Chemical Composition of Castor Bean Oil from Seed Grown

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					 ACADEMY OF SCIENCE FOR 19••


       CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CASTOR BEAN OIL
           FROM SEED GROWN IN OKLAHOMA
             1. E. WEBSTER1, JL PELLOWS·, ... 11.. P. IlUBPHr
     The analyses reported in. this paper are of 011 taken from Str~en 'farl-
eties of castor beans each grown at five locations Included within the
central, northern, and western parts of the state (one sample was from
a sixth location).
       The purpose of these analyses was to compare the Quality and yield
ot oU produced In Oklahoma with that produced elsewhere, and to make
similar comparisons for different locations within the state.                 In addition,
It was desired to secure slmUar data for various varieties.
                                        METHODS
     Ether extract: This value was secured by enractlng in duplicate two-
gram dried samples of the decorticated seeds with petroleum ether (Skelly-
solve F) in a drip extractor until the loss in weight on r~xtraction was
negligible. The values given In the tables for whole seeds disregarded the
011 content of the testa since this was found to be less than one per cent.
The samples were finely chopped for the first extraction and then reground
before the second extraction.
    The percentage of moisture was secured from the 1088 in weight of
the two-gram samples In the fat tubes after drying over night at 106 0 C.
Data In the table~ are for the alr-<try samples only.
    OU for analysis: The 011 was cold pressed from the seeds In a Carver
hydraUlic press using the large cylinder that gave approximately 6,000
pOunds per square Inch of pressure. After pressing, the oU was centrifuged
to remove suspended matter and then mixed with kaolin and filtered using
suction. The tutered 011 was clear and only faintly yellow when fresh
but darkened on standing. These samples were uee<t in determining the
011 constants.
    The methods of analyzing the 011 were essentially those given in the
A.O.A.a. (1940). The Hanus method for securing the iodine number was
used because of Its simplicity and the keeping quality of the solution.
The directions were followed as given for the saponification number. How-
ever, for the acetyl value only 30 ml of oU were used in place of the 60
ml called for. The refractive Index was secured with an Abbe refracto-
meter at 40 0 C.
                                        RESULTS
     A summary of the data in the tables shows that there is 11ttle varietal
difference and little difference in the content and quality of 011 due to
the edaphic or cUmatic factors found in various parts of Oklahoma. The
variety U. S. No.7 was consistently slightly lower In on than the other
i:a
  riettes and oil yields on all varieties at Woodward were sl1ghtly higher.
   e high oil content (comparatively) at Woodward Is noteworthy s1nce
other oil bearing eeeds raised in this vicinity run below the national
aYerage (soybean and .fflower).



                                                                Co"'.
      : Dept. of Aar. Cbem. . . . .reb. A. &Del ... CoUece. 8tUlwater. Otiaboaa•
      • ~. D. A. ClOOIJft&UDc with Botany Dept., 1taD... Btat.
        -..... of ~ , A. aDd JI. CoUece, 8tU1water, Oklaboma.
                                                                           V ••baltaD. Kauu.
"10                                      PROCI:EDINGS OF THE OKLAHOMA

                                   CONCLUSIONS
     The nIne and Quality of on from C&ltor bean seed grown In Oklahoma
.. the equal of any recorded In the literature. Accordingly It should fully
mee' the requirements of industry in thl8 country. Furthermore any see·
tlon of this state (among those tested) will grow castor beans with an
011 content ot as good quality and quantity as any other sections. From
the .me standpoint one variety 18 88 good 88 another, with the possible
exception of U. S. No.7.
                               LITERATURE CITED
A88oclaUon of Official Agricultural Chemists. Official and tentative meth·
        ods of analysis. 6th ed. 767 p. 1940.
Jamieson, G. S. 1932. Vegetable fats and oils.             444 p. New York: Chem·
       lcal Catalog Co., Inc.
                                       TABLE I
      .4 compal'i$on. of the chemical constanls of castor bean oil from seed grown.
            in OklahOrTUI an.d the avera8e values from tlwse grown. in other
                        reRions as Riven by Jamieson (1932)
                                          Oklahoma                     Jamieson
Decorticated seed  %                    75.2 - 79.9                70.0 - 80.0
Ether extract (oil) %                   47.0 - 55.8                35.0 - 55.0
Refractive index                         1.4720-- 1.4733            1.4659--- 1.4730
Saponification No.                     178.9 -183.1               177.0 -187.0
Acetyl value                           143.3 -152.1               143.0 -150.0
Iodine Number                           80.0 - 85.9                82.0 - 90.0
                                                                       TABLE II
A   com/HlTi8o~   oj the   c~mical       cOlUtants oj oil taken jrom several varieties oj castor beans each Brown at diflerem locations in
                                                                      Oklahoma (1941)
                                                                                                                                              ~
                                   Decorticated                                                                                               !
                                      Seed                         Ether Extract                                 011 Analyses 11              0
                                                         Decorticated          WOOle II     Ref.          Sap.              Acetyl   Iodine
                                                                                                                                              IzJ
     LocaUon                %               H.O %          Seeds                seeds      Index          No.               .,alue    No•
                                                                                                                                              ~
                                                                                                                                              ...
                                                                                                                                              ll!J
                                                                     Conner (Mo. seed)
Stillwater                 18.J               5.14         63.51                49.16      1.4124        119.34             150.11    SU2
                                                                                                                                              ~
                                                                                                                                              t!2
StIllwater                 1S.0               4.41         63.19                49.15      1.4122        lS0.50             141.19    83.38
Pertlns                    18.5               6.23         63.14                50.04      1.4125        180.29             148.97    SU6
Arapaho                    '11.9              4.58         85.61                51.11      1.4125        180.10             146.54    83.36   ~
Cherokee                   1S.9               4.98         62.29                49.15      1.4126        181.00             146.00    80.01   ~
Greenfield                 18.1               5.11         63.81                50.25      1.4121        180.13             148.84    82.43
                           11.3               4.10         61.32                52.04                                       14S.68            to
Woodward
                           18.2               5.11         64,31                50.35
                                                                                           1.4130        180.36
                                                                                                         180.33             14S.14
                                                                                                                                      SUS
                                                                                                                                      82.25
                                                                                                                                              ..
                                                                                                                                              t
     Averaie                                                                               1.4726

                                                                        Doughty No. 11
BWlwater                   16.3               4.33         63.90                48.16      1.4121        180.21             148.41    8US
Perkins                    18.6               6.80         66.61                51.01      1.4126        181.96             146.48    83.08
Cherokee                   11.6               5.48         61.96                48.09      1.4124        180.89             145.93    83.04
Gnenn.ld                   11.0               4.16         62.32                48.02
Woodward                   11.0               S.91         69.68                53.58      1.4125        180.31             148.15    8(.28
    A.,.rap                16.9               5.07         84.89                49.90      1.4124        180.81             141.41    83.37
                                                                          U.   S.   No.7
BUllwater                  16.5               4.31         62.59                41.88      1.4120        119.17             148.10    82.68
Perkins                    16.9               6.18         84,25                48.31      1.4116        183.13             146.44    82.19
Cherokee                   18.1               5.18         60.18                41.01      1.41%3        180.81             145.34    81.10
Greentteld                 'Tt.2              5.31         62.56                47.15      1.4130        119.15             141.15    a3.18
Woodward                   76.4               3.83         61.82                41.24      1.4130        180.51             146.05    a2.U
    Anrqe                  76.8               4.96         62.28                41.64      1.4124        180.81             148.16    82.88

• These values were secured by' calculation using the decorticated percentages given in this table•
• Run OIl cold pressed oil.                                                                                                                   ~
                                                                                                                                              ..
                                                               TABLE n                                                                          ;:
A   ~          oj lie cMmiaJl co1llttllaq oj oil I4Ium frtma IeWTtIl -mliu oj etistM iHuI eGCi 6T'"               tit   tU//er..,   ~,.,   ia
                                                                01dllhD1IIiJ (1941)
                            Decorticated
                               Seed                        :Etber Kxtnet                                      on A.Dalnea'
    LocaUoD                                      Decorticated        Whole.            :Ref.           Sap.              AeeQt        IodIM
                      %               11.0 %       8eeda              leeds           Indo             No.               Y&lue         No.

                                                               Kentucky No. 38
BWl.ater             7lU               4.84        82.20              41.51           1.4180          171.17             141••         8I.5f
PerJdu               18.3              5.55        64.5t              41.21           1.4728          171.75             1t7.71       auf
Cherokee             77.6              4.8!        82.52              48.52           1.4130          180.83             1t5.51       aa.5.
OrMDtleJd            78.3              4.81        84.22              41.00           1.4180          181.33             141.01       '~.II
WOOdward             75.8              5.11        64.01              48.44           1.4128          118."              148.18       ".11
   A,erap            78.4              5.00        83.52              48.55           1.4721          180.12             141.45       sa.51
                                                            Conner (Texas seed)
BUll.ater            78.8              4.35        83.14              50.38           1.4128          118.12             147.18        n.ta
P.rIdDa              77.1              8.04        65.00              50.51           1.4129          180.•8             141.25       81."
Cherokee             18.8              5.03        83.21              49.81           1.4133          181.18             1t5.01        as.•     ;a
ONeDtleJd            19,5              5.05        68.02              52.41           1.4721          181.14             146.81       84.U
Wood.ard             77.5              3.84        89.92              54.12           1.4728          180.50             148.01       8S.Se
   AYer.,.           78.t              4.88        85.62              51.48           1.4129          180.64             147.45        h.M
                                                                 U. S. No.4                                                                     i
Sun.ater             77.1              5.52        84.11              49.11           1.4730          119.11             146.18        II.n
P.rJdu               18.t              8.38        88.25              41.54           1.4730          180.10             141.52        auo      i
Cherokee             18.0              4.69        61.81              48.28           1.4121          181.66             143.31        84.M     CIa
Greenfteld           77.4              4.88        65.61              50.18           1.4128          119.93             146.18        81.81
Woodward             77.1              4.46        63.46              4lUI            1.4125          180.63             145.53        83.41    0
    A.ver...         11.8              5.19        63.61              49.58           U121            180.42             141s.o.       88.88    ..
                                                                  San Benito
sun.ater             19.9              5.81        8U4                41.81           1.4728          Ift.01             150.81       81.11     a
PerJdna              77.2              5.54        66.67              51.47           1.4729          179.41             150.41       81.84
Cherokee             18.9              4.64        62.72              49.49           1.4726          181.81             148.98       88.31     0
Greenn.ld            18.8              5.20        83.08              41.69           1.4729          179.24             149.35       83.55
Wood.ard             78.0              S.66        89.41              54.14           1.4130          180.49             150.41       88.54
    AYera,.          78.2              4.97        65.16              50.92           1.4728          179.93             149.01       8S.!'
                                                                                                                                                E
• These 'Values were secured by calculation uaing the decorticated percentages given in this table.
'Run on cold pressed oil.                                                                                                                       ~
ACADEMY OF SCIENCE FOR lMJ                                                                         '11

                                             TABLE HI
    A. GWTtJ6e 01        tAe oil tIIIIIlY$U 01 $etJeTal tIt.ITietia 01 calor kcIra.t 610wn .,
                            different locations in OkUz1wm4 (1941)
     Deeortleated
           seed                  Ether Extract                      on Analnea.
                              Decortl-
                               eated       Whole.        Bef.      SaP.       Acetyl     IocI1De
    ~         B.O %            Seeds       8eecls       JDdu       No.        Value       l'j'o.

                                             Stillwater
    77.6          4.89         63.51        49.23     1.4725     179.62      148.57     88.38
                                              Perkins
    77.2          6.10         64.87        SO.03     1.4725     180.89      148.12     83.a7
                                             Cherokee
    78.3          4.97         62.11        48.61     1.4726     181.14      145.03     82.97
                                            Greenfield
    77.7          5.03         63.95        49.71     1.4728     180.35      147.78     83.54
                                            Woodward
    77,(11        4.23         66.53        51.27     1.4728     180.26      148.10     83.11
II Run on cold preased oil.
• These values were secured by calculation using the decorticated percentages given
   in this table.

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