that the number of accidents that happened each year had increased. This can

tell us that the number of people using motorcycle had also increased. The fatality of the accident

increased by the year 2008 but it was reduced during year 2009, this may be an outcome of the

awareness of the motorists and also by the strict implementation of the ordinance regarding the

wearing of proper safety gears when driving.




                                                                                                20
   A victim can suffer from a variety of serious injuries in a collision caused by over speeding.

These injuries can permanently damage one’s life and cause him and his family a great deal of

pain. Here are some of the common vehicle accident injuries:


      Whiplash - Whiplash is an injury that can be incurred from damage or injury to the neck

       area that would cause much pain. These can be caused by trauma to the neck muscles and

       ligaments that would somehow limit head’s movement. These injuries can cause much

       pain, which can be alleviated by home remedies such as cold compress. Cold compress

       must be applied for at least 20 minutes each hour to ease the pain.


      Spinal Cord Injury - Many auto accidents have led to spinal cord injuries which could

       permanently disable a person. These disabilities will prevent him to do productive work

       that would earn him income. Because of this, relatives would be buried with financial

       problems caused by the accident.


      Head and Brain Injuries - The impact of car crashes can make drivers and passengers hit

       their heads on something hard which could cause trauma to their heads. These injuries

       must be immediately treated top avoid worsening the condition. Most victims of these

       trauma experience memory loss, headaches, and sudden mood changes.


      Broken Bones - There are vehicles that are not sturdy enough to protect motorists and

       passengers from being crushed. So, there are those who break their limbs and ribs from

       collisions. These broken bones can be repaired but there are those that would have to be

       removed by amputation.




                                                                                              21
Accidents involving Male and Female:


                  100

                    80

                    60

                    40

                    20

                     0
                           Jan   Feb   Mar   April May   Jun   Jul   Aug Sept   Oct   Nov   Dec
        year 2007 male     28    43    40    35    25    30    40    62   74    54    54    53
        year 2007 female   13     7    11     5    14    15    15    2    2      2     1     3
       year 2008 male      58    53    70    60    66    58    66    56   40    41    63    61
       year 2008 female     0     2     2     3    1     0     1     2    2      1     3     2
       year 2009 male      56    47    48    59    67    94    80    98
       year 2009 female     2     0     3     1    2     0     3     5

                Figure 6: Comparison of accidents caused by male and female.




                                                                                                  22
                        2000

                        1500


                        1000


                         500


                           0
                                        Male                    Female
                Year 2007                538                      90
                Year 2008                692                      19
                Year 2009                549                      16
                Total                   1779                     125

             Figure 7: Comparison between Male and Female involved in accident.


       The number of females driving motorcycle is less than the number of males driving

motorcycles, and perhaps female drivers are more safety conscious rather than male drivers.

Female drivers tend to drive on low to moderate speed while male drivers tends to run on high

speed and most often tends to exceed the maximum speed required. May be male drivers are

more reckless than females.


Most Frequent time of Accident occurrence:

                                               Year      Year      Year
                                time           2007      2008      2009
                         12:00 PM - 2:00 PM     57        53           41
                          2:00 PM - 4:00PM      41        68           62
                          4:00 PM - 6:00 PM     59        69           62
                          6:00 PM - 8:00 PM     58        71           50
                         8: 00 PM - 10:00 PM    57        73           67
                         10:00 PM- 12:00 AM     64        69           64
                         12:00 AM - 2:00 AM     37        35           23
                          2:00 AM - 4:00 AM     31        42           19
                          4:00 AM- 6:00 AM      38        28           19


                                                                                                23
                          6:00 AM - 8:00 AM            59     61        51
                         8:00 AM - 10:00 AM            68     82        55
                         10:00 AM - 12:00 PM           59     57        47




                 Figure 8: The time where the most number of accidents occur.


       Based on the graph above the time where the most accidents occur is 8-10 am, this is

because that during these hour, the streets are busy, and this is said to be a peak hour where all

tends to travel to school and to work. This is also the time where traffic congestions take place,

because of the motorcycles size they tend to pass through even small spaces and because of this

sometimes they are not being noticed that is why they end up having an accident.


Age that frequently meet Motorcycle Accident:


                         Time                  year 2007    year 2008   year 2009
                    14-20 years old               45           34            24
                    21-25 years old              123           79            57
                    26-30 years old              142          111            85
                    31-35 years old              127          105            53
                    36-40 years old              103           76            30
                    41-45 years old               35           43            21
                    46-50 years old               31           26            20
                    51-55 years old               17           19            15
                    56 - 60 years old             3            9             9


                                                                                               24
                     61-65 years old           2             9             1
                    age not specified          0            188           197




                      Figure 9: Show the age with the highest accident rate.


       The graph in figure 9 shows that the age with the highest accident rate regarding to

motorcycles is ages 26 to 30 years old. Perhaps the reason why this age bracket has the highest

accident rate is because that this age margin has or owns motorcycles. And this age are the ones

most likely drives a lot of motorcycles. This age finds driving motorcycles handy rather than

driving automobiles. The age that not specified in the data that been gathered, it assumed to be in

legal age. In the graph shows that in the age bracket of 61- 65 years old were also driving

motorcycle even if they were old, it appears that in age bracket 61-65 has difficulties in riding in

motorbike example of this is poor eyesight.




                                                                                                 25
                                        CHAPTER IV:


                                        CONCLUSION


       Based on the research the researchers found out that the accident regarding to

motorcycles is increasing gradually every year. This increase may be due to the peoples’

awareness of the efficiency in motorcycles over automobiles and its manoeuvrability when it

comes to passing through congested areas. The only draw back is that the drivers are not that

knowledgeable when it comes to proper road courtesies and to traffic rules and regulations that is

why they always tend to meet an accident. It was also found out that the major factors that

contributed to the increase in the said accident rate were the over speeding of drivers which may

be caused by drunkenness, aggressiveness, and emotional upset. The research also learned that

the time of the day that most accidents happened is between 8 to 10 am. This time was said to be

the peak hours for people going to work and to school and also during this time most of the city

                                                                                               26
loop roads are congested. And lastly it was found out that most of the people committing these

accidents are at ages 26 to 30.




                                          CHAPTER V:


                                     RECOMMENDATION


       The researchers would like to recommend that a strict implementation of the wearing of

proper safety gears should be used when driving a motorcycle, so that if accidents could not be

avoided at least fatality of the accident would decrease and also minimize injuries. Also if

possible training and a seminar regarding proper highway courtesies and education must be

given to those who are driving. And for those driving motorcycles they must avoid driving when

they are at the height of their emotion, too much excitement, anger could lead to accident and

also always avoid driving when under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Always wear safety

gears like motorcycle helmet. Always check the condition of the motorcycle especially the

brakes before leaving. And if they feel that it is not necessary they should try to avoid using their

motorcycles.


                                                                                                  27
                             APPENDIX


Location of Research Area:




                                        28
                                 Figure 10: (Map of Iloilo City)

       The 2007 census, Iloilo City had a population of 418,710 households with a 2.0% annual

growth rate. Iloilo City recently topped a survey by Money Sense Magazine as one of the "Best

Place” to live in the Philippines. Iloilo City is politically subdivided into 180 barangays. The

barangays are grouped into six districts: Arevalo (13 barangays) ,City Proper (45 barangays),

Jaro (42 barangays), La Paz (37 barangays), Mandurriao (18 barangays), Molo (25 barangays)


       All of the districts of Iloilo City were once individual towns. They were incorporated into

Iloilo when it became a city in 1937


                                        REFERENCES




                                                                                               29
1. www.youclaim.co.uk

2. www.yahoo.com

3. www.google.com

4. www.wikianswers.com

5. Traffic Management and Engineering Unit Iloilo Police Station




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