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Retail theft has become so critical to store groups that many have designated senior-level staff to
examine anti-theft technology. Others have grouped together to call for the application of anti-theft
labeling and packaging to all products sold retail within a few years. The resulting Electronic Article
Surveillance (EAS) sector is now a huge business involving the incorporation of electromagnetic, radio
frequency, microchips or other data inlays electronic article surveillance systems into labels, tickets or
tags. Again, this opens a wide range of opportunities to enterprising label producers working with EAS

An interesting development involves radio frequency identification (RFID) systems for so-called smart
labels and tags. The transponders for the various programmable types are either microchip inlays with a
read/write capability or lower cost magnetic films, foils or arrays of magnetic wires for embedding in label
stocks. High cost tags have a unit cost of $1 upwards, while the expanding low cost RFID market involves
thin-sheet products with unit costs of between 1 cent and a dollar. It is a market that could reach $10
billion worldwide in 10 years, say some experts.

RFIDs can exist with bar coded labels and are difficult to copy or simulate in order to protect goods
against theft and counterfeiting. However, supply chain tracking and other logistics applications to replace
bar codes are really driving this growth. They include airline baggage labels, express parcel labels, and
tickets for leisure events and mass transit.

Like all new technology, RFID acceptance is conditional upon overcoming hurdles to gain high-volume
production. Internationally acceptable standards are now in place, but other factors include the cost of
capital equipment and consumables, as well as compatibility with existing numbering and data capture
products. To smooth this path, major RFID makers have formed partnerships with suppliers of hardware,
software and materials.

Motorola’s BiStatix smart label venture involves a tie-in with International Paper (IP) to promote
packaging and labels using read/write microchips. Instead of passive bar codes, manufacturers and
retailers can track products using radio signals, while a unique identifier protects high-value goods
against gray market theft and counterfeiting.

Bill Slowikowski, IP’s senior vice president of consumer packaging, claims this marriage of electronics
and paper enhances customer service and eliminates many supply chain inefficiencies. “In the U.S. alone
there is an estimated $250 billion in yearly waste attributable to inefficient product distribution from
manufacturers to customers. Retail counterfeiting was responsible for approximately $70 billion in losses
in 1999.”

Texas Instruments has formed an international Team Tag-It Program involving nearly 30 companies to
develop smart label applications. As a resource forum it helps hardware, software and licensed
converters to develop marketing, sales and networking opportunities for RFID smart labels. Philips has a
partnership with Raflatac, the global self-adhesive laminate group, to develop markets for its I.Chip semi-
conductor products.

Mikoh Corporation allows Poly-Flex Circuits Inc. to produce RFID label transponders using Mikoh’s
tamper indicating SmartANDSecure process. Under a related agreement, Poly-Flex also acts as a
channel distributor for SmartANDSecure transponders and labels.

SmartANDSecure can be applied to any smart label to make it tamper intelligent. The process enhances
existing RFID transponders to detect and warn of any type of product tampering using an RFID reader.
Polyflex will initially create SmartANDSecure transponders for use at 13.56MHz, 915MHz and 2.45GHz
frequencies. It will add other frequencies and protocols as needed.

OVDs and RFIDs are just a few of the main weapons in a growing arsenal of anti-fraud and logistical
weapons. Fluorescing, magnetic, thermochromatic and color shift security inks and coatings alone make
upubstantial market, deserving of separate coverage in themselves.

Other ingenious proprietary products involving labeling will correctly identify whether products and/or
individual batches of products are genuine. For example, Biocode’s covert method (OpSec is one
international licensee) uses bio-engineered recognition molecules to detect inert chemical markers added
to both liquid or solid products. Marked products are identified in the field using antibody-based test kits.
Label & Narrow Web is the major source of information and education for the narrow web segment of
converting and printing. Each issue contains useful and penetrating articles on matters of primary interest
to the label and narrow web professional. From technical innovation and marketing trends to product
development, Label & Narrow Web examines the critical topics that affect narrow web markets
Chipless Smart Labels: The Ultimate RFID
by Dr Peter Harrop and Teresa Henry, IDTechEx Ltd
This report looks in far more detail at chipless tags, including a much wider range of
technologies. These have the same market potential as chip tags and possibly more.
They are usually ultra low cost from 0.1 to 10 cents each, even in modest quantities. As
yet chipless tags are rarely mentioned in the press or at conferences. This second
report also analyses how the silicon chip and even batteries in conventional RFID will
become printed, to lower cost and improve ruggedness so eventually most forms of low
cost RFID become "chipless". Order book

Executive Summary and Conclusions                   6. Future trends
                                                    6.1 Improved price and functionality of chipless
1. Introduction                                     tags
1.1 What is RFID?                                   6.2 Printing an equivalent of the microchip
1.1.1 EAS is not RFID                               6.2.1 Sharp "Continuous Grain Silicon"
1.1.2 Enormous differences in range                 surfaces
1.1.3 Applications                                  6.2.2 Quantum effect circuits
1.1.4 Benefits                                      6.2.3 Polymer film circuits
1.1.5 Making new things possible                    6.2.4 Electronic ink
1.2 Low cost RFID creates new markets               6.2.5 Black silicon
1.3 Chipless tags : not just a price advantage      6.2.6 Silicon on insulator
                                                    6.2.7 Bioelectronics
2. Problems with traditional solutions              6.3 Printed disposable batteries for low cost
2.1 Manual methods                                  active RFID
2.2 Bar codes                                       6.3.1 Sony, Japan
2.3 Magnetic stripes                                6.3.2 Power Paper, Israel
2.4 Conventional security printing                  6.3.3 Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
2.5 Conventional contactless smart cards            6.4 Printed rechargeable batteries for low cost
2.6 Chip-based RFID                                 active RFID
2.7 Electronic transponders                         6.5 Printed solar cells
                                                    6.5.1 United Solar Systems, US
3. Chipless RFID solutions now and soon             6.5.2 Bio-photocells
3.1 Evolution from EAS                              6.5.3 Johannes Kepler University, Austria
3.2 Unique pattern RFID                             6.6 Remote read-write and other possibilities
3.3 Magnetic films                                  6.7 The resulting advanced chipless RFID
3.3.1 Without moving parts                          6.7.1 Motorola Bistatix low cost chip tags as a
3.3.2 With moving parts                             bridge to chipless.
3.4 Printed passive circuits                        6.8 Independent development centres with
3.4.1 Without conventional components               skills in chipless RFID
3.4.2 With conventional components                  6.8.1 Sentec, UK
3.5 Performance comparisons                         6.8.2 Scientific Generics, UK
3.5.1 Remote magnetics vs coil arrays               6.8.3 San Diego Magnetics, US
3.5.2 Fixed vs scanned frequency
                                                    7. Applications demanding low cost RFID
4. Magnetic film and wire                           and progress to date
4.1 Magnetic film                                   7.1 Brand protection
4.1.1 Conventional magnetics - non contact          7.1.1 Counterfeiting FMCG, luxury goods
reading                                             7.1.2 Grey markets
4.1.2 Flying Null, UK                               7.1.3 Logistics
4.1.3 Hooting, UK                                   7.1.4 Safety
4.1.4 Graphic Dimensions International, The         7.2 Secure documents including banknotes,
Netherlands                                    passports
4.1.5 Scipher TSSI, UK                         7.2.1 Authentication
4.1.6 De La Rue, UK                            7.2.2 Appearance
4.1.7 Other                                    7.2.3 Logistics
4.2 Magnetic wire and fibres                   7.2.4 Tickets
4.2.1 HID, US                                  7.3 Logistics and process control
4.2.2 Fuji Electric. Japan                     7.3.1 Letters and parcels
4.2.3 Unitika, Japan                           7.3.2 Retailing
4.2.4 Incode, US                               7.3.3 Distribution
4.2.5 Other                                    7.3.4 Laundries
4.3 Magnetic assembly                          7.3.5 Air passengers, baggage, freight
4.3.1 Scientific Generics Meto, UK & Germany   7.3.6 Factories : accounting, flow optimisation,
4.3.2 Other                                    theft control
                                               7.4 Libraries, archiving, document
5. Printed passive electronic circuits         management
5.1 Over Solutions, US                         7.4.1 Automated retrieval
5.1.1 IT Link, US & UK                         7.4.2 Automated loans
5.2 E-Code, US                                 7.4.3 Automated stocktake
5.2.1 Lintec, Japan                            7.4.4 Theft prevention
5.2.2 Mitsui, Japan                            7.5 Automated payment and ticketing
5.3 Miyaki, Japan                              7.5.1 Credit, debit, prepayment
5.4 Checkpoint, US                             7.5.2 Non-stop road tolling
5.5 Intermec Amtech, US                        7.5.3 Ticketing
5.6 Others                                     7.6 Secure access
                                               7.6.1 Premises
                                               7.6.2 Operating vehicles and equipment
                                               7.6.3 Computers
                                               7.7 Tamper evidence and prevention
                                               7.8 Life-threatening counterfeiting
                                               7.8.1 Pharmaceuticals
                                               7.8.2 Automotive and aircraft parts
                                               7.8.3 Other
                                               7.9 Counterfeit refilling
                                               7.10 Other

                                               8. Directory

                                               Appendix 1 Structure of the RFID industry

                                               Appendix 2 Product literature
The World's Largest Smart Labels Conference

"Definitely the place to go to network and create business. Plenty of people of the right calibre
are there - not just seekers of information. Highly recommended."
Steve Freeman, Vice President - C.W.Over Solutions USA.

The World's largest conference on low cost RFID will be held in Cambridge, UK, on 24-25
September 2001 at Robinson College with an optional workshop on 26 September.

As before, the first day will focus primarily on major users - their needs and experience. The
second day will cover new product announcements, futuristic developments and case histories. In
addition there will be:

 An exhibition arena
 "Meet the Experts" dinner set in Jesus College, one of the oldest Cambridge University colleges
(founded in 1496). Experts will include the speakers, Dr Peter Harrop, Hiro Omori and Raghu
Das of IDTechEx, Prof. Tom Rodden, Prof. Keith Osman and, of course, many experts attending
as delegates. However this event will also be suitable for spouses and friends. Dress will be
smart/casual (i.e. trousers and shirt with a collar) and a well-known Cambridge resident will give
a light hearted talk about Cambridge.

Attractive and economical accommodation, with en-suite, in Robinson College, Cambridge
University, if required. Residential will include all meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner).

 The workshop will include new presentations from leading experts, with demonstrations and
discussion. Those purchasing a place in the workshop earn a free one year subscription to Smart
Labels Analyst (worth $400 or £250), our web/email journal, containing monthly industry
analysis, reports and discussions.

Smart Labels 2001 will focus exclusively on radio frequency tagging where the tag is cheap
enough to be disposable or left on a product through life. This is the big need. Remarkable new
sales successes will be reported where such tags are only a few cents or tens of cents. However,
more sophisticated labels and cards costing up to a few dollars are also covered where they have
potential for high volume sales. The emphasis will be on the needs of real and potential users and
the capabilities of exceptional low cost RFID products, many announced for the first time at this

Smart Labels 2000 was sold out, with 176 delegates attending. We are expecting over 200
delegates this year, and there will be an exhibition. Click here to book.


Functions -
Theft detection
Tampering detection
Traffic management
Brand protection
Supply chain management
Location of assets
Access control
Internet of Things
etc. Sectors -
Postal services
Fast-moving consumer goods
Airports and airlines
Road and rail ticketing
Road tolling, tax, insurance, parking
Gas cylinders
Retail goods
Precious assets; museums, the home
Pallets etc.

Smart Labels 2001 Conference Programme:
Day One: Monday 24 September 2001

Chairman: Dr Peter J. Harrop, Chairman, IDTechEx Ltd.
Dr Peter Harrop has written many books on the subject and is a consultant in smart labels and

07:45 Registration and Refreshments/Exhibition

08:30 Chairman's Introduction:
Progress of the Industry and Uses World Wide, Exponential Growth, Totally New Applications,
Restructuring of the Industry.

08:45 "The Electronic Product Code - The Next Wave of the Computer Revolution?" Kevin
Ashton, Director, Massachusetts Institute of Technology AutoID Center, USA
This is backed by Gillette, Procter & Gamble, Tesco, Unilever, Mars and many others

The Auto-ID center is a ground breaking research project, based at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology in the United States, and at a newly opened sister lab at the University of Cambridge
in England.
The mission of the center is to merge the physical world with the information world. By bringing
bits and atoms together, the project will create the next generation of the Internet - a world where
"connectivity" is not limited to computers, but includes everyday objects from food to
pharmaceuticals, from cars to consumer goods - linked and communicating in real time, all the
time. In this new world, the way products are made, distributed, marketed, purchased, consumed,
replenished and recycled will be transformed. Smart, forward-looking businesses will find
greater efficiencies, new capabilities and new opportunities to gain competitive advantage.
09:15 "Why We Need a One Franc Smart Ticket: How We Will Get It"
Michel Barjansky, Systems Engineering, Paris Transport System RATP, France
This is the largest city bus/train system in Europe.

An overview of the Ile de France Urban Transport System
The case for the contactless smart card program
The place of the smart ticket in it
The development and the actual results
09:45 "The Necessity for a Range of Products for Transportation"
Nicolas Mares, Chief Executive, ASK, France

Contactless cards and their applications
Contactless disposable paper tickets
Smart labels in passports etc
Innovative new printed antennas
10:15 Refreshments/Exhibition

10:45 "Issuing Five Million Contactless Smart Cards in London and the Need for Contactless
Smart Tickets"
Nicole Carroll, Marketing Director, Transys Ltd - London Transport Prestige Project, UK
London Transport has placed the world's largest order for a transport smart card system at $1.6
billion with Transys, a consortium of EDS, Cubic, WS Atkins and others. Transys will install
and run the system. Now it needs smart tickets alongside.

Introduction to Prestige and Transys
The multimodal contactless card
The need for a smart ticket
Future trends in the industry
11:15 "World's Largest System Integration of Smart Baggage Tags at San Francisco Airport."
Mark Ealing, RFID Development Manager, Ultra Electronics, UK

Reasons for introducing smart baggage tags to airports
Challenges of system integration
Experience at San Francisco and elsewhere
View of the future - millions or billions of smart baggage tags a year?
12:00 "Smart Labels for Non-stop Vehicle Management in China and Elsewhere" Gary Gluck,
Area Vice President, Transcore/EuroDAT Services, BELGIUM

The need for combined tax, insurance, tolling etc smart labels for vehicles
The need for non-stop parking and tolling in airports and elsewhere
The Amtech technologies
Case histories of system integration
12:30 Lunch and Refreshments/Exhibition

14:00 "Improving Supply Chain Efficiency through the use of Intelligent Tagging"
Andy Robson, Business Development Manager, CHEP International UK/USA
Chep is the world leader in the leasing of pallets. There are over one billion pallets in use

Understanding the supply chain issues
Developing a "track & trace" capability using RFID
The CHEP experience
Measuring the business benefits
14:30 "Achieving Efficient Global Logistics Execution"
Mark McGlade, Managing Director, Europe, Middle East and Africa, Savi Technology USA

How convergence of real time data collection, wireless networks and web-based applications
create new opportunities for supply chain efficiencies.
The Savi Technology vision for more efficient and profitable commerce through real time
visibility of conveyances, goods and shipments across the entire supply chain.
The world's most extensive real time data network and software platform, designed, developed
and implemented by Savi Technology for the US Department of Defense.
15:15 "Successful Use of RFID on Metal Gas Cylinders."
Philip Calderbank, President, Global ID Switzerland
Global ID will make 150 million low cost RFID tags this year.

Case study on the use of RFID tags embedded in metal containers
How the system is used today by a large gas bottle company
Examples of tag application techniques, explosion proof readers, system operation
Return on investment analysis
15:45 Refreshments/Exhibition

16:15 "The RFIDed Airport, The Way to get Forward"
Dirk Cornette, Business Manager, Brussels Airport Switch, Belgium

Turning information into knowledge into profit
Ways to make the airport more intelligent
Courtship between smart labels and the Airport Operational Database AODB
View of the future
16:45 "The Global Demand for Conventional Labels"
James Bevan, Senior Research Manager, Labels and Labelling Consultancy, UK

Global demand for conventional labels by sector
Detailed analysis of the Western European market
Why the labels/packaging industry is interested in smart labels
How the label sector sees them fitting in with their traditional business
17:05 "The Global Demand For Chip and Chipless Smart Labels"
Raghu Das, Business Development Manager, IDTechEx Ltd, UK

Uses for smart labels - more varied than ever
Chip smart labels - strengths and potential
Chipless smart labels - strengths and potential
Trends to selling both chip and chipless smart labels together
17:25 Questions & Chairman's closing remarks

17:30 Close of Session

19:15 Transport will leave from Robinson College for the "Meet the Experts Dinner" at Jesus


Day Two: Tuesday 25 September 2001

Chairman: Professor Tom Rodden from Nottingham University, UK
Professor Rodden has made a study of new uses of smart labels that can transform society.

07:45 Refreshments/Exhibition

08:15 Chairman's Introduction: New Uses and New Possibilities

The emergence of location based interaction
The development of new interactive devices
Exploiting future uses of tagging based systems
Future and emerging markets
08:30 "Alien Technology - Smaller ICs, Fluidic Self Assembly and Lower Cost Smart Labels in
Jeffrey Jacobsen, Chief Executive, Alien Technology, USA
Alien Technology is growing extremely rapidly and has a Nobel prizewinner on the board.

Scalable Assembly - "Carl Sagan Quantities by 2004"
Scalable Functionality - NanoBlock™ IC & Nanosensor Tags
Scalable Distributed Manufacturing - Local Production
Scalable Open Architecture - Working Together
09:00 "The 8.2 MHz. EAS Switch Tag: an evolutionary path towards Smart Labels in retail"
Peter Paijens, New Business Manager, NEDAP N.V.,The Netherlands
NEDAP is one of the pioneers in RFID and EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) with many
applications such as retail security, access control, animal management and vehicle tracking.

Uses for smart labels - more varied than ever
EAS and source tagging: the world market and the issues
The promises of and roadblocks towards large scale use of Smart Labels in retail
The importance of using current infrastructure for new developments
The NEDAP 8.2 MHz EAS Switch Tag as evolutionary path
Future scenarios
09:30 "An enabling technology for Smart Labels and devices"
Reuben Fuchs, Marketing Manager, Power Paper, Israel
TFM (thin & flexible microelectronics)
Application integration
Rechargeable power source

10:00 Refreshments/Exhibition

10:30 "The 20 Cents RF-rechargeable Battery for Low-cost Active Smart Labels" Matthew
Foster, Chief Executive, Infinite Power Solutions, USA
Active RF tag performance now possible in a smart label package at passive tag prices
Demonstrated active tag performance at over 400 ft ranges
Infinite or finite life smart labels possible with integrated micro-chip or flexible batteries
RF energy battery charging
11:00 "Case Studies of Smart Labels Bringing Quick Returns"
Tim Hankins, Managing Director, Intellident UK
Case studies of tracking applications in the laundry, library, supply chain and petrochemical
A review of the opportunities, solutions and financial implications
11:40 "Migration from EAS to Smart labels"
Paul Groves, International Sales, Miyake Co. Inc.,Japan
8.2MHz EAS + RFID label
Reading it with 13.56MHz readers
12:00 Lunch and Refreshments/Exhibition
13:30 "Low Cost EMID Tagging Solutions"
Stephan Brauer, Chief Operating Officer, MXT Inc. Canada
Electromagnetic ID "EMID" is one of the chipless RFID technologies
MXT manufactures a high-performance magnetic fibre suitable for EMID tagging solutions
The material can be detected in minute quantities in a variety of readers
The unique magnetic characteristics of the fibre can offer a simple authentication tag based on
magnetic signature
Various formats of tag allow product tracking and/or authentication with very low cost tags
MXT fibre is compatible with 3-D non-line-of-sight and non-contact reader technologies
14:00 "The Authentifiber Concept"
Eli Yarkoni, Chief Executive, A.C.S. Israel
Alternative electromagnetic chipless RFID technology
Glass-coated amorphous microwire - for chipless smart labels
The unique signature and the authenticator
The concept of using the applications in the anticounterfeiting industry
14:30 "Plastic Chips: the Next Generation?"
Stuart Evans, Chief Executive, Plastic Logic, UK
This new spin-off from Cambridge University will replace the silicon chip with plastic transistor
circuits that are more robust and cost less. Smart labels are an ideal early application.

New polymer (plastic) materials and printing technologies open the door to low cost electronics
A new paradigm well matched to the requirements of electronic cards labels and tags
Presentation provides a global update, as science is being transformed into products
15:00 Chip RFID Breaking the Ten Cent Barrier
Trevor Crotch-Harvey, Head of DataLabel Team for IRT, Innovision Group UK

Embeddable passive tags sub 10 cents
Read only & Re-writeable, 4KB of memory
Tamper evident and secure tags
Readers sub $1
Over 30 million tags sold
15:30 Refreshments/Exhibition

16:00 "Coil on Chip - the smallest RF tag"
Lorna Garrett, European Manager, Hitachi Maxell & Nissei Sangyo Japan/UK
Hitachi is one of the world's largest electrical and electronic companies and a leader in integrated
circuit manufacture.

Introduction to Hitachi Maxell
Strategy for RFID
Coil on chip technology
Applications and future trend
16:30 "The 30 Metre Range Passive Smart Label and the 4 Kilometre Active Smart Label"
Geva Barash, Executive VP Sales/Marketing, i-Ray Technologies, USA

General RF specs and limitations
Breakthrough technology that allows for these extensive read ranges
Overview of the 30 metre passive smart label
Overview of the 4 kilometre active smart label
17:00 "Real Time Detection of Theft and Tampering: A Totally New Type of Smart Label"
Howard Whitesmith, Chief Executive, Tagtec Ltd, UK

Tagtec provides 24 hours security of tagged items within an occupied space
Domestic household and public area applications
Retail potential for high value goods
Passive (lifetime) and active (ten years) tag systems
17:30 Chairmans Closing Remarks

17:35 Conference Ends

Day Three: 26 September 2001
Smart Labels Workshop (OPTIONAL) 09:00-15:00
All attendees will receive a years FREE subscription
to the IDTechEx monthly Web Journal: Smart Labels Analyst, worth $400

The Smart Labels Workshop 2001 to be held from 9am to 3pm on the 26th September. This
optional full day programme is aimed at educating delegates about the wide range of RFID
technologies and products available, the pros and cons of these devices, market trends and
strategies, who are winning the race, and lessons to be learnt from others. Experience can be

The day is intended for audience participation and discussion, and with experts present it is an
ideal time to discuss and explain your RFID needs or problems. Dr Peter Harrop, Raghu Das and
Hiro Omori will lead the workshop. A considerable number of slides will be shown that are not
presented at the conference.

Topics to be covered include:

Chip and Chipless technologies, pros and cons, market overlap, share and trends
Understanding standards and their development, and future technology trends
Examples of RFID being used, how many have been sold, and into which markets
New potential applications and advice on entry to market
The potential impact of The Product Internet ( The Internet of Things ) on product design and
market opportunities.
Information on company activities in Japan and the Far East not available elsewhere.
Future market trends for RFID
Further, the workshop will provide a chance for attendees to see and handle a wide range of
samples covering most chip and chipless technologies. There will be a working demonstration.

All attendees will be given electronic and hard copies of the presentations, some samples to take
away, copies of company literature we deem informative, and to keep you updated during the
year, a FREE years subscription to the monthly IDTechEx web journal Smart Labels Analyst,
worth $400. The Workshop is recommended to all, and is effectively a full day of consultancy.


About 200 delegates are expected to attend following 176 last year. As last year, the conference
proceedings will be available at the event and will include all presentations without exception.
Click here to book your place.