Composition 04_2007 by lfl93601


									                                                                                         IFR Robotics Newsletter
                                                                                                      4th- quarter 2007

                                              IFR Robotics Newsletter

In this issue:                                               President’s Report

                            Dear members, dear readers
IFR Statistical De-    2
                            “Do you think a robot can do this?” Joe Engelberger’s question
                            is still just as relevant today as it was when the founder of in-
Industrial Robotics/   3
New Products                dustrial robotics and father of the modern robotics industry first
                            posed it. One person who, for decades, tirelessly pursued this
Service Robotics       11   line of questioning and turned visions into reality is Donald A.
IFR/R&D Institutes          Vincent, better known in the robotics industry as Don Vincent.
                            He was one of the founders of the Robotics Industries Associa-
IFR Industry Asso-     14   tion (RIA) 33 years ago. Since 1983, Don himself has been at
ciation                     the helm of the RIA as its Executive Vice President; over a pe-
                            riod spanning more than two decades he has guided the asso-
IFR News               17   ciation from its modest beginnings to become the leading asso-                  Stefan Mueller
                            ciation for the US robotics industry, with 250 member compa-                    IFR President
                            nies. Don is one of those who will always be remembered in the
                            robotics industry – for their achievements and decades of dedicated work, for their personal
                            commitment and visionary thinking.
                                       I first met Don at the ISR in Milan in 1980. We got on well together straight away
                            and I knew immediately that this man was the right partner for the future. Since 1990, we
                            have worked together closely to make the IFR a successful association for the robotics in-
                            dustry. Goals were redefined, the association’s bylaws revised, and endeavors to have the
                            statistical database of the robotics industry relocated from the UN in Geneva to the IFR Sta-
                            tistical Department in Frankfurt finally bore fruit. Looking back on all these years of coopera-
                            tion, I can state without hesitation: Don has always been a reliable partner of the IFR, and
                            we owe him a great debt of gratitude.
                                       At the same time, under Don’s leadership, the RIA grew to become the leading US
                            institution for statistical data on the robotics industry. Together with him, the RIA developed
                            basic safety standards for robotics and launched Robotics Online, the world’s leading web-
                            site for robot technology. Through his intelligent, and always open and friendly style of net-
                            working with many leading industrial companies, Don has succeeded in making the robotics
                            industry one of the key technologies of the 21st century. In recognition of these outstanding
                            accomplishments, he received the Engelberger Robotics Award in 2002, the robotics indus-
                            try’s highest honor.
                                       In June of this year, Don transferred his post as Executive Vice President of the
                            RIA to his successor Jeffrey A. Burnstein. This took place during the International Robots &
                            Vision Show – the show founded by the RIA under his leadership – which was held at the
                            Donald E. Stephens Convention Center in Rosemont / Illinois, concurrently with the world’s
                            leading robotics conference ISR. The IFR very much hopes that, as an outstanding repre-
                            sentative and ambassador of the international robotics industry, Don will remain available
                            for further tasks in the future. At the same time, we wish Jeffrey every success in his future

                            Stefan Mueller
                            IFR president
                                                                                                          2007– 4th quarter
                                                                                    IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007
Page 2


                                                             • Downloadable PDF-Version of Service Roboter
                                                                 Chapter at the price of 100 Euro
                                                             • Full-Access Version at the price of 1000 Euro
                                                                    - Data query of installations and operational stock
                                                                    1993 - 2006
                                                                    - by countries
                                                                    - by applications
                                                                    - by industries
                                                                    - transfer of data into Excel
                                                                    - text retrieval by search keys
                                                                    - table retrieval by search keys and Excel-download
                                                                    - download of case studies on profitability of robot
                                                            If a pdf version of all chapters or a full access version
                                                            has been ordered, an order of a print version can be
                                                            placed additionally:
                                                            •      Printed version at the price of 200 Euro + ship-
                                                                   ping costs (only additionally to the pdf-version of
                                                                   all chapters or the full-access-version)
                                                            International press conference on 23 October 2007,
                                                            Westin Grand Hotel in Frankfurt
World Robotics 2007 will be published on 23 Octo-
                                                            The IFR President, Stefan Müller, KUKA Roboter, the
ber 2007                                                    Chairman of the Industrial Robot Suppliers Group,
In 2006, robot sales decreased worldwide by 11%. The        Åke Lindqvist, ABB Robotics US, and a representative
supply was down by 19% in the Americas as well as in        from JARA or METI will participate.
Asia, while Europe increased by 11%. Sales to the           The documents of the press conference can be
automotive industry and the electrical/electronics indus-   downloaded on 23 October 2007 at http://
try were down while all other industries, especially the
chemical industry, the metal products industry and the      Quarterly Statistics
food industry increased remarkably. More details will be
published in World Robotics 2007.                           The results of the second quarter and the 1st half of
Final data have been available for participating            2007 were sent to the participating companies. Last
companies since August 2007                                 year a survey for the first half of 2006 was made.
                                                            Therefore the data of the first half 2007 could be com-
By the end of August, the participating companies got       pared with the previous year. Robot sales increased by
access to the detailed database by types and countries      14% in the first half of 2007. Assembly, cleanroom and
and applications/industries. This is an advanced per-       processing surged between 18% and 21%. Welding
formance for reporting companies, which had ordered         was 13% higher than in the first half 2006, handling 7%
the full access version of World Robotics 2006 last year    and dispensing 2%. So in 2007 a substantial increase
and for reporting companies which had already sent an
                                                            of robot supplies can be expected ■
advanced order for World Robotics 2007. The data-
bases by types are available for reporting companies,
only. Other clients of World Robotics only have access
on the data by countries and applications/industries, not
specified by types.
Online orders and payment by credit cards!
World Robotics 2007 can be ordered online from 23
October 2007. The payment is by credit card. This will
make it possible to provide the access promptly.
                                                                               Contact:Gudrun Litzenberger
World Robotics can be ordered as:                                              IFR Statistical Department
 • Downloadable PDF-Version of all Chapters at the                   
     price of 400 Euro
                                                                                    IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007
Page 3



FANUC Robotics’ New LR Mate 200iC

         The six-axis, LR Mate 200iC robot is signifi-
cantly lighter and more compact than its predecessor,
but rates ‘best in class’ for its wrist load capacity, re-
peatability, work envelope, and speed.
         The intelligent LR Mate 200iC is designed to
meet the needs of a variety of industries including
metals, plastics, packaged and consumer goods,
food, pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Its de-
sign enhancements and flexibility to quickly adapt to
small lot sizes, new styles and other modifications
provides manufacturers an affordable solution for
small part, flexible production
         Ideal for high-speed part handling, machine
tending, assembly and material removal, the new slim
and lightweight robot can be mounted in a variety of
positions including floor, tabletop, inside machines,
angle and invert, which maximizes flexibility for small
and narrow workspaces.

New Intelligent LR Mate 200iC

         FANUC Robotics is promoting the benefits of
the LR Mate 200iC with a new slogan, ‘Don’t Think
Small, Think LEAN’. “We are excited to demonstrate
the light, efficient, accurate and nimble characteristics
of this new robot,” said Jhaveri.                                                        LR Mate 200iC
         At the show, the LR Mate 200iC will pick and
sort two different size and type bolts delivered by an
                                                                   • Optional IP67 rating for the entire robot al-
intelligent parts feeder using 2D iRVision. After pick-
                                                                    lows it to withstand harsh environments
ing bolts from the parts feeder, the robot will place
them in a buffer station. When the buffer station is
full with both size bolts, a pneumatic swivel unit will
                                                                       The FANUC iRVision system is a ready-to-
rotate the buffer and randomly put the bolts back into
                                                             use robotic vision package, requiring only a camera
the parts feeder.
                                                             and cable – no additional processing hardware. It
         “Compared to traditional vibratory bowl feed-
                                                             has a 2D robot guidance tool to accomplish part loca-
ers, the intelligent parts feeder easily handles multiple
                                                             tion, error proofing, and other operations that nor-
part styles, increasing uptime and reliability for a vari-
                                                             mally require special sensors or custom fixtures.
ety of assembly and material handling systems,” said
                                                                       “Relentless global competition has prompted
                                                             an increasing number of manufacturers to increase
                                                             their efficiency and reduce costs by incorporating in-
The LR Mate 200iC robot offers a wide range of
                                                             dustrial robots in their operations. The superior bene-
benefits, including:
                                                             fits of the FANUC product line coupled with our engi-
                                                             neering expertise and service continues to help our
         • High wrist load capacity                          customers achieve their production goals and remain
         • Higher rigidity for smooth motion                 competitive,” said Jhaveri ■
         • Slim arm to allow operation in narrow spaces
         • Enhanced motion performance for ‘best in          Cathy Powell
           class’ speed                                      Marketing Communications
         • ‘Best in class’ work envelope                     FANUC Robotics America, Inc.
                                                             Phone: (248) 377-7570
         • Supports a variety of intelligent functions in-
           cluding an internal programmable controller
           (PMC), Ethernet, iRVision (built-in), and force   For more information visit :
                                                                                          IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007
Page 4


Movement under control

        Motion control is the key to a robot’s per-
formance when it comes to path accuracy, speed,
cycle time, programmability, multimove and syn-
chronization with external devices. By making use
of these important features, users can improve
quality, productivity and reliability.

ABB has long understood the importance of motion
control, and in 1994 it launched the first generation of
TrueMove and QuickMove. TrueMove ensures that the
motion path of the robot is the same as the programmed
path – regardless of the robot speed and the geometry
of the path. QuickMove is a unique self-optimizing mo-
tion control feature that keeps cycle times at a minimum            to be fine-tuned at the production start in order to get
by ensuring maximum speed and acceleration at every                 the optimum quality process.
moment. In essence, it provides automatic cycle time                         The second generation of TrueMove and
optimization.                                                       QuickMove ensures even higher performance for ABB
         By letting the system set all the motion control           robots by introducing more accurate dynamic models
parameters automatically, operators can make sure                   and new methods for the optimization of the path speed
that the stress levels on mechanical components are in              and acceleration.
total control, thus assuring a longer life for the robot.
Even if the robot is programmed to work at maximum                  FACTS
speed there is no risk of problems. Manufacturers
need not purchase a bigger robot and run it at less                 TrueMove
than maximum speed to make sure that the robot life                 • Enhanced motion path by up to 50 percent
will be held. Not only do TrueMove and QuickMove                    • “What you program is what you get”
give consistently accurate path following, these con-
cepts also make it unnecessary for “path tuning” when               QuickMove
speed parameters are adjusted on-line. This is particu-             • Cycle time reduced by 20 percent
larly valuable in cutting and dispensing applications,              • Maximum acceleration and speed over the entire
for example, when speeds and orientations often have                work cycle


Healthy infection of ideas

       With pressure to save on costs and become more efficient, the pharmaceutical industry is dosing up
on ideas from the food industry, with help from Italian automation specialist IMA and ABB robots.

         IMA Industria Macchine Automatiche has over 40 years experience producing automated machines for the
pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries, with a wide range of customers all over the world.
         Recently, the company devised a special version of the Flexa cartoning machine that integrates ABB Robotics’
IRB 340 FlexPicker delta robot. Specially designed for a large US pharmaceutical company, the solution automates the
pick-and-place of flow packed teat pipette droppers from a conveyor belt (where they arrive scrambled), and the in-
sertion of the droppers in a carton along with a bottle containing penicillin. And all of this is done at amazingly high rates.
         In no small part, the solution is a result of the audacity of IMA in revising the feed concept that had already
been fully approved by the customer - while the project was actually being developed! Instead, IMA proposed a more
effective solution that transferred methods and experience from the food segment and cleverly adapted them to the
specific demands of pharmaceutical production.
         The new version of the Flexa cartoning machine was made to meet the demands of its American user, who
needed to replace an old penicillin bottle packaging system where the dropper handling was mostly done by hand. The
challenge, said IMA, consisted not so much in processing and placing the bottles in cartons, which is not an unusual
demand, but rather in handling the flow packed dropper, in particular at a rate of 150 items per minute. Moreover, the
behavior of the flow packs is extremely variable, with some packs adhering perfectly to the product while others swell
                                                                                   IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007
Page 5


up, which makes them difficult to handle and position
correctly for feeding into the cartoning machine.
         Once the positions and the orientation of the
droppers have been calculated, the PickMaster soft-
ware transfers their co-ordinates via Ethernet to each
of the two robots, while phasing both their workloads.
The robots are capable of working at rates that are
much higher than those demanded by the customer.
The system works in several stages that entail the
temporary storage of the flow packs in mini-pallets,
their subsequent orientation and, only after that, inser-
tion into the cartoning machine.
         To solve the problem, IMA used two ABB Ro-
botics’ IRB 340 FlexPicker parallel robots. The robots
pick up the droppers from a belt on which they arrive
scrambled. There the droppers are viewed and identi-
fied with the PickMaster, ABB Robotic’s guidance
control system that includes vision based on Cognex
hardware, which is integrated into the FlexPicker.
         The solution devised in co-operation with ABB
Robotics offers a series of advantages. For one, the
overall layout of the machine takes up less space.
Secondly, a risk analysis has shown that there are a
limited number of critical points. Lastly, a robotized
system, in the mid- to long-term, guarantees lower
maintenance costs and a far less complex tooling up
period compared to mechanical solutions.
         However, what really makes the difference
above all is the flexibility. By merely replacing the end-
of-arm-tooling (EOAT) on the robots, they can handle
dissimilar products - anything from syringes to spoons
instead of droppers.
         While the end customer was initially con-           strated in the food and many industrial sectors already
cerned about the programming of the robot, the ap-
prehension was unsubstantiated, since IMA and ABB            Side bar: Why automate pharmaceutical packag-
Robotics provide all the assistance needed, before,          ing?
during and after installation.                               As pharmaceutical companies increasingly follow the
         IMA has stated the solution represents an           food and other industries in automating their packaging
“opening up, a dialogue between this segment and             processes, the solution from IMA using ABB Robotics
others, foods first and foremost, in a continuous ex-        IRB 340 FlexPicker robots is a good example of the
change of experiences and technologies, where eve-           advantages of using robots:
ryone has a lot to gain. To confirm a certain synergy
between the two areas that, up to even just a few years       •The overall layout of the machine takes up less
ago seemed far apart. More and more project engi-             space
neers today committed to pharmaceutical companies
have transferred over from the food sector, or at any         • Limited number of critical points
rate come from the field of consumer products.”               • Lower maintenance costs and a far less complex
         This is due, above all, to the growing attention     tooling up period compared to mechanical solutions
reserved to costs and times, IMA states; two competi-
tive variables that the pharmaceutical industry also
pays increasingly close attention to. The radical
changes that are affecting the entire pharmaceutical
market force the producers – and thus their suppliers –      FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT:
 to pay maximum attention to the overall efficiency of
                                                             Margareta Zeicu, Marketing Manager Consumer Industries
their lines; and in this, the food segment has a lot to      ABB Automation Technologies AB, SE-721 68 Vasteras, Sweden
teach.                                                       Telephone: +46 (0) 21 344012
         If in the past, packaging lines were only de-       e-mail:
vised for a single product and format, now they have to      For more information visit:
be flexible, efficient and adaptable to different products
and formats. With these kind of complex demands,
robots can give the best answers as has been demons
                                                                                       IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007
Page 6


KUKA robots step up the pace

The KR 16 KSS Speed variant from KUKA Roboter is making its
debut At “K 2007” in Düsseldorf.

         As with all KUKA shelf-mounted robots, it combines in-
creased depth of the work envelope in a downward direction with a
reduced intrinsic size. However, the KR 16 KSS is 20 percent faster.
This is a particular advantage for the loading and unloading of
smaller injection molding machines with fast cycles. This speed mer-
chant is KUKA Roboter’s answer to demands from the industry for
compact, flexible and above all faster automation solutions. These
are all attributes of the KR 16 KSS – which thus relegates all con-
ventional solutions for loading and unloading injection-molded parts
to the spectator stands.
         Another speed merchant is the KR 5 scara. This member of
the Small Robots family from KUKA Roboter is demonstrating high-
speed applications to visitors as part of a study.
I        t is not only the KUKA robots that are fast, however. The
technological pioneer has also spared a thought for the operator.
Operation of the KUKA Smart GUI user interface is child’s play. It                          RP-KRKSS
allows simple, user-friendly programming and control of handling,
pick-and-place, manipulating and finishing tasks for robots. Visitors to the fair have the opportunity to try this out for
         Having thus gained momentum, it is worth visiting the numerous KUKA system partners at the fair to find out
about other pioneering applications for KUKA robots in the plastics industry ■


A KUKA robot drill and installs fasteners in aircraft components at Stork Fokker

        Most people who have sat in an airplane have found themselves wondering just how safe it really is
just how precisely and carefully the individual components have to be joined together for it to be able to
carry passengers around the world for years on end. This calls for precision work with exact attention to
detail and utmost quality. Safety and quality are the top priority for Stork Fokker, supplier to the aircraft in-
dustry. The company offers its customers high-precision components that have been drilled and fastened
by a KUKA robot.

         Until 1996, Fokker was the only Dutch manufacturer of commercial, civilian airplanes. In 1996, the company
was taken over by Stork. As part of Stork Aerospace , Stork Fokker AESP B.V. is now a leading supplier of struc-
tures and systems torenowned aircraft manufacturers. Stork has a worldwide workforce of approximately 12,000. Of
these, 3,271 work in the field of aviation, i.e. at StorkAerospace The Papendrecht plant in the Netherlands has a
workforce of 850.
         When Leo Muys, Senior Development Engineer in the research and development department at Stork Fok-
ker, talks about “his” robotic cell, his enthusiasm is apparent. He has kept this enthusiasm alive for a long time: his
original plans to use a robot for certain manufacturing tasks go back more than ten years. Back then, Fokker was still
building aircraft of its own.. Once Stork Fokker had developed into a major supplier to the aircraft industry, the draft
plans for a robotic solution were revived. The first robot was delivered in 1997.
         The second – a KUKA KR 150, integrated into a cell by KUKA system partner Hydro-Control Steuerung-
stechnik GmbH – followed in 2003 as part of a funded project.

Riveting instead of welding
         The task of the KUKA robot is to drill and then install fasteners in carbon-fiber or aluminum aircraft compo-
nents. Typically the components are bonded structures with spars and ribs inside. The adhesive acts merely as an
assembly aid and for strength reasons additionally some blind fasteners are installed. What to an outsider looks sim-
ple is actually a somewhat complicated procedure. For example, the fasteners must be fitted at a precise angle. Fur-
                                                                                   IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007
Page 7

KUKA: IFR — Partner

thermore, if the material to be processed is aluminum,
small chips are produced during drilling and these can
fall inside the component. “Getting them back out
again is no simple matter,” explains Leo Muys. At the
end of the day, they have to be shaken back out and
that is a waste of time.
         Use of the KUKA robot has eliminated this
problem. Firstly, the holes are drilled in such a way
that the chips falls outwards. In other words, a dif-
ferent drilling geometry is applied, one that cannot
be used manually with such high precision. The
rpm and drilling speed can also be precisely set
according to the specific material. Furthermore,
any waste material that does threaten to fall inside
the component is sucked out by vacuum.
It all comes down to quality                               Flexible application

         “Speed is not a priority in our production sys-           Tasks for which Stork Fokker uses the
tem,” says Leo Muys. Production at Stork Fokker is         KUKA robot include the production of components
carried out in “low-volume” programs. “. The im-           for the NH 90 helicopter, the Dassault Falcon 7X
portant thing is high quality and safety,” adds the        business jet and the Gulfstream G550. Some of
engineer. Quality is the number one priority in air-       these components differ vastly from one another in
craft production, which is why we continually per-         terms of shape and materials used. This was an-
form inspections. Test drilling is carried out be-         other factor in favor of the KUKA robot at Stork Fok-
fore an aircraft component is drilled; this is then        ker, since the robotic cell can be used flexibly at
repeated after the component has been finished.            any time. It is currently used to manufacture about
The test following the drilling process is designed        eight different parts.
to provide information about the quality of the            Convinced by KUKA Roboter
component.                                                          He would be very keen to acquire another KUKA
         A fault in the component itself would have        robot, as the KR 150 is currently used in single-shift op-
serious financial repercussions that must be               eration, but is soon to enter two-shift or even three-shift
avoided. Although the issue of speed is not a top          operation. And although, or rather because, it works so
priority at Stork Fokker, Leo Muys is nonetheless          well, he would be very happy to have a second robot in
enthusiastic about the efficiency of the robot’s           order to minimize the risk of possible failures. “It would
work. “We used to need two or three minutes per            be another KUKA robot,” specifies Leo Muys. “We are
rivet on average. Now, the robot can apply be-             very satisfied with the performance of the robot.” The
                                                           service and training options, both from KUKA Roboter
tween two and five rivets per minute,” he says,
                                                           and Hydro-Control Steuerungstechnik GmbH, are also
comparing the work of the KUKA robot with that             important factors. “Apart from me, we already have four
of the human worker.                                       other people who can operate the robot. One of them
                                                           has meanwhile become a veritable KUKA expert.” ■
                                                                        For more information;

Announcement from KUKA

KUKA Roboter GmbH founded a subsidiary in Tokyo, Ja-

KUKA Roboter Gmbh founded a subsidiary in Tokyo, Japan, named “KUKA
Robotics Japan.

Its Director is Terutsugu Ando.

                                                                                        Mr. Terutsugu ANDO ,
                                                                                  Director of KUKA Robotics Japan
                                                                                                          IFR Robotics Newsletter    4th quarter 2007
Page 8


New Kawasaki Robot Series for all spray painting jobs.

          Kawasaki Robotics has introduced the new 'K Series' of ex-
plosion-proof painting robots with a line-up of eight models to cover
work from small to large.
          Four basic types of robot are available from the KF121 for small
work to the KE610 for the automotive inner and outer chassis painting. A
variety of wrists with up to 6 differing axes movement of roll or bend offer
further flexibility of use. A choice of robot for all applications and installa-
          All robot arms are fitted with built-in hoses as standard. Internally
fitting the hoses minimises the opportunity of mist and spray sticking to
piping and from dust being attracted to the workpiece. These internal
hoses are either 40 mm or 70 mm in diameter.
          Kawasaki Robotics are not new to painting as they have gath-
ered 30 years of experience and use this knowledge to put together a
high performance robot that will match every need.
          So whether it's a mobile phone case or an executive car, Kawa-
saki can supply the right painting robot package to do the job efficiently
and meeting the best product finish quality ■

                               For more information:
                                                                                                                 KAWASAKI K series


Precise Automation Introduces New, Lower Cost Vision
Guided Motion Controller Los Altos

Precise Automation has introduced the Guidance 2400 series, an
extremely compact, low-cost, vision guided line of motion control-
        The Guidance 2400 is the latest in a series of motion controllers
from Precise Automation based on a distributed network architecture that                    Guidance 2004
allows the controller to be located at the point of use. It is a lower cost,
lower voltage (24-90 VDC) version of Precise Automation’s line of Guidance 3400 controllers. The Guidance 2400
contains four motor drivers, eight encoder input channels, a 700 MIPS processor, digital and analog inputs and out-
puts, Ethernet, and RS-232 interfaces. It can produce up to 2,000 watts of motor power in an extremely small pack-
age 225 mm long by 138 mm wide by 61 mm high. It is small enough to be placed inside machines, eliminating the
need for a separate control cabinet.
        The User Interface is based on a web server that resides in the Guidance 2400, allowing the controller to be
accessed from anywhere in the world for easy development, operation, and maintenance. The software includes a
complete set of motion commands, machine kinematics, a continuous path motion planner and trajectory generator,
a powerful language with motion commands added to the Basic syntax, Active X and .Net links to Microsoft software,
and an optional machine vision package that can execute in a networked PC. The vision software contains measure-
ment tools and a patented object locator that can locate multiple instances of parts in any orientation, even with clut-
tered backgrounds.
        Brian Carlisle, President of Precise Automation, stated, “The Guidance 2400 offers an even lower cost alter-
native to our already low cost, high performance controller line. Precise Automation’s Guidance controllers offer a
combination of low cost, high performance and functionality, and small size not found in other alternatives.” ■

Precise Automation is a leading innovator in low cost, high performance, table-top vision-guided robots and robotic motion controllers. The versa-
tile Cartesian robots feature ultra-smooth, precise motion and are available with three or four axes in a variety of axis lengths. The robots come
fully assembled and are extremely easy to set up. They come out of the box and into your application. The vision-guided motion controllers inte-
grate motor drives, powerful, user-friendly software and vision and network capabilities in a small foot print. These controllers can drive and con-
trol small robots as well as room size gantries. Our flexible products serve a wide variety of industries including: electronics, semiconductor, life
science, medical products and mass storage.
For more information
                                                                            IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007
Page 9



          Comau Robotics supply a complete series of high performance
industrial robot from 6 to 800 kg of payload, designed with reduced foot-
print, large work envelope, high precision of movement and positioning,
greater reliability and low maintenance costs.

New Smart NJ models

        The SMART NJ family has been conceived to satisfy the aim of
Comau Robotics to complete the range, launched in 2004, with robots
designed for general propose applications, having an high payload and an
extensive working area.

        With their exceptional range of action and high acceleration per-
formance, the Comau new SMART NJ robots, designed for loading and
unloading operations, handling, welding machining and foundry are able
to handle both small items and components of large dimensions.

        The new generation of SMART robots with an innovative paral-
lelogram structure, boasts a payload range from 110 to 500 Kg and a
maximum horizontal reach from 2.6 to 3.0 meters. Another distinctive
strength point is highly compact design: an innovative parallelogram
structure, free of any counter-weight, with a consequent reduction of the
base print.

The last born Smart NJ 130 – 2.6

 The new Comau Smart NJ 130 – 2.6 shown in World-Wide preview during
                                                                                        Smart NJ— 110 - 130
the 11th International Foundry Trade Fair GIFA 2007 in Düsseldorf from
12 to 16 June 2007.

Some of the main characteristics of this model are:

    •      Innovative parallelogram geometry
    •      High stiffness
    •      Space saving design
    •      Installation position Floor / Ceiling
    •      Foundry version available
    •      Long version available Smart NJ 110 – 3.0

The SMART NJ impeccable speed performances and accuracy are
maximised by the SMART software with a user-friendly interfacing for the
programming and management of robotised line / cell, as well as man-
agement of motion to cut-down the cycle time, consequently increasing
the production throughput.

Maximum precision and accuracy in the movement control of this robot
family is guaranteed, as in the entire new range offered by Comau Ro-
botics, by the C4G control unit, which is 50 times more powerful than the
previous C3G; it has 600V motors, controlled by digital drives with inte-
grated 21 bit encoder position transducer■

For more information:
                                                                                        IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007
Page 10

NETHERLANDS: Valk Welding — IFR Partner

Embedded Arc Welding (article)

The perfect welding robot

         The automation of the welding process with a welding robot found its way in years ago (late 70s), both in small
and large enterprises. Also, in the area of flexible automation, great progress has been made during the last ten years
because of the offline programming technology. The most recent developments have therefore mainly been focussed
on the issue of the ‘The perfect welding robot’. One of the most important points of interest was the conclusion that
different power sources are needed for either robot welding and manual welding. Besides the search for a ‘robot
welding power source’ the relation between the power source and the robot has also increased in significance. The
market and applications are making higher demands for the performance of the power source, because robots are able
to execute their operations faster and more accurately. In addition to this, new materials have to be welded in the
constant changing and improving automotive industry. Together with e.g. the usual product deviations, it is necessary
to have a faster reaction time between the power source and the robot as well as a larger ‘process window’.
         The connection between welding robot and welding robot power source recently found itself in the third
phase. The first phase is the classic interface with partly digital I/O communication and partly analogue communica-
tion. This is still the most familiar interface on the market. The interface that has developed strongly during the last
years is the ‘Digital Interface’, where the disadvantages of the analogue interface declined. To meet with the above-
mentioned conditions, the full integration between the robot and the welding power source is an absolute necessity.
This technique is called the ‘Fusion Technology’, which means that the robot controller also directly verifies the char-
acteristics of the welding arc. Concretely, this means that the 64-bit processor of the robot steering also takes over
full control of the digital welding power source. The advantages of the Fusion Technology are:
     •      Very accurate parameter verification, connected with the movement of the welding robot
     •      Many possibilities to develop advanced systems, where the different parameters of the welding process can
            be spread through a company network and every weld can also be registered to be traced at a later stage.
     •      Improvement of techniques, like e.g. ARC sensor ‘light arc steered welding seam tracking’.

        Compared with the classic interfaces, the ‘Fusion Technology’ provides a communication speed that is 250
times higher and which makes faster interventions on the information from the welding arc possible. The 64-bits
processor control and the ‘Fusion Technology’ make it
possible that the following tools are industrially avail-
able today:
    •     In the new welding processes like e.g. Hy-
          per Dip Pulse and SP-MAG the advantages
          of short arc welding and pulse welding are
          combined which eliminates the disadvan-
          tages of each process.
    •     Faster robot arms with a speed up to 180m
                                                                                      Self Arc sensing 1
          per minute instead of 120m per minute
    •     Complete electronic control over the weld-
          ing arc, where in the large process window
          the various extremes can be applied (from
          non-pulse to pulse, from low power to high
          power, …) without interruption.
    •     Auto-extension control: with a constant
          stick-out, the robot steering will correct the                              Self Arc sensing 2
          robot program based on information from
          the welding arc and thus correct the torch position in the length direction if necessary. This is mostly used
          with the welding of thin plate material, where constant searing has to be guaranteed without melting
          (mostly caused by changeable stick-out lengths).
    •     Lift-start and lift-end functions: for a stable start of the welding arc at low amperages and also to prevent
          spatter, the robot is able to lift the torch back up at the first contact of the welding wire and the base mate-
          rial in order to create a steady welding arc. The same applies to the end of a welding seam to sharply burn
          off the end of the welding wire.
    •     Sensitive Collision Detection and Flexible Control: at a collision, feedback about the forces of a robot arm
          will immediately be sent to the processor and the robot arm itself will become flexible in order to prevent
          damage to a welding torch, robot arm, welding jig, etc.
    •     Servo controlled wire feeder: certainly at the limits of the process window, a stable supply of welding wire
          is necessary. This can be guaranteed with a servo controlled driving motor, so that e.g. the resistance in

                                                                                                    Continues page 11
Page 11                                                                                    IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007
           the cable assembly has no influence over the wire speed anymore. In
           addition to this, the same wire feed motor can be used for MIG as well as TIG applications, eliminating
           change of wire feeders.
    •      Welding Quality Management Function: thanks to the extremely high communication an ‘Embedded ARC
           Monitor’ system is standardly present in the robot and can be further extended to a ‘Weld Data Manage-
           ment Log Function’, ‘Weld Data Recording Function’ and a ‘Weld Data Management Ethernet Function’.

Embedded ARC Monitoring

         Since everything is verified by one and the same 64-bits CPU, it is possible to monitor the power source digi-
tally as well as by software and with the same high speed give feedback about the information from the welding arc.
         In this way, it is possible to check/register possible deviations in the welding arc ‘real time’ and also to under-
take the necessary actions if desired or necessary.
         As a base function, we have the ‘Weld Monitor Function’, with which it is possible to check if the feedback is
within the preset boundaries. When e.g. base material is welded, this will have its effect on the welding power and is
thus detectable. If by contamination of the base material a unstable welding arc develops, this will also have its effect
and this is also detectable. One can then determine all deviations with the programmed welding parameters real time
and therefore also intercept quality problems. The ‘severity’ with which this check is performed, is fully programmable
and is naturally strongly dependable on the area in which one welds. The parameters which are most important are:
     •      welding power
     •      welding pressure
     •      number of short circuits per second
     •      interruption time of the welding arc
     •      used energy of the driving motor

         If one of those limits will be exceeded, the system can automatically determine if the product should be
checked/repaired separately and if extra control is necessary.
         With a ‘Weld Data Log Function’ it is possible to show the average value of the welding parameters and to
register those in a log file. This way, you can very analytically search for the weaker links in a welding cycle and also
check the progress of your production and improve there where necessary.
         Firstly, we mainly see applications at applications where there were very high demands on a product and
where one would like to tackle the points that are most important. E.g. the determining of a ‘process’, we can think of
the wear and tear of the cable assembly, which can be detected due to the increasing power of the wire feeder. Also it
is easy to determine that programs in a three shift system are adjusted without permission. Thanks to the ‘Weld Data
Log Function’ an objective follow-up of your production is possible. One can also use a ‘Weld Data Recording Function’.
This means that the whole welding seam over its whole length is registered to a very high sample frequency. Important
to know is that these data can be specifically awarded to a certain weld and if the product itself is provided with a unique
ID (e.g. a barcode), one can register the effective welding parameters of every welding seam on every welding product.
These data can be perfectly integrated in a quality system and is very helpful in case of the need/necessity of quality
accountability. With the production of critical or safety articles, this is a very useful tool. These data can be exported
through e.g. a CSV-file, which is directly compatible with Microsoft Excel and can thus be copied to a memory card (e.g.
a SD card) in the robot controller or through the network interface to the company server.
         If your production has several robot systems, these can be managed synoptically through the ‘Weld Data
Management Software’ and also an automatic back-up can be made
so that you will never be confronted with data loss■

Peter Pittomvils, Valkwelding ’s European Welding Engineer

For more information:                                 Arc control automotive for exhaust system
                                                                                          IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007
Page 12



                                     Optimal design method for meso-robots

                                Christine Rotinat, Medhi Boukallel, Rodolphe Gelin
                 CEA LIST, Laboratoire de Robotique et Mésorobotique, 18 route du Panorama, BP6,
                                       Fontenay aux Roses, F-92265 France

          Based on its past experience in teleoperation (remote handling ?) for nuclear applications, CEA LIST is now
investigating new developments in the medical application field, such as telesurgery and mini-invasive surgery. Indeed,
it appears that tools used for this kind of surgery are quite simple while interventions require high dexterity. A more
global study showed that design of complex robotic (pour introduire la notion d’articulation) devices at intermediary
(meso) scale (bigger than millimetre but smaller than few centimetres) raises new problematic. These devices have to
produce simultaneously accurate motion and relatively high forces (compared to MEMS), with a high overall functional
          But classical articulated designs with joints, electric actuators and sensors are not suitable at such a scale,
because there miniaturization is not always possible (or would require very delicate manufacturing process), and they
would present at this scale a poor efficiency, a poor accuracy and a noisy functioning. That is the reason why dedicated
mechanisms are needed. Thus, compliant mechanisms offer the following advantages : no friction, no noise, no
backlash.. Besides the robustness, one other benefit of these dedicated mechanisms is the fact that simplified manu-
facturing can be considered as well as the ability to accommodate unconventional actuation schemes.
          Among the variety of mechatronic devices developed by CEA LIST, promising ones have been obtained using
a new method for the optimal design of micro-robotic compliant mechanisms. This method , called FlexIn, has been
performed with the collaboration of the Institut des Systèmes Intelligents et Robotiques (UPMC/CNRS) and the La-
boratoire d’Automatique de Besançon (ENSMM/UFC/CNRS). It uses genetic algorithms to optimize the virtual as-
sembly of elementary flexible building blocks (structure, actuator, sensor), so constituting a device design, in order to
reach a set of desired performances (for example, desired output motion and output force for a given input motion). To
illustrate, a passive compliant microgripper (actuated by an electromagnetic actuator)with enhanced gripping features
has been realized based on the design produced by the method (cf. figure 1). Another example is a complete mono-
lithic gripper, were the smart material (PZT) fulfils the three functions : structure, actuator, sensor (cf. figure 2). In one
word, FlexIn allows the synthesis of microrobotic devices design(topological optimisation with actuators and sensors
positioning), with optimal mechanical and control based performances. Today FlexIn is available for planar structures
only, but future application guided developments might lead to its extension to 3D■

                                                                        Flexible mecha-

                                                     Force sensor

  Figure 1 : Microgripper                                                   Figure 2 : Monolithic piezoélec-
     based on flexural                                                       trique Microgripper based on
  monolithic mechanism                                                      flexural monolithic mechanism
                                                                                  flexible mechanism

                                                                                         For more information:
Page 13                                                                                       IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007


Canadian R&D Team Partners with ABB and Toyota to tackle
Robotic Bin-picking challenge


         Braintech Canada Inc leads a team of industry and academic researchers to
tackle the problem of recognizing, locating, and picking automobile parts in a random
pile in a storage bin. The outcome will be a solution to a long unsolved problem for
robotic manufacturing where robots cannot yet distinguish parts randomly stored in a
parts bin necessitating expensive structured industrial bin storage. While the initial
project is directly sponsored by organizations in the automotive industry, the intelligent
system will have applicability in many other manufacturing sectors.

         A Robotic Vision Part Location Software package will be created which enables a robot mounted camera
system to locate and grasp objects from within a storage bin, within a time-frame relevant to manufacturing processes.
It will be comprised of several components, including feature extraction and tracking, robotic path planning under
uncertainty, smooth robot trajectory generation for feature tracking, and model-based verification of part location. In
addition, a physical demonstration system will be provided that is capable of real-time communication between the
software package and the robot-camera system. The expected delivery of this project is June 2009.
Another Precarn-Model Project

        This project is partly funded by Precarn Incorporated, a not-for-profit company based out of Ottawa, Canada
under its highly successful collaborative R&D model. This model requires that a company proposing a project for
Precarn funding must collaborate with at least one academic research partner and one end user partner. With the best
researchers working on difficult problems and end users providing real world validation, Precarn projects have a high
degree of commercial success. There are four partners in this project:

LEAD: Braintech Canada Inc., North Vancouver, BC
INDUSTRY PARTNER: ABB Inc., Auburn Hills, Michigan
ACADEMIC PARTNER: University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC
END-USER: Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Buffalo, West Virginia

                         For further information contact: Derek Best, Precarn Incorporated,

NEWS from the United States

Robot Sales Jump 39% in North America in First Half of 2007

With an upswing in automotive industry buying patterns for robots fueling growth, automotive orders rose 76%. The
April to June quarter was very strong, with increases of 60% in units and 24% in revenue over the comparable period
in 2006. Read more….

United States Adopts ISO Robot Safety Standard

         The Robotic Industries Association announced in August that the United States had officially adopted the
latest robot safety standard produced by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). Now known in the
USA as ANSI/RIA/ISO 10218-1-2007, this identical adoption of the ISO 10218-1:2006 expands the coverage of the
ISO document which was already a harmonized standard in Europe.
         Jeff Fryman (734/994-6088,, Director of Standards Development for the RIA and Pro-
ject Team leader for the ISO development team observed: “This is a significant development in global standardiza-
tion to have an ISO standard actually adopted by so many countries around the world. It is rewarding on behalf of the
entire project team to see the fruits of our collaborative effort reach fruition.”
         ISO 10218-1 only covers the robot construction, so the team representing nine countries is continuing devel-
opment efforts on the Part 2 which will cover robot systems integration and installation. Their next meeting will be in
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada in October 2007.
                                                                                        IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007
Page 14


A Brief History of RIA

         The Robotic Industries Association was formed in
1974 as the Robot Institute of America. Early robotics
pioneers, such as Joe Engelberger, recognized the need
for a trade association that could bring competitors to-
gether for the common promotion of robot technology,
which was still in its infancy when RIA was formed.
         Originally, RIA was a part of the Society of Manu-
facturing Engineers. However, since SME was a technical
society made up of individual members and RIA was a
trade association comprised of company members, it was
decided that RIA should become a separate organization.
In 1983, RIA separated from SME. Shortly after, it
changed its name to Robotic Industries Association.
         RIA’s primary mission is to promote the use of
robotics technology by educating companies about bene-
fits and successful applications. Trade shows, confer-                 Trevor Jones                      Jeff Burnstein
ences, in-house training courses, workshops, and RIA’s          President, Robotic industries      Executive Vice President,
Robotics Online website are among its primary activities                Association              Robotic Industries Association
designed to educate people interested in robotics.                Senior General Manager,
                                                                 Yaskawa Motoman, Canada


RIA currently has more than 250 member companies from the supplier, system integrator, user, researcher, and con-
sultant community. Membership is open to any company involved in or interested in robotics as long as it has a
North American base of operations (members can be headquartered elsewhere in the world).
        Membership dues range from as little as $150 a year for user companies to $10,000 a year for Platinum
Supplier companies, with many levels in between. Suppliers can pick their own benefits package, which determines
their annual dues. New benefits are being added on a regular basis by the RIA Membership Committee, which
works with the RIA staff to attract and retain member companies.

Structure of RIA
         RIA is run by a 19-member Board of Directors made up of industry leaders who are elected by the member-
ship of RIA. The RIA Board has an Executive Committee which includes the RIA President, Immediate Past Presi-
dent, 1st Vice President, 2nd Vice President, Executive Vice President, and Secretary/Treasurer.
         Several committees made up of members help the association achieve its mission. Current committees in-
         Marketing Communications
         New Markets
Committee chairs report regularly to the RIA Board of Directors

Sister Organizations

        RIA is a trade group under the umbrella of the Automation Technologies Council. Its sister trade groups at
ATC include the Automated Imaging Association and the Motion Control Association. Together, these three trade
groups represent more than 550 leading manufacturing companies, major users, and researchers.

Key Association Activities

Safety Standards and Training
         One of RIA’s most important activities is robotics safety. It’s very important to the industry to educate people
about how to properly safeguard robot installations since this is essential for maintaining the outstanding safety re-
cord of robotics technology.
Page 15                                                                                 IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007


        RIA developed the first American National Robot Safety Standard in 1986 and has revised and updated it
several times. We also work actively on ISO Robot Safety Standards activities.
        Each year RIA hosts at least one, and often two, major robot safety conferences in North America. These
events attract safety leaders who want to know how to conduct a risk assessment and learn about the latest safe-
guarding standards, techniques, and products.
        RIA also offers customize in-house robot safety training, which many companies take advantage of each
        And, we have proceedings, articles, case studies, books, videotapes, and other safety resources that are
available on Robotics Online at:

Trade Shows and Conferences
         RIA is best known for its International Robots & Vision Show and Conference, North America’s largest event
on robotics and machine vision technology. The show is held every two years in Chicago, Illinois, and attracts more
than 5,000 manufacturing and engineering professionals. In-depth tutorials and technical sessions taught by global
experts focus on practical, real-world applications of robots, machine vision, and motion control technology. RIA’s
next International Robots & Vision Show is slated for June 9-11, 2009.
         Stand-alone workshops on topics such as Robots for Packaging & Palletizing Applications, Robotic Grinding,
Deburring & Finishing, and Robots & Machine Vision for Automotive Applications are offered on a regular basis.
These events provide very specific information to companies considering robots for these applications.

Networking Events
                                     One of the most important roles of RIA is to bring suppliers, users and re-
searchers together. The annual Robotics Industry Forum in Orlando, Florida every November is RIA’s leading net-
working event. It features “Connectioneering” tabletops where users and researchers can make formal appointments
to meet with top executives from leading supplier companies.

        RIA has been collecting quarterly statistics on the robotics market since 1983. We track new orders and
shipments based on data provided by member companies, which we estimate captures at least 90% of the North
American robotics market. Detailed breakdowns on application areas and industries are provided to companies that
provide data, while the general public receives a summary of our findings each quarter.

Online Resources
                                    In 2000 RIA launched Robotics Online ( Today, more
than two million visitors a year come to the site to find information about robotics suppliers, case studies of success-
ful applications, technical papers on new technology developments, feature articles, daily news items, information on
robotics events, and more.
         The site also features a bookstore for people looking to purchase standards, conference proceedings, video-
tapes, and books, as well as registration forms for leading events, request forms for free resources, and links to other
important robotics organizations such as the IFR.

The Future of Robotics
         RIA leaders see a very bright future for robotics technology in North America. There are still tens of thou-
sands of companies that could benefit from robotics who have yet to install their first robot, so the market for indus-
trial robots is far from saturated. And, the opportunities for using robots in fields such as elder care, security, con-
sumer applications, space exploration, defense and a host of other non-industrial sectors appear limitless. In the
years ahead, RIA will continue to expand its efforts to create more awareness of the benefits of robotics as well as
the future possibilities for this exciting technology,
                                                                                      IFR Robotics Newsletter   4th quarter 2007
Page 16


RIA Members Electing Candidates for the 2008-2009 RIA Board of Directors

         The RIA Board provides the strategic direction for the trade association. This year, there are five openings
for supplier candidates and one for a user candidate. They will be joining current Directors whose terms aren’t expir-
ing yet. For additional information Contact: Jeff Burnstein ( Ballots need to be completed
and faxed back by no later than 2:00 PM EST on Wednesday, October 17, 2007.
Details about each candidate
Official ballot

Job Seekers: How to Get a Rewarding Position in Robotics or Factory Automation

Want to put yourself on the path to a rewarding career position in robotics or factory auto-
mation, or perhaps advance to a more challenging job? Not sure how to make the right
connections or meet the premium companies with employment in the field? Check out
the Robotics Online Career Center (, 888/491-8833, Ext. 1193) as your
first, reliable robotics career source, view job postings, then post your resume for free!

Employers: When Should You Use the Career Center to Post a Job Opening?

The Robotics Online Career Center is the ideal place to find experienced professionals for non-entry level positions.
For all your experienced robotics professional searches, consider utilizing the Career Center for posting your position
openings or searching prospective candidate resumes. For additional details or to order, contact 888/491-8833, Ext.
1193, or visit the Robotics Online Career Center at

Changes Coming Soon to Robotics Online

Robotics Online ( will be changing sometime soon. This won’t be the first time it has
changed since it was established in 1996, and the details are still being hashed out, but expect a significant differ-
          Right now, the Association is delving into matters such as defining the purpose of the next site, setting goals
for it, profiling its audience and considering new possibilities for functionality. Members and others will be surveyed,
and consultants will guide staff on a requirements review. Bids will be solicited based on the specifications from the
review, and a new site will be launched.
          Results of this work will not only affect Robotics Online, but also help shape its sister sites, Machine Vision
Online and Motion Control Online. Robotics Online has been a long-lasting success story for the Association and
one of the few sites from its era that live on today. Stick around for what’s next, won’t you? In fact, contact us now
through October 31 to tell us how you would improve the site so we can factor that into our plans .

RIA’ s 4 Robotics Resources Offered at No Cost

Only RIA offers you these free resources filled with practical, real-world solutions, de-
tails on leading robotics companies and products, and expert advice that can benefit
your company today. Resources include:
• 2007 Robotics Industry Directory – The absolute “bible” of the industry
• Robotics Online Electronic Newsletter – Industrial robotics info…right to your
• Robotics Online Career Center – Providing job seekers a tool to connect with the
best jobs, and employers a resource to recruit from the largest, most qualified pool of
professionals engaged in robotics and factory automation.
The Robot Files “CD-ROM” – Contains some 100 robot system case studies and
more       Request       Your     4    FREE       Robotics         Resources          at:
                                                                                    IFR Robotics Newsletter      4th quarter 2007


IFR Meetings                                                 IFR / ISR NEXT SYMPOSIA

IFR EB & GA meeting Agenda:
                                                                           NEXT IFR / ISR Symposia

2007: EB meeting: Nov. 28th, Tokyo, Ja-
pan, during the 2007 International Robot        Nb    Date          City          Country        Continent   Organizer
                                                39    2008Oct.      Seoul         South Korea    Asia        Chonnam National
                                                      Robot World
2008: EB meeting: during Automatica             40    2009March     Barcelona     Spain          Europe      AER-ATP
      2008                                            Maquitec
      EB & GA meeting: Oct., Seoul, Ko          41    2010June      Munich        Germany        Europe      VDMA
      rea, during the ISR & Robot World

2009: EB & GA meeting: mid. March,
Barcelona, Spain during Maquitec 2009

                                              Composition of the IFR Executive Board
       Joseph F. Engelberger
         Robotics Awards                      President: Stefan Mueller, KUKA Roboter Gmbh, Ger-
                                              many, responsible for strategy
                                              • Thilo Brodtmann, VDMA, Germany, responsible for
                                              • Jean-Paul Bugaud, SYMOP, France, responsible
                                              for Europe and finance
                                              • Jeff Burstein, RIA, North America
                                              • Tokuo Iikura, JARA, Japan
The awards will be presented in Seoul,        • Ake Lindqvist, ABB, North America
Korea during the 39th International Sym-      • Enrico Minelle, COMAU, Italy
posium on Robotics                            • Jong-Oh Park, Chonnam University, South Korea,
                                              responsible for links IEEE/IFR
                                              • Shinsuke Sakakibara, Fanuc, Japan
                                              • Rolf Dieter Schraft, IPA, Germany, chairman of the
                                              Research and Development Committee

                                                     c/o Symop
                                                     45 rue Louis Blanc
                                                     F-92400 Courbevoie
                                                     Phone: +33 1 47 17 67 07
                                                     Fax:     +33 1 47 17 67 25

                                                     Production: V. Sénéchal, IFR
The diary regarding conferences, Sympo-
siums, exhibitions, seminars, workshops, is          Publisher: IFR Secretariat
available on the IFR web site at:
                                                     The IFR Robotics Newsletter is published
                                                     by the International Federation of Robotics

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