The history of the Internet and the World Wide Web by gabyion

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                          The Internet:
    Past, Present And Future; And How To Profit From It.




               Being text of a paper prepared for panel discussion at the
               MUTA 7th Annual Convention, July 29 – August 1, 1999 at
                   The Jack London Inn, 444 Embarcadero West
                      Jack London Square, Oakland, California,
                                United States of America




                                                By:

                                Timothy Aondona Ijir, Ph.D.
                                   IJIR International, Inc.
                                 125 NE Powderhorn Drive
                                 Corvallis, OR 97330-4043
                                     Tel.: (541) 753 4076
                                     Fax.: (541) 753 1375
                       Email: timothy_ijir@yahoo.com, timothy_ijir@hotmail.com




The Internet                                                               T.A. Ijir, Ph.D. (1999)
                                                                               Page 2 of 6


  A Brief History of the Internet
1. The Beginnings: 1950s and 60s
      USSR launches the Sputnik satellite. In response, US forms the
       ARPA within the Dept. of Defense
      ARPANET commissioned with 4 nodes: UCLA, UCSB, SRI
       Stanford & Univ. of Utah

2. Infrastructure Development and Expansion:
1970s and 80s
      International and other network connections to ARPANET
      TCP/IP protocol suite developed
      Ethernet, LANs, WANs and DNS were developed
      NSFNET becomes the backbone to replace ARPANET

3. Explosion and Commercialization: 1990s
      WWW and GUI Browsers developed – browser wars!
      Businesses and media seize the opportunities of the web
      Independent ISPs become main carriers of web traffic
      Dial-up connections bring the net into many homes
      Exponential growth in the number of hosts, WWW sites and
       Newsgroups

4. Summary & Conclusions
      The world is coming together to become a global village on the
       internet! The internet has sparked a communications revolution.
      What began as perhaps a cold war tool has become a huge
       commercial vehicle – YOU too can share in the profits!
      One of the current challenges is to improve TCP/IP to handle the
       ever growing addresses. Other applications also are being
       developed to extend the utility of the internet and make it more
       efficient.


The Internet                                         T.A. Ijir, Ph.D. (1999)
                                                                                                Page 3 of 6

       Brief Chronology of Internet Developments

Date:                       Key Developments:
          USSR launches Sputnik, the first artificial earth satellite. In response, US forms the
1957      Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense (DoD)
          to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military.
        Packet Switching networks, LANs, WANs and time-sharing computers developed.
1962-68
        Many of these with incompatible 'closed system' technologies.
        ARPANET commissioned by DoD for research into networking with 4 nodes: UCLA
1969    at Los Angeles, SRI Stanford, UCSB at Santa Barbara, and U of Utah at Salt Lake
        City -- Birth of the internet?
        1st international connections to ARPANET: University College of London (England),
1973    and Royal Radar Establishment (Norway). Bob Metcalfe outlines Ethernet to
        enhance LANs
1974    TCP first specified by Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn
        Queen Elizabeth sends out an e-mail
1976
        DoD began to experiment with TCP/IP protocol suite.
        Newsgroups, CSNET and USENET born
1979
        ARPA establishes the Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB)
        ARPA adopts TCP/IP as standard protocol suite for use on ARPANET. Internet
        Activities Board (IAB) established, replacing ICCB. ARPANET split into ARPANET
1982-83 and MILNET. CSNET/ARPANET gateway put in place. U of Wisconsin develops
        DNS. Many international networks developed including EUNET (Europe), JANET
        (UK), JUNET (Japan), etc.
        NSFNET backbone created. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet
1985-86
        Research Task Force (IRTF) established within IAB. Number of hosts ~2800
        ARPANET disbanded and replaced by the NSFNET backbone
1990
        ~300,000 Hosts; ~1,000 Newsgroups
        Commercialization of the Internet begins. Gopher released from the Univ. of
1991
        Minnesota. WWW released by CERN
1992    The Internet Society (ISOC) is chartered. The World Bank comes on-line
        InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services. Marc Andreessen
1993
        releases first web browser, Mosaic. White House comes on-line
        Businesses and media really take notice of the potentials of the internet. Shopping
1994    malls and banks arrive on the internet. Pizza Hut offers pizza ordering on its web
        page
        $50 annual fee imposed for obtaining domain names. Real Audio debuts on the net
1995    AOL, Prodigy, and Compuserve begin dial-up services. Netscape and other internet
        companies go public.
        WWW Browser wars, primarily between Netscape and Microsoft. Most internet
1996-   traffic carried by independent ISPs, including MCI, AT&T, Sprint, Uunet, PSInet etc.
Date    Over 20 million hosts, over 1 million WWW sites and over 75,000 Newsgroups
        Internet Society faces challenge to improve TCP/IP to handle billions of addresses

The Internet                                                          T.A. Ijir, Ph.D. (1999)
                                                                                                         Page 4 of 6
From the Origins to the Present
Several forces have driven the evolution of the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) over the
years. Many sources that document these developments find it convenient to begin with the 1957
launching of Sputnik, the first artificial earth satellite, by the USSR. In response, the US formed the
Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA (later renamed The Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency, DARPA) within the Department of Defense (DOD). The aim of ARPA was to establish US
lead in science and technology applicable to the military. In 1962 Paul Baran was commissioned by
the US Airforce to develop a method that would enable the US to maintain its command and control
over its missiles and bombers, even after a nuclear attack, in order to counter-attack. Baran’s final
proposal was to implement a packet switched network.

Packet switching is the breaking down of data into datagrams or packets that are labeled to include
source and destination of the information and the forwarding of these packets from network to network
until the information arrives at its final destination computer. If an initial connection is unavailable, the
packet should be able to find an alternative route to the destination. The destination also can request
that packets lost during transmission be re-sent by the source computer when the data is reassembled
at the destination. In 1968, Bolt, Beranak, and Newman (BBN) was awarded contract by ARPA to
build this packet-switching network known as the ARPANET. The physical network was constructed
in 1969, linking four nodes: University of California at Los Angeles, Stanford Research Institute,
University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah at Salt Lake City. The protocol
used to communicate between the hosts that were running on the same network was the Network
Control Network (NCP).

Several computer manufacturers that had no connection with the ARPA defense project were also
developing independent networks. By the early 1970s many departments within different
organizations and institutions began installing minicomputers with capabilities for serving many users.
In order to permit rapid transfer and sharing of information, many of these organizations and
institutions began interconnecting their different departments with Local Area Networks (LANs) and
Wide Area Networks (WANs). Wide Area Networks or long-haul networks have capabilities to
connect multiple computers across large geographic areas with the use of router computers, long
distance transmission lines and modems, unlike LANs, which operate over a limited distance. Most of
the early LAN and WAN technologies were developed by different vendors whose interface hardware
was not compatible for all types of networks. Due to these incompatibilities, it was not possible to
produce a single large network merely by interconnecting the wires from different networks. In
essence, each network formed an isolated island that enabled hosts connected on the same network to
exchange data, but no path existed between computers on different networks.

In the early 1970s ARPA began funding research to investigate ways to solve the problem of
incompatible networks. The researchers examined how to interconnect all the disconnected machines
from a large organization and a new approach to interconnect LANs and WANs. In 1973, development
began on the protocol suite later to be called the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP). The major goal of this protocol was to enable diverse computer networks to interconnect
and communicate with each other. Vinton Cerf from Stanford headed this development along with
Bob Kahn from the DARPA. The first use of the term “internet” was by Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn in
a paper on Transmission Control Protocol in 1974.

Two major networking developments occurred in 1976. One was the development of Ethernet by Bob
Metcalfe, which allowed the development of LANs at very high speeds. The second was the
implementation of SATnet, the first Atlantic packet satellite network that linked the US with Europe.

The Internet                                                                   T.A. Ijir, Ph.D. (1999)
                                                                                          Page 5 of 6
During the late 1970s and early 1980s the DOD experimented with the TCP/IP protocol and soon
decided to require it for use on ARPANET. Meanwhile several other backbone networks and
newsgroups were developed including the USENET, the decentralized newsgroup created by Steve
Bellovin, Tom Truscott, and Jim Ellis; “Because its Time Network” (BITNET) created by IBM; and
CSNET, the Computer Science network sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for
institutions without access to ARPANET. In other countries, the Joint Academic Network (JANET)
established in the UK; EUNET, the European Unix Network; and JUNET, the Japan Unix Network
were also developed. By 1984, the number of hosts was over 1000, and the military component had
been separated from the public portion of the ARPANET by the creation of the Military Network,
MILNET. Although the DOD continued to support both networks, the Internet Activities Board (IAB)
was established to promote continued use of the ARPANET. Due to the increase in participants on the
ARPANET and the MILNET, the University of Wisconsin created the Domain Name System (DNS)
in 1984, which made it easier for people to access other servers, without having to remember IP
numbers.

By the mid-1980s the NSF began sponsoring work on the next generation of the ARPANET, known as
the NSFNET which completely replaced the original ARPANET in 1990. With the growing number of
hosts on the network, the Internet Engineering task force (IETF) and the Internet Research task Force
(IRTF) were established within the IAB to help with coordination of various activities. Tim Berners-
Lee and CERN Geneva implemented the hypertext system in 1990 to provide efficient access to
information. In 1991 the NSF lifted the restrictions on the commercial use of the net. This marked the
beginning of the commercialization of the net and the World Wide Web (WWW). Pizza Hut was one
of the firsts to take advantage of the Internet by offering pizza ordering on their web page in 1994. The
University of Minnesota released Gopher in the same year. The Internet Society was chartered in 1992
to oversee the internetworking technologies and applications of the internet, while the InterNIC was
created in 1993 to provide specific Internet services: directory and database services; registration
services; and information services. The first graphic web browser, Mosaic, was also released by Marc
Andreessen in 1993.

In 1995 the registration of domain names ceased to be free with the introduction of a $50 annual fee.
Netscape and many other Internet-related companies went public for the first time. Traditional online
dial-up systems such as America Online, CompuServe and Prodigy began to provide Internet access.
Microsoft Internet Explorer joined the browser market in 1996 igniting a browser war with Netscape.
Today, independent Internet Service Providers carry most of the Internet traffic. These include MCI,
AT&T, Sprint, UUnet, PSInet, BBN planet, and more. One of the biggest challenges facing the
Internet Society at the moment is developing a new TCP/IP to be able to handle the billions of
addresses, rather than the limited system of today.

The Future of the Internet
1. It is predicted that in the future, the internet will carry over 80% of global GDP (orders, invoices,
   payments, support), because the it will carry 80% of all electromagnetic communication traffic6.
2. E-Commerce: massive growth predicted by several sources to over $1 trillion by 2000:
    USD$1.5 trillion by the year 2000 – Cisco Systems.
    USD$1.2 trillion by year 2001 – Activemedia
    USD$1 trillion by 2000, compared to USD$365 billion suggested by fed govt. reports. – MIT,
        at Publishers Conference, 4/98]
3. The rise of business-to-business e-commerce:
    70% of e-commerce by year 2000 will be business to business transactions – MIT


The Internet                                                                T.A. Ijir, Ph.D. (1999)
                                                                                          Page 6 of 6
        Business-to-business on-line trading will double every 3 to 4 months, with USD$78 billion for
         1998 [- Price Waterhouse]

4. Smartcards, smart browsers, broadband and cell technologies
    will boost potential of scaled-down e-commerce transactions, opening up new avenues for end-
     users to engage in online commerce. [– John Gage, Sun Microsystems]
    ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is already enabling the delivery of two
     simultaneous connections, in any combination of data, voice, video, and fax, over a single
     phone line. Higher capacity is expected soon.

5. New value-added products and services – “Killer Applications”
     Multimedia hosting and live broadcast streaming services; new wave of Internet applications
     Internet Paper; Internet faxing service (save up to 50% on international fax rates)
     WorldPay: multi-currency payment service for international e-commerce
     VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol.) This is not just a cheap way to run phone calls. It is
      ushering in a whole new range of voice services that add tremendous value to an enterprise.

Profit Sharing on the Internet!
Have you ever heard of Microsoft, IBM, Amway and the concept of network marketing? These giants
will launch the greatest internet alliance, called Quixtar, on 09/01/1999. You are invited to take a
preview and position yourself to share in the profits!
1. http://www.ecomrush.com/ijir.international.inc (To enter, login: ecom; password: rush)

2. http://www.quixtar.com

3.   http://www.countdown9199.com

4. http://www.NMLifestyles.com/quixtarpreview.html


                                                Bibliography
1.       How the Internet Came to Be: http://www.internetvalley.com/archives/mirrors/cerf-how-inet.txt

2.       Hobbes' Internet Timeline v3.3: http://info.isoc.org/guest/zakon/Internet/History/HIT.html

3.       History of the Internet: http://www.internetvalley.com/archives/mirrors/davemarsh-timeline-1.htm

4.       A Brief History of the Internet: http://www.isoc.org/internet-history/brief.html

5.       The History of the Internet: http://www.davesite.com/webstation/net-history.shtml

6.       William L. Schrader (Chairman, President, and CEO PSINet.) “Vision of the Future: The
         Internet as a Universal Medium.” Paper delivered at The Munich Internet Forum April 23,
         1998: http://www.psinet.com/news/presentations/munich/

7.       D.E. Comer, 1997: The Internet Book. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

8.       B. Komar, 1998: Teach Yourself TCP/IP Network Administration in 21 Days. Sams Publishing

The Internet                                                                         T.A. Ijir, Ph.D. (1999)

								
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