Docstoc

COMPRENSIONE-ED-ANALISI-DI-TESTI-ED-AUTORI-MODERNI

Document Sample
COMPRENSIONE-ED-ANALISI-DI-TESTI-ED-AUTORI-MODERNI Powered By Docstoc
					                 Titolo : L'Utopia: Modulo CLIL di Filosofia e Latino in Inglese
                Descrittori: Filosofia, Latino, Lingua Inglese
    Autori: Prof. Elisabetta Bernardini, Prof. Franca Alborini,          Prof. Roberto Grison
  Liceo S. Copernico – Udine tel. 0432 – 504190 fax 0432 – 512185 e-mail: ncoperni@tin.it

         COMPRENSIONE ED ANALISI DI TESTI ED AUTORI MODERNI

                          Modulo CLIL di filosofia e latino in inglese

                                          ALLEGATO J
[Questo testo non è molto complesso linguisticamente, pertanto l’insegnante di filosofia ha
potuto discuterlo direttamente a classe intera. Il testo rappresenta un punto focale per la
trattazione delle utopie del diciannovesimo e ventesimo secolo che verranno successivamente
illustrate anche dall’insegnante di inglese. Vedi: Schema delle attività del modulo, sesta fase]



                POPPER – UTOPIA AND VIOLENCE

The utopist believes he knows how the perfect and ideal society must be. As a
consequence, he wants to change the whole society and make a completely new
society.


He is ready to scarify several generations so that in future it will be possible to build
his ideal society.

                                             BUT

   I.     We don’t have any rational method that can let us know how a perfect society
          must be;
   II.    It is impossible to know society “as a whole” and so it will be impossible to
          change the whole society – we can just modify some aspects of society in a
          rational and gradual way.
   III.   No generation has the right to destroy another generation in order to realise its
          utopian ideal;
   IV.    The utopist is a deluded and totalitarian person, an enemy of open society;
   V.     Like all the people who believe they are able to realise Heaven on Earth, the
          utopist is going to prepare a very respectable Hell;
   VI.    We must not indeed think of an “ideal society”; what we have to do is to try
          to solve very concrete bad situations. In order to do this, it is not very difficult
          to find agreement with other people.


                                                                                                1
                                           ALLEGATO K
[Il brano in oggetto è reperibile nel testo di letteratura Only Connect ed era stato
precedentemente letto dagli studenti. Viene seguito da esercizi incentrati sulla comprensione,
sull’analisi testuale e sull’espressione di opinioni personali sul testo. Vedi: Schema delle attività
del modulo, settima fase]



Pre-Reading: Reading this text you come across words like: Hatchery, male gametes, incubator, sterilizers, test-
tubes.
• Do you understand them?
• Which semantic area do they belong to?

CENTRAL LONDON HATCHERY1

The passage given below for study and analysis is the beginning of the novel: the Director of Central London
Hatchery shows a group of students how human eggs are kept and treated in these Hatcheries for maturation and
conditioning. In this new world natural procreation is forbidden since it creates human beings with their own
identity, who would undermine social stability.

       Aldous Huxley, Brave New World, Chapter I

A squat grey building of only thirty-four storeys. Over the main entrance the words, CENTRAL LONDON
HATCHERY1 AND CONDITIONING CENTRE, and, in a shield, the World State's motto, COMMUNITY,
IDENTITY, STABILITY.
The enormous room on the ground floor faced towards the north. Cold for all the summer beyond the panes, for
all the tropical heat of the room itself, a harsh thin light glared through the windows, hungrily seeking some
draped lay figure2, some pallid shape of academic goose-flesh3, but finding only the glass and nickel and bleakly4
shining porcelain of a laboratory.Wintriness5 responded to wintriness. The overalls6 of the workers were white,
their hands gloved with a pale corpse-coloured rubber. The light was frozen, dead, a ghost. Only from the yellow
barrels of the microscopes did it borrow a certain rich and living substance, lying along the polished tubes like
butter, streak after luscious streak7 in long recession down the work tables.
“And this,” said the Director opening the door, “is the Fertilizing Room.”
Bent over their instruments, three hundred Fertilizers were plunged, as the Director of Hatcheries and
Conditioning, entered the room, in the scarcely breathing silence, the absentminded, soliloquising hum or whistle,
of absorbed concentration. A troop of newly arrived students, very young, pink and callow8, followed nervously,
rather abjectly9, at the Director's heels. Each of them carried a note-book, in which, whenever the great man
spoke, he desperately scribbled. Straight from the horse's mouth10. It was a rare privilege. The DHC for Central
London always made a point of personally conducting his new students round the various departments. `Just to
give you a general idea,' he would explain to them. For of course some sort of general idea they must have, if they
were to do their work intelligently - though as little of one, if they were to be good and happy members of society,
as possible. For particulars, as everyone knows, make for virtue and happiness; generalities are intellectually
necessary evils. Not philosophers, but fret-sawyers11 and stamp collectors compose the backbone12 of society.
          (….)
Tall and rather thin but upright, the Director advanced into the room. He had a long chin and big, rather prominent
teeth, just covered, when he was not talking, by his full, floridly curved lips. Old, young? Thirty? fifty? Fifty-five?
It was hard to say. And anyhow the question didn't arise; in this year of stability, A.F 632, it didn't occur to you to
ask it.
  `I shall begin at the beginning,' said the DHC; and the more zealous students recorded his intention in their
notebooks: Begin at the beginning. These,' he waved his hand, `are the incubators.' And opening an insulated door
he showed them racks upon racks of numbered test-tubes14 The week's supply of ova. Kept,' he explained, `at
blood heat; whereas the male gametes,' and here he opened another door, `they have to be kept at thirty five

1
    Testo ed esercizi tratti dal libro di letteratura inglese in adozione: Spiazzi, Tavella, Only Connect,Zanichelli

                                                                                                                       2
instead of thirty-seven. Full blood beat sterilizes.' Rams15 wrapped in thermogene beget16 no lambs. Still leaning
against the incubators he gave them, while the pencils scurried illegibly across the pages, a brief description of the
modem fertilizing process (…)
(…)
the fertilized ova went back to the incubators; where the Alphas and Betasl9 remained until definitely bottled; (…)
the Gammas, Deltas and Epsilons were brought out again, after only thirty-six hours, to undergo Bokanovsky's
Process20. `Bokanovsky's Process,' repeated the Director, and the students underlined the words in their little
note-books. One egg, one embryo, one adult - normality. But a bokanovskified egg will bud21, will proliferate,
will divide. From eight to ninety-six buds, and, every bud will grow into a perfectly formed embryo, and every
embryo into a full-sized adult. Making ninety-six human beings grow where only one grew before. Progress.
`Essentially,' the DHC concluded, `bokanovskification consists of a series of arrests of development. We check
the normal growth and, paradoxically enough, the egg responds by budding.'
 (…) a prodigious improvement , you will agree, on nature.
But one of the students was fool enough to ask where the advantage lay.
“My good boy!' The Director wheeled26 sharply round on him. `Can’t you see? Can't you see?' He raised a hand;
his expression was solemn.
“Bokanovsky's Process in one of the major instruments of social stability!'
Mayor instruments of social stability.
Standard men and women; in uniform batches27. The whole of a small factory staffed with the products of a single
bokanovskified egg.
“Ninety-six identical twins working ninety-six identical machines!' The voice almost tremulous with enthusiasm.

`You really know where you are. For the first time in history.' He quoted the planetary motto. `Community,

Identity, Stability.' Grand words. `If we could bokanovskify indefinitely the problem would be solved.”

Solved by standard Gammas, unvarying Deltas, uniform Epsilons. Millions of identical twins. The principle of
mass production at last applied to biology.

1. Hatchery: Incubatoio.       8.    callow:      Imberbi,    13.geniality:Cordialità.       riproduzione immaginata
2. lay figure: Modello di     inesperti.                      14. test-tubes: Provette.      da Huxley.
corpo umano usato dagli        9. abjectly: In modo           15. Rams: Montoni.             21. bud: Riprodursi per
artisti, manichino.           spregevole.                     16. beget: Generano. 17.       gemmazione.
3. goose-flesh:. Pelle        10. straight from the           bonus: Premio, indennità.      22. purred: Ronzavano.
d'oca.                        horse's              mouth:     18. excised: Reciso.           23.burgeoned:Crescevano,
4.bleakly: Freddamente,       Informazioni ottenute da         19. Alphas and Betas:         gemmavano
tetramente.                   fonte      sicura      (frase   Alfa e Beta, cioè le due       .24.
5. Wintriness: Rigore         idiomatica).                    categorie    sociali     più   piddling:Insignificanti. 25.
invernale.                    11fret-sawyers:                 importanti.                    scores: Ventina.
6. overalls: Camici, tute     Intagliatori di legno.          20. Bokanovsky's Process:      26. wheeled: Si volse.
(da lavoro).                  12.     backbone:      Spina    Tecnica ingegnosa di           27. batches:Gruppi, lotti.
7. streak: Striscia.          dorsale, struttura portante.




                                                                                                                       3
                                               EXERCISES

1. What is the time and the place of this extract?
   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. Correct any false ones quoting from the text.
                                                    T F                                               T F
   1. A new society has been created in Britain.            7. Equality has created social stability.
   2. The three-word motto of this society                  8. Thanks to an ingenious technique a
   imitates that of the French Revolution,                  single fertilized human ovum is made to
   “Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood”.                        produce only one embryo.
   3. Government gives great importance to                  9.Some teachers are visiting an artist’s
   science.                                                 studio.
   4. Physics is the most important science.                10. The Centre produces identical
                                                            babies.
   5. The students have no real mind of their own.          11. The new state is world-wide.
   6. The society needs “Alphas” and “Epsilons”.            12. The population of this World State
                                                            is divided into classes or castes.


3. Identify the words/expressions used to describe the Hatchery:
                   Material/Objects                                    Light/temperature




4. What people are involved in the passage? What is their role?
5. Select the words and phrases which refer to science and pseudoscience and write them in the
   table below.
                          Science                                         Pseudo-science




            a.   What effect does the author try to achieve with this jargon?
            b.   Which words suggest that life is a mechanical, conditioned process?
            c.   What is the difference between the normal fertilization process and Bokanovski’s?
            d.   A.F. is a pun for A.D. “anno Domini”. Can you explain it?



6. Huxley uses this place and these characters to convey his attitude toward his utopian world.
   Tick as many items from the list below as you consider appropriate.

     He         underlines      the      His aim is to offer a                He satirizes the figure of
     dangers of over-optimistic           caricature of what the future         the scientist who ruthlessly
     expectations about science.          could be like.                        exploits           research.
     He shows us a world that            He          laments      the
     has its insidious attractions.       inexorable      decline    of
     He does not believe in              scientific culture.
     man’s ability to eliminate
     suffering.

                                                                                                              4
5

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:80
posted:3/2/2010
language:Italian
pages:5
Description: COMPRENSIONE-ED-ANALISI-DI-TESTI-ED-AUTORI-MODERNI