Chapter-1-GETTING-STARTED-PREFACE-AMADEUS-is-a-Finite-Element- by asafwewe


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									                  Chapter 1
              GETTING STARTED

AMADEUS is a Finite Element Program for the analysis of
ElectroMagnetic fields. The theory at the basis of AMADEUS is extremely
modern and up-to-date, and represents a reference product in the field of
2D ElectroMagnetic FEM. AMADEUS has PCs as hardware platform,
does not need high-cost RISC workstations or particular device, such as
dedicated cards or parallel processors.
AMADEUS was designed and realised with the aim to be as interactive as
possible, and to leave to the user the choice on the interactivity level.
AMADEUS changes automatically continuously its behaviour, depending
on the needs and on the wills of the user. The time to learn how to work
with AMADEUS are very short, because the dialogue with the user is
continuous, and the operations where there is only one choice are
performed in a completely automatic fashion. Also the graphic input is
extremely simplified: it is possible to interact with AMADEUS also with the
mouse only.

To work properly, AMADEUS needs the following hardware and software:

1 a DOS based PC, with at least a 486-type processor;
2 the operating system can be DOS, Windows 3.xx or Windows 95:
  AMADEUS will work into a DOS window;
3 the RAM needed to work depends on the number of nodes (i.e. the
  number of unknowns that AMADEUS has to handle): approximately,
  10 MB RAM every 10.000 nodes.
4 a colour graphic screen;
5 the mouse (Microsoft or Mouse System Mouse). A mouse driver must
  be loaded into the memory before working with AMADEUS;
                            Chapter 1 - Getting Started

6 AMADEUS needs a disk space of approximately 10 MB (for 10.000
  nodes version) plus 0.5 to 5 MB for each project. A mean hard disk
  occupation is about 50 MB;
7 AMADEUS needs a graphic input of the type .DXF (this is possible
  from Autocad 10 and 3DStudio). AMADEUS needs these programs
  only as drafters, but AMADEUS is not an application of other
  programs. Into AMADEUS itself there is however the possibility to
  make some modifications to an existing geometry.

AMADEUS was written in Fortran 90: the compiler was the Lahey F77L3
version 2. The graphical kernel was the Halo Professional 2.0. The
standard computer for the software development was a Pentium PC 500
MHz, but some parts of the programs have been tested on RISC
workstations and also on Crays, in order to validate the robustness of the
algorithm in cases much more long and difficult than those of the mean
The mathematical, geometrical, topological routines, as well as the
algorithm as a whole, are the original product of the programmers of

Together with this manual, you will receive two 3.5 ", 1.44 MB diskettes.
The content of the diskettes is:

                          disk                content (files)
                         DISK1               AMADEUS1.EXE
                         DISK2               AMADEUS2.EXE

You must create a directory (in the following, the working directory, WD).
There is not any limitation on the name of the directory, if not the
conventional limits of the Dos and/or of the Windows. We will suppose
that your hard disk is C:, that your floppy disk drive is A:, and that the
name you choose for the WD is AMADEUS. So you have to make the
following DOS command (here and in the following, the computer prompts
will be typed in normal characters, and your commands will be
                           Chapter 1 - Getting Started


You must now copy the content of the two diskettes into the WD. So, you
insert the disk DISK1 into the floppy disk drive and execute the following


Now insert the disk DISK2 into the floppy disk drive and execute again the


Now in the WD there are two files: AMADEUS1.EXE and
AMADEUS2.EXE. These are self extracting files: once executed, they will
deliver in the WD all the files of the package. Therefore you have to
perform the following two commands:



Now AMADEUS is ready to work. The answer to a DIR command should
be the following:

MOUSE      COM           14.674       14/10/88           12.00
AHDIBMV    DSP           23.083       14/02/92           14.10
TRANSFOR   DXF            6.610       18/02/97           16.21
ELECMATE   EMF              588       12/03/97           14.06
MATERIA    EMF            2.264       30/04/97           17.51
TRUEMATE   EMF            2.195       18/05/96           18.41
2D         EXE        5.163.074       08/09/97           20.06
2DMATEMA   EXE          257.458       08/09/97           20.18
ACADTO2D   EXE          381.478       04/09/97           16.18
AMADEUS1   EXE          455.929       08/09/97           22.04
AMADEUS2   EXE           76.391       08/09/97           22.05
RUN386     EXE          183.076       06/04/92           13.59
AHD104     FNT            6.528       15/03/91           14.00
TRANSFOR   I2D            3.491       18/02/97           16.21
AHDLFPL    KRN           61.510       16/03/92           14.10
AHDMOU     LOC              360       21/11/91           14.10
AHDMSMI    LOC            1.131       21/11/91           14.10
CON2D_32   PAR              208       19/02/97           10.49

                             Chapter 1 - Getting Started

AHDLJTP PRT                  6.748 29/01/92   14.10
       24 files                 6.646.796 bytes

As you see, there are three executable (.EXE) files:

3)    2D.EXE

They are the executable files that allows to define and solve an
ElectroMagnetic field problem.

AMADEUS is a package very flexible and efficient, but, as every human
product, has its own limits. It is important to state them now. Also if, at this
stage, the user will not be able to understand deeply the meaning of each
one of them, it will be useful in the operating phase to refer to this section,
in order to understand some behaviours of AMADEUS.
In your version of AMADEUS, the main limits are the following:

                          Item                             maximum value
     projects                                                         100
     nodes (variables in static analysis)                          20.000
     edges                                                          1.000
     regions                                                          100
     linear materials                                                 100
     non-linear     materials     and     permanent                    50
     binary conditions                                                 20
     elements outside main diagonal                               140.000
     variables in harmonic analysis                                10.000
     relative positions for stator-rotor analysis                     400

                  Table 1.1 - Operating limits of Amadeus

When the user attempts to force one of the said limits, AMADEUS
warnings that an error condition is present, and generally stops the work
returning to DOS.

                            Chapter 1 - Getting Started

As already said, in AMADEUS there are three executable files. They
perform the following tasks:

2DMATEMA.EXE creation and modification of the characteristics of the
             materials (resistivity, permettivity, B - H curve, ...)

ACADTO2D.EXE Translation of the geometry from .DXF files to .I2D files,
             modification of .I2D files

2D.EXE            The actual FEM program

In the following of this manual, the operating characteristics of the three
programs will be discussed in detail.
There is a reason why the materials and the geometry can be created and
changed by programs different from the FEM program itself. This is in
close connection with the concept of project:

    project = the set of files the define a electromagnetic problem

An electromagnetic field problem is defined by geometry, boundary
conditions, inputs, materials, working frequency, connection to external
circuits, and so on. From a computer point of view, a project is therefore a
set of disk files that define univocally an electromagnetic field problem to
be analysed by the Finite Element Method.
Each project has a name, that is given to the project itself by the user
when a .DXF file has been created. A .DXF file (that contains the
geometrical informations on the domain to be studied) cannot be
understood directly by AMADEUS: it has to be translated into a proper
geometrical syntax, that is contained into a .I2D file. The program
ACADTO2D.EXE performs this task: it translates the .DXF geometry into a
geometry readable by AMADEUS, i.e. a .I2D file.
AMADEUS starts the analysis by generating the base triangulation and by
recognising the different regions that form the geometry under
investigation (these informations are into a .TRB file, that means
.TRiangulation Base). When the materials, the boundary conditions, the
inputs are stated, a .CIM file is automatically generated (boundary
Conditions, Inputs, Materials). At this point, a numerical solution of the
problem can be achieved, and a .TRI and a .CON file is generated. Not

                             Chapter 1 - Getting Started

only: .PRF, .MTA, .MTB, .DW2, .DW3, .DW4, .FRC files and many other
extensions are generated in the different phases of the analysis. The
logical and physical content of the files generated by AMADEUS will be
discussed at the end of this Chapter.
In general, these files do not interest the user, but are used by the
package for the reconstruction of the last solution; also, they are of great
importance in the cases when there are problems in the numerical
From the above considerations, it is evident that it is in general impossible
to define the number of files that define a project: this number varies with
the problem and with the evolution of the problem itself.
Each project can have only one set of boundary conditions, inputs and
materials (in practice, only one .CIM file is in the project). This file can be
modified a unlimited number of times; it is evident however that, once a
.CIM file is changed, the characteristics of the project have been changed:
when a solution has been reached, the previous solution is lost.
When it is necessary to analyse a given geometry with different boundary
conditions and / or inputs and / or materials, it is necessary to create a
new project: better said, you have to copy the project.
An example. You prepared and analysed the project PROJ1 and you wish
to keep the results, but at the same time you want to change the inputs
and the materials, in order to study a different design. There is a way to do
so: to create a project (say PROJ2) that is equal to the project PROJ1.
At the DOS prompt, you type:


Now there is a project, PROJ2, that is a perfect copy of PROJ1: the only
difference is in the name.
If you need space in your WD, and project PROJ1 is not more necessary,
it is enough this DOS command:


This command deletes all the files that define the electromagnetic
problem linked to PROJ1. A suggestion: it is a good idea always to save
the following files:
PROJ1.DXF            base geometry (not AMADEUS syntax)
PROJ1.I2D                 base geometry (AMADEUS syntax)
PROJ1.TRB            base triangulation
PROJ1.CIM            boundary conditions, inputs, materials

Starting from these files, it is always possible to rebuild the final solution.

                           Chapter 1 - Getting Started

A project is a highly dynamic structure, that can be easily modified. The
user can stop the analysis of a project at any point, and continue the
analysis tomorrow or next week. AMADEUS remembers the point at which
the problem was, and continues the analysis starting just from there.

AMADEUS utilises the video of the computer always as a graphic device.
In any phase of the work, the video itself can be considered as subdivided
in three main areas: next figure represents the video and the relevant

                     1                                  2
                   Working                          Dialogue
                    Area                              Area


Area 1 is the working area, where the geometries are sketched, and the
graphic choices of the user are made (for instance, the zoom coordinates,
the choice of nodes, regions, edges, and so on).
Area 2 is the dialogue area (menu area): here it is possible to state the
operating choices (in other word: what the program must do). In this area
there is the numeric input, and the numerical results are shown.
In area 3, the status area, it is always shown the name of the project and
the current operating phase.

                            Chapter 1 - Getting Started

There are few things to say about this manual, if not some conventions.
As an example, In the following a sequence of operations will be indicated
in this fashion:

                Eqpo lines -> 51 -> maximum on window ->

This means that, at a given stage of the work, you will see a menu where
one of the choices is EqPo lines, and you have to make this choice.
Immediately after, you have to choose a number (in this case 51) and
again after there is another menu where one of the options is maximum
on window, and this choice has to be selected. In practice, a character
string typed in italic font means that you have to move the cursor on that
item, and the arrow -> corresponds to a click of the mouse.
In general, pressing the Enter key corresponds to pressing one of the
buttons of the mouse. In the case this is not equivalent, there will be
written is the following way:

     Eqpo lines -> enter number -> 51 <CR> maximum on window ->

Often, in a working sequence, you will be required to locate one or more
elements of the 2D scheme, in the graphics area. This choice will be
indicated into square brackets:

  Set region quantity -> [locate a region] -> total current -> 1.2 <CR> ->

Finally, in the dialogue area appears the script:

                              click to continue

This allows you to temporary stop the program, in order to give a look to
what happens. To continue, suffice to click either buttons of the mouse.

AMADEUS creates a uses a large number of types of files. For reference
of the user, the extensions of the AMADEUS files are listed in the

                        Chapter 1 - Getting Started

CIM   boundary conditions, inputs, materials
CON   the last solution
DW3   the phase component of the last solution (scalar or vector
DW4   the quadrature component of the last solution (scalar or vector
DXF   the geometry from the drafting package
FRC   the geometry to refine for accurate evaluation of the forces
HAR   integral quantities in harmonic problems
I2D   the base geometry as deduced from the .DXF file and translated
      into the AMADEUS syntax
MTA   the Dirichlet matrix of the last problem, in profile storage
MTB   the vector of the known quantity of the last problem
REB   the coordinates of the boundaries of the different regions
REF   the structure to be refined
RIN   a mass storage area for node renumbering
SEQ   the sequence of regions for the calculation of the back emf
SRR   the data needed for performing a stator-rotor problem
SRS   the results of the last stator-rotor problem
TRB   the base triangulation: list of the triangles and of the neighbour
TRI   the last triangulation


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