Everyday news about accidents are headlines in newspapers. An accident is a specific,
identifiable, unexpected, unusual and unintended external action which occurs in a particular
time and place, without apparent or deliberate cause but with marked effects. It implies a
generally negative probabilistic outcome which may have been avoided or prevented had
circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to its
occurrence. Accidents are inevitable but they can be minimized. Accidents are always present, it
may come in many ways may it be good or bad, but the most frequent accident that is often heard
are vehicular accidents. These vehicular accidents cause injuries and worst even death to those
who are involved. The frequent vehicles that encounter accidents are jeepneys, busses, private
vehicles but one of the major contributors to this accidents are motorcycles. A motorcycle is a
single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task
for which they are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic,
cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions. Motorcycles are the most affordable form of
motorized transport in many parts of the world, and for most of the world's population, they are
also the most common type of motor vehicle.
Perhaps some of the reasons why motorcycles are the major contributors of accidents
because of the reasons of reckless driving, lack of sufficient knowledge of the driver, and the
motorcycle itself cannot protect the one riding.
The researchers chose this study in order to:
1. Determine the accident rate regarding to motorcycles in Iloilo City on the year
2007, 2008 and 2009.
2. To find out what are the major factors that affect this accidents to happen.
3. To find out what age are the frequent victim, what time does it usually happened,
and what is the fatality rate of this accidents.
4. To warn the motorist of a more careful driving and awareness to motor vehicle
Significance of Study:
If the factors that have caused these motorcycle accidents to increase has been
determined and the areas have been identified, this study will benefit the motorists especially the
motorcyclists and it may also benefit and help the traffic management agencies. This study will
be significant to those who own and drive motorcycles.
Scope and Limitations:
This study is limited only to determining the accident rate of the motorcycles and the
factors affecting with in Iloilo City and its districts comprising Jaro, Lapaz, Molo, Arevalo,
Mandurriao and Iloilo City Proper from the year 2007, 2008 and up to the end of August 2009.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
What are Motorcycles?:
A motorcycle (also called a motorbicycle, motorbike, bike, or cycle) is a single-track,
two-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task for which they
are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and
racing, or off-road conditions.
Motorcycles are the most affordable form of motorised transport in many parts of the
world, and for most of the world's population, they are also the most common type of motor
vehicle. There are around 200 million motorcycles (including mopeds, motor scooters and other
powered two- and three-wheelers) in use worldwide, or about 33 motorcycles per 1000 people.
This compares to around 590 million cars, or about 91 per 1000 people. Most of the motorcycles,
58%, are in the developing countries of Asia, while 33% of the cars (195 million) are
concentrated in the US and Japan. In the two countries of India and China, there are a total of
only 6 million cars, but 71 million motorcycles. These numbers, worldwide, are dwarfed by the
number of bicycles in use, estimated to be near twice the number of cars, or close to five times
the number of motorcycles.
History of Motorcycles:
Arguably, the first motorcycle was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb
Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt (since 1905 a city district of Stuttgart) in 1885.
The first petroleum-powered vehicle was essentially a motorized bicycle, although the inventors
called their invention the Reitwagen ("riding car"). It was designed as an expedient test bed for
their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. However, if a two-wheeled vehicle with
steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle, then the first one may have been American. One
such machine was demonstrated at fairs and circuses in the eastern U.S. in 1867, built by
Sylvester Howard Roper of Roxbury, Massachusetts.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first motorcycle available for purchase. In
the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to
accommodate the new internal combustion engine. As the engines became more powerful and
designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased.
Until the First World War, the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world was Indian,
producing over 20,000 bikes per year. By 1920, this honor went to Harley-Davidson, with their
motorcycles being sold by dealers in 67 countries. By the late 1920s or early 1930s, DKW took
over as the largest manufacturer.
After the Second World War, the BSA Group became the largest producer of motorcycles
in the world, producing up to 75,000 bikes per year in the 1950s. The German company NSU
held the position of largest manufacturer from 1955 until the 1970s.
In the 1950s, streamlining began to play an increasing part in the development of racing
motorcycles and the "dustbin fairing" held out the possibility of radical changes to motorcycle
design. NSU and Moto-Guzzi were in the vanguard of this development both producing very
radical designs well ahead of their time. NSU produced the most advanced design, but after the
deaths of four NSU riders in the 1954–1956 seasons, they abandoned further development and
quit Grand Prix motorcycle racing. Moto-Guzzi produced competitive race machines, and by
1957 nearly all the Grand Prix races were being won by streamlined machines. The following
year, 1958, full enclosure fairings were banned from racing by the FIM in the light of the safety
From the 1960s through the 1990s, small two-stroke motorcycles were popular
worldwide, partly as a result of East German Walter Kaaden's engine work in the 1950s.
Today, the motorcycle industry is mainly dominated by Japanese companies such as
Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki, and Yamaha, although Harley-Davidson and BMW continue to be
popular and supply considerable markets. Other major manufacturers include Piaggio group of
Italy, KTM, Triumph and Ducati.
In addition to the large capacity motorcycles, there is a large market in smaller capacity
(less than 300 cc) motorcycles, mostly concentrated in Asian and African countries. An example
is the 1958 Honda Super Cub, which went on to become the biggest selling vehicle of all time,
with its 60 millionth unit produced in April 2008. Today, this area is dominated by mostly Indian
companies with Hero Honda emerging as the world's largest manufacturer of two wheelers.
Motorcycle construction is the engineering, manufacturing, and assembly of components
and systems for a motorcycle which results in performance, cost and aesthetics desired by the
designer. With some exceptions, construction of modern mass-produced motorcycles has
standardised on a steel or aluminium frame, telescopic forks holding the front wheel, and disc
brakes. Some other body parts, designed for either aesthetic or performance reasons may be
added. A petrol powered engine typically consisting of between one and four cylinders (and less
commonly, up to eight cylinders) coupled to a manual five- or six-speed sequential transmission
drives the swingarm-mounted rear wheel by a chain, driveshaft or belt.
Motorcycle fuel economy varies greatly with engine displacement and riding style
ranging from a low of 29 mpg-US (8.1 L/100 km; 35 mpg-imp) reported by a Honda VTR1000F
rider, to 107 mpg-US (2.20 L/100 km; 129 mpg-imp) reported for the Verucci Nitro 50 cc Scooter.
A specially designed Matzu Matsuzawa Honda XL125 achieved 470 mpg-US (0.50 L/100 km;
560 mpg-imp) "on real highways - in real conditions." Due to lower engine displacements
(100 cc–200 cc), motorcycles in developing countries offer good fuel economy. In the Indian
market, the second most selling company, Bajaj, offers two models with superior fuel economy:
XCD 125 and Platina. Both are 125 cc motorbikes with a company-claimed fuel economy of
256 mpg-US (0.919 L/100 km; 307 mpg-imp) and 261 mpg-US (0.901 L/100 km; 313 mpg-imp),
Different types of motorcycles have different dynamics and these play a role in how a
motorcycle performs in given conditions. For example, a longer wheelbase provides more
stability in a straight line. Motorcycle tires have a large influence over handling.
Motorcycles must be leaned in order to make turns. This lean is induced by the method
known as counter steering, in which the rider steers the handlebars in the direction opposite of
the desired turn. Because it is counter-intuitive this practice is often very confusing to novices—
and even to many experienced motorcyclists.
Short wheelbase motorcycles, such as sport bikes, can generate enough torque at the rear
wheel, and enough stopping force at the front wheel, to lift the opposite wheel off the pavement.
These actions, if performed on purpose, are known as wheelies and stop pies respectively. If
carried past the point of recovery the resulting upset is known as "looping" the vehicle
Social Aspect of Motorcycles:
In many cultures, motorcycles are the primary means of motorised transport. According
to the Taiwanese government, for example, "the number of automobiles per ten thousand
population is around 2,500, and the number of motorcycles is about 5,000." In places such as
Vietnam, motorcycle use is extremely high due to a lack of public transport and low income
levels that put automobiles out of reach for many. In Vietnam, motorised traffic consist of mostly
motorbikes. The four largest motorcycle markets in the world are all in Asia: China, India,
Indonesia, and Vietnam. The motorcycle is also popular in Brazil's frontier towns. Amid the
global economic downturn of 2008, the motorcycle market grew by 6.5%.
Recent years have seen an increase in the popularity of motorcycles elsewhere. In the
USA, registrations increased by 51% between 2000 and 2005. This is mainly attributed to
increasing fuel prices and urban congestion, but is also partly due to television programmes such
as reality show American Chopper, or adventure-travel shows such as Long Way Down.
While people choose to ride motorcycles for various reasons, those reasons are
increasingly practical, with riders opting for a powered two-wheeler as a cost-efficient
alternative to infrequent and expensive public transport systems, or as a means of avoiding or
reducing the effects of urban congestion. In places where it is permitted, lane splitting, also
known as filtering, allows motorcycles to use the space between vehicles to move through
stationary or slow traffic.
In the UK, motorcycles are exempt from the £8 per day London congestion charge other
vehicles must pay to enter the city during the day. Motorcycles are also exempt from toll charges
at some river crossings, such as the Severn Bridge, Dartford Crossing, and Mersey Tunnels.
Some cities, such as Bristol, allow motorcycles to use bus lanes and provide dedicated free
parking. In the United States, those states that have high-occupancy vehicle lanes also allow for
motorcycle travel in them. Other countries have similar policies.
In New Zealand motorcycle riders are not required to pay for parking that is controlled by
a barrier arm; the arm does not occupy the entire width of the lane, and the motorcyclist simply
rides around it. Many car parks controlled in this way supply special areas for motorcycles to
park, so as not to unnecessarily consume spaces.
In many cities that have serious parking challenges for cars, such as San Francisco,
motorcycles are generally permitted to park on the sidewalk, rather than occupy a space on the
street which might otherwise be used by a car.
In the Philippines people are shifting moods from automobiles to motorcycles, some of
the reasons are people are becoming aware of the advantages of having a motorcycle, it is cost
efficient in terms of fuel consumption and maintenance. It is also easy to handle and most of all
it is easy to maneuver it can easily pass through busy streets with out experiencing heavy traffic
Types of Motorcycles:
There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, and dual purpose. Within
these types, there are many different sub-types of motorcycles for many different purposes.
Street bikes include cruisers, sport bikes, scooters and mopeds, and many other types.
Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as
motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style
are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as
Each configuration offers either specialized advantage or broad capability, and each
design creates a different riding posture.
Why do Traffic Accidents Happen?:
Road accident and mishaps are not uncommon. They can happen for a variety of reasons,
and have as many consequences. Some merely cause a few scratches – on the car or to your
person, while some are much more impactful damaging your property and handicapping the
victim, for a decent amount of time. Whatever the impact, determining the cause is very
important. Largely these road accidents can be attributed by the following 5 causes:
1. Driving under Influence: This is one of the most common reasons for accidents. Drunken
driving or driving under any kind of influence leads to a lot of accidents, mostly with
fatalities. If this is the cause of your accident, then as a victim you're not only entitled to
compensation, but the driver responsible could be punished by law depending on other
factors of the accident.
2. Speeding: Speeding, specifically reckless driving by those on a joyride is another cause
of road accidents. Speeding is often compounded by other factors like bad weather, bad
roads, and also if the driver is intoxicated or inexperienced. In all cases, the victim is
eligible for compensation.
3. Road conditions: Often, roads themselves are quite bad – full of potholes, the occasional
un-cleared oil spill, no signs, no street lights, no barricades over bridges, no neon signs to
warn of objects in the way, malfunctioning signals at junctions. An inexperienced driver
could easily meet with an accident. At such times, the authorities or city administrations
can be held directly responsible for accidents.
4. Vehicle Failure: This could be a direct catalyst for the accident. Brake fail, worn out tires,
fault in any parts of the car could easily lead to disastrous incidents. At such times, it is
necessary to investigate what led to the malfunction or non-function of the parts. For
example, it could be the driver's negligence in not maintaining the car properly and
ignoring warnings, it could be sabotage or certain other factor may have complicated an
under-control scenario. An investigation is required at this point, to determine exactly
who's at fault and what kind of compensation is warranted.
5. Human Error: At times, the driver may not be intoxicated, he may not be speeding, the
roads could be okay and the vehicle will also be in ship-shape, yet there will be accidents.
This happens purely because the driver is either distracted while driving (talking on the
phone, changing tracks on the player) or he isn't able to anticipate and reach quickly
enough. Driving is a matter of skill and experience and at times, lack of these could also
result in an accident.
Definition of Terms:
Accident – is a specific, identifiable, unexpected, unusual and unintended external action which
occurs in a particular time and place, without apparent or deliberate cause but with marked
effects. It implies a generally negative probabilistic outcome which may have been avoided or
prevented had circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to
its occurrence. It is constrained to an immediate incident, the occurrence of which results in an
Accident rate – is the probability of the occurrence of an accident.
Fatality - A death resulting from an accident or disaster.
Joy ride – a ride taken for fun and often for the thrills provided by reckless driving
Motorcycle – is a single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably
depending on the task for which they are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating
congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions.
Motorcycle helmet – is a type of protective headgear used by motorcycle riders. The primary
goal of a motorcycle helmet is motorcycle safety - to protect the rider's head during impact, thus
preventing or reducing head injury or saving the rider's life.
Obstruction – Something that impedes or prevents entry or passage
Over speeding- it is a speed which exceeds the maximum speed allowed by law for road
Speed limit- is the maximum speed allowed by law for road vehicles. Speed limits are commonly
set and enforced by the legislative bodies of nations or provincial governments, such as countries
within the world.
Testbed – is a platform for experimentation of large development projects. Testbeds allow for
rigorous, transparent and replicable testing of scientific theories, computational tools, and other
For this dissertation, descriptive research method will be utilised. The research described
in this document is based on quantitative research method. The methods used involves a
graphical and interpretative approach to its subject matter. For this research, the researchers
gathered data, from SPO4 Armando R. Dullesco Operation TMEU Iloilo City Police station; and
makes a graphical relationship and analysis of the collected data. Afterwards, the researcher will
analyse and summarise all the data and information.
Total Number of Accidents:
Traffic accidents involving motorcycles increases every year, it is because that people are
starting to appreciate the efficiency of motorcycles, they tend to occupy large distance with a
small amount of fuel and they can easily pass through congested highways and are easy to
handle. In Iloilo city the accident involving motorcycles increased greatly each year. The graphs
below show the increase in motorcycle accident rate.
Month Quantity Quantity
January 41 January
February 50 February
March 51 March
Figure 1: Total number of accidents that happened for the year 2007.
February 55 January
March 72 February
April 63 March
May 67 April
June 58 May
July 67 June
August 58 July
September 42 August
October 42 September
November 66 October
December 63 November
Total 711 December
Figure 2: Total number of accidents that happened for the year 2008
January 58 January
July 83 June
August 103 July
Total 565 December
Figure 3: Total number of accidents that happened for the year 2009
2007 vs. 2008 vs. 2009
year Quantity Quantity
year 2007 628
year 2008 711
year 2009 565
0 200 400 600 800
Figure 4: Comparison between the numbers of accidents.
The graph above shows the comparison on the increase in the traffic accidents involving
motorcycles. The total accident number in the year 2007 involving motorcycles was 628, in 2008
it increased into 711 and at the end of the third quarter in 2009 the total accident number ranged
to 565. This shows that every year the accident rate regarding to motorcycle increases.
Major factors of Motorcycle Accident:
Over speeding (recklessness, driving over the influence, emotionally upset, aggressiveness):
Many motorists ignore the dangers that over-speeding pose to their safety and to those of
others as well. Vehicle crashes have been the leading cause of death in the nation and have
caused millions worth of property damage and compensation to the victims.
Speed limits are implemented in highways and other roads so that motorists would be
aware when they are faster or slower than other vehicles. Those who are speeding or slowing
down in a highway can get into much trouble as other vehicles might miscalculate their speed
and both will end up in a collision.
High Speed Car Collisions had claimed several lives. It will continue to cause tragic accidents,
especially to young drivers if motorists would not be cautious enough.
Why Drivers Speed Up:
There are motorists who would want to cut their travel time by speeding up without fully
understanding that they can get into further trouble if they are caught speeding and would have to
pay fine or be involved in accident.
One of the determinants of who is at fault in the accident is the rate of speed of parties
involved. If there have been a collision in a highway between two vehicles bound on the same
direction, it can be caused by low or high speed driving.
There are also intoxicated drivers who speed up as their judgments are failing and are no
longer capable of making good decisions. These drunk drivers must never over estimate their
skills as a driver as alcohol and other prohibited drugs will affect their vision and decision-
During rainy seasons, the continuing rain makes the road slippery. This slipperiness of
the road causes several vehicular accidents, which some times involves motorcycles, a slippery
road provides less traction on the tires of the vehicle causing it to skid and crash. When the road
is slippery it is difficult for the driver of the motor cycles or any vehicle to control and
Obstructions or Barriers:
These are barriers that are put to separate the lane, and some times these barriers serves
as a guide for motorist to where to pass. But some of the accidents are caused by these barriers, if
not put in the right place and not properly lighted. These barriers are difficult to see especially a
Some accidents happen on road with out sufficient lighting system. These streetlights are
very important for a road. This helps the driver to have a clearer vision while driving. It will help
the driver see the object right a head of him which will help to minimize and even avoid
High beam light of approaching vehicle/s:
A high beam light from and approaching vehicle can cause an accident. A high beam
light can temporarily impair the vision of the driver of an approaching vehicle. This light will
affect the driver; this will lessen the drivers’ peripheral vision and also shorten his line of sight.
During night time proper courtesy with approaching vehicles should be observed in order to
Mechanical trouble such as no brakes and no signal lights:
Mechanical problems such as malfunctions on brakes and signal lights on motorcycle and
other motor vehicles are sometimes the cause of accidents. Sudden turning on a curve or an
intersection with out proper signal caused by the malfunction of the signal lights have caused
several deaths and accidents and even the brakes which does not work well. Before leaving one
should always check the brakes and signal lights to function well for their safety.
Fatality of Accidents:
High risk regarding to injuries on motorcycle is understandable, motorcycle compared to
other vehicles are small in size and when it will come in to collision with other vehicle the
impact received by the motorcycle and the one riding it is greater than other vehicles like
automobiles. And the motorcycle itself is open which cannot fully protect the rider.
year 2007 year 2008 year 2009
killed 15 17 2
Injured 521 683 537
Total 536 700 539
Figure 5: Comparison of the number of Injured and killed
Motorcycle accidents, as all other accidents, are events that take place without one’s
foresight or expectations ordinarily they happened very rapidly furthermore there are the
culmination of a chain of unfortunate events. Motorcycle accidents claim an appalling toll
throughout the entire world. In the Iloilo city alone, 2007 deaths totaled 15. In addition 521 were
injured. In all there were 628 individual accidents happened in that year. In 2008 the number of
death increased to 17, and 683 were injured, that year alone gave a total number of 711 accidents
happened. At the end of the third quarter of 2009 the number of deaths ranged to 2, and the
number of injured 537, the total number of accidents that happened during this period was 565.
This data shows that the number of accidents that happened each year had increased. This can
tell us that the number of people using motorcycle had also increased. The fatality of the accident
increased by the year 2008 but it was reduced during year 2009, this may be an outcome of the
awareness of the motorists and also by the strict implementation of the ordinance regarding the
wearing of proper safety gears when driving.
A victim can suffer from a variety of serious injuries in a collision caused by over speeding.
These injuries can permanently damage one’s life and cause him and his family a great deal of
pain. Here are some of the common vehicle accident injuries:
Whiplash - Whiplash is an injury that can be incurred from damage or injury to the neck
area that would cause much pain. These can be caused by trauma to the neck muscles and
ligaments that would somehow limit head’s movement. These injuries can cause much
pain, which can be alleviated by home remedies such as cold compress. Cold compress
must be applied for at least 20 minutes each hour to ease the pain.
Spinal Cord Injury - Many auto accidents have led to spinal cord injuries which could
permanently disable a person. These disabilities will prevent him to do productive work
that would earn him income. Because of this, relatives would be buried with financial
problems caused by the accident.
Head and Brain Injuries - The impact of car crashes can make drivers and passengers hit
their heads on something hard which could cause trauma to their heads. These injuries
must be immediately treated top avoid worsening the condition. Most victims of these
trauma experience memory loss, headaches, and sudden mood changes.
Broken Bones - There are vehicles that are not sturdy enough to protect motorists and
passengers from being crushed. So, there are those who break their limbs and ribs from
collisions. These broken bones can be repaired but there are those that would have to be
removed by amputation.
Accidents involving Male and Female:
Jan Feb Mar April May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
year 2007 male 28 43 40 35 25 30 40 62 74 54 54 53
year 2007 female 13 7 11 5 14 15 15 2 2 2 1 3
year 2008 male 58 53 70 60 66 58 66 56 40 41 63 61
year 2008 female 0 2 2 3 1 0 1 2 2 1 3 2
year 2009 male 56 47 48 59 67 94 80 98
year 2009 female 2 0 3 1 2 0 3 5
Figure 6: Comparison of accidents caused by male and female.
Year 2007 538 90
Year 2008 692 19
Year 2009 549 16
Total 1779 125
Figure 7: Comparison between Male and Female involved in accident.
The number of females driving motorcycle is less than the number of males driving
motorcycles, and perhaps female drivers are more safety conscious rather than male drivers.
Female drivers tend to drive on low to moderate speed while male drivers tends to run on high
speed and most often tends to exceed the maximum speed required. May be male drivers are
more reckless than females.
Most Frequent time of Accident occurrence:
Year Year Year
time 2007 2008 2009
12:00 PM - 2:00 PM 57 53 41
2:00 PM - 4:00PM 41 68 62
4:00 PM - 6:00 PM 59 69 62
6:00 PM - 8:00 PM 58 71 50
8: 00 PM - 10:00 PM 57 73 67
10:00 PM- 12:00 AM 64 69 64
12:00 AM - 2:00 AM 37 35 23
2:00 AM - 4:00 AM 31 42 19
4:00 AM- 6:00 AM 38 28 19
6:00 AM - 8:00 AM 59 61 51
8:00 AM - 10:00 AM 68 82 55
10:00 AM - 12:00 PM 59 57 47
Figure 8: The time where the most number of accidents occur.
Based on the graph above the time where the most accidents occur is 8-10 am, this is
because that during these hour, the streets are busy, and this is said to be a peak hour where all
tends to travel to school and to work. This is also the time where traffic congestions take place,
because of the motorcycles size they tend to pass through even small spaces and because of this
sometimes they are not being noticed that is why they end up having an accident.
Age that frequently meet Motorcycle Accident:
Time year 2007 year 2008 year 2009
14-20 years old 45 34 24
21-25 years old 123 79 57
26-30 years old 142 111 85
31-35 years old 127 105 53
36-40 years old 103 76 30
41-45 years old 35 43 21
46-50 years old 31 26 20
51-55 years old 17 19 15
56 - 60 years old 3 9 9
61-65 years old 2 9 1
age not specified 0 188 197
Figure 9: Show the age with the highest accident rate.
The graph in figure 9 shows that the age with the highest accident rate regarding to
motorcycles is ages 26 to 30 years old. Perhaps the reason why this age bracket has the highest
accident rate is because that this age margin has or owns motorcycles. And this age are the ones
most likely drives a lot of motorcycles. This age finds driving motorcycles handy rather than
driving automobiles. The age that not specified in the data that been gathered, it assumed to be in
legal age. In the graph shows that in the age bracket of 61- 65 years old were also driving
motorcycle even if they were old, it appears that in age bracket 61-65 has difficulties in riding in
motorbike example of this is poor eyesight.
Based on the research the researchers found out that the accident regarding to
motorcycles is increasing gradually every year. This increase may be due to the peoples’
awareness of the efficiency in motorcycles over automobiles and its manoeuvrability when it
comes to passing through congested areas. The only draw back is that the drivers are not that
knowledgeable when it comes to proper road courtesies and to traffic rules and regulations that is
why they always tend to meet an accident. It was also found out that the major factors that
contributed to the increase in the said accident rate were the over speeding of drivers which may
be caused by drunkenness, aggressiveness, and emotional upset. The research also learned that
the time of the day that most accidents happened is between 8 to 10 am. This time was said to be
the peak hours for people going to work and to school and also during this time most of the city
loop roads are congested. And lastly it was found out that most of the people committing these
accidents are at ages 26 to 30.
The researchers would like to recommend that a strict implementation of the wearing of
proper safety gears should be used when driving a motorcycle, so that if accidents could not be
avoided at least fatality of the accident would decrease and also minimize injuries. Also if
possible training and a seminar regarding proper highway courtesies and education must be
given to those who are driving. And for those driving motorcycles they must avoid driving when
they are at the height of their emotion, too much excitement, anger could lead to accident and
also always avoid driving when under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Always wear safety
gears like motorcycle helmet. Always check the condition of the motorcycle especially the
brakes before leaving. And if they feel that it is not necessary they should try to avoid using their
Location of Research Area:
Figure 10: (Map of Iloilo City)
The 2007 census, Iloilo City had a population of 418,710 households with a 2.0% annual
growth rate. Iloilo City recently topped a survey by Money Sense Magazine as one of the "Best
Place” to live in the Philippines. Iloilo City is politically subdivided into 180 barangays. The
barangays are grouped into six districts: Arevalo (13 barangays) ,City Proper (45 barangays),
Jaro (42 barangays), La Paz (37 barangays), Mandurriao (18 barangays), Molo (25 barangays)
All of the districts of Iloilo City were once individual towns. They were incorporated into
Iloilo when it became a city in 1937
5. Traffic Management and Engineering Unit Iloilo Police Station