CALORIE COMPOSITION What is a calorie: A calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. The small calorie or gram calorie (cal) is the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 °C. This is about 4.185 J. The large calorie (C) or kilogram calorie (kcal) is the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 kg (appox. 1 litre) of water by 1 °C. This is 4.185 kJ, and exactly 1000 small calories. In scientific contexts, the name "calorie" refers strictly to the gram calorie, and the unit has the symbol cal. The kilogram calorie is known as the "kilocalorie" and has the symbol kcal. Colloquially, and in nutrition and food labelling, the term "calorie" almost always refers to the kilogram calorie. The calories we eat are separated into three different components, Protein, fat and carbohydrates each with their own particular function or purpose. CALORIES PROTEIN FATS CARBOHYDRATES Growth Growth Energy Maintenance Maintenance Fibre Repair Repair Energy Energy Insulation The Importance of Vegetables: Vegetables supply the body with essential vitamins, minerals and antioxidants which are also important for repair, maintenance and growth of the body. Vegetables have a low energy quotient compared to their volume. They supply various types of fibre and contain 70-80% water. Vegetables also supply fibre and water which are both required for digestion and the elimination of waste from the body. The importance of eating fruit: Like vegetables, fresh fruit supplies the body with essential minerals and antioxidants which are also important for repair, maintenance and growth of the body. They supply various types of fibre and contain up to 90% water. It is recommended to keep low carb/sugar type fruits and eating only three pieces per day. Fruits also supply fibre and water which are both required for digestion and the elimination of waste from the body. The importance of nuts and seeds: Nuts and seeds can supply the body with essential vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants which are also important for repair, maintenance and growth of the body. They also supply essential fatty acids which are needed by the body for repair, maintenance and growth. Every living cell has a lipid 9 fat incorporated into the cell membrane. Fats are important for healthy skin, hair, nervous system, immune system and the brain is 50 – 60% lipid content. All fats are not the same. There are saturated, mono-saturated and poly saturated fats. All are important to the healthy body. Fats are an important source of energy for the body. The heart and kidneys prefer to use fats as energy over sugars as it can be a more stable energy source. In fact, fats are the preferred energy source of the body. EFFECTS OF LOW CALORIE DIETS: Most fat loss programs involve a reduction in total calories. This may work in the short-term, but there are many negative side effects. For example: • Loss of lean tissue and Reduction of BMR (basal metabolic rate), therefore fat gain occurs when normal calorie intake is resumed – hence yoyo dieting. • Cutting total calories also means cutting vital nutritional needs for good health • Cutting total calories usually results in lack of energy and endurance, therefore cutting fat burning activities Changing the composition of your body (ie decreasing body fat and increasing lean muscle) so that an increase in the rate of calories burned provides a much more sustainable, logical and health method of ‘fat loss’ MUSCLE – THE FAT BURNER Everyone has what we call a Basal Metabolic Rate – BMR. This is the amount of calories our body burns at rest (without activity). The BMR is usually determined predominantly by lean muscle weight of the individual. The higher the lean weight, the larger the bodies engine, the more fuel it will burn = more calories can be consumed without storing excess body fat. By increasing activity you set up a sensible and positive approach to losing body fat: • Maintain lean muscle • Metabolism increases and remains high • Increase activity = increase of muscle use = increase in calorie output per kg muscle = increase in total caloric expenditure • Increase in Thermic Effect of Food that adds to calorie burning • Exercise has been shown to increase metabolic rate, sometime up to hours, after exercise is completed. There fore instead of reducing overall calories and ‘dieting’ which can depress the metabolic rate by up to 30%, choose smart calories, including vegetables, fruit, lean proteins and essential fats to make up your healthy eating plan, and increase your BMR (your bodies engine) for more effective and efficient FAT loss. WATER Dehydration occurs long before you get thirsty. Drinking only when you’re thirsty probably indicates that you are consistently dehydrated. When the body is dehydrated it starts to shut down to prevent further dehydration. You can become sluggish, lethargic, tired, listless, low energy, headaches and even nauseated; severe dehydration can lead to heat exhaustion and even unconsciousness. Start the day upon rising by drinking 500ml or water. Follow up with another 2 – 3 litres throughout the day. The importance of drinking water is often overlooked. Your body is 70% water, and so it should be treated that way. Water is essential when dieting or losing weight. It helps you properly utilize all of your nutrients that you consume through food, by helping your body transport the nutrients efficiently into your cells. At the same time it will help elimine\ate wastes while flushing out toxins, improving your health. Your skin will be more elastic, so as to avoid stretch marks and give you a clear m\smooth complexion. Water cushions and protects your joints also, helping in avoiding injury.
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