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ANATOMY OF TSUNAMIS 1960 CHILE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI (PowerPoint)

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ANATOMY OF TSUNAMIS 1960 CHILE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI (PowerPoint) Powered By Docstoc
					ANATOMY OF TSUNAMIS:
1960 CHILE EARTHQUAKE
      AND TSUNAMI
   Yohko Igarashi1, Masahiro Yamamoto2, Laura Kong3
1.   ITIC; now with Japan Meteorological Agency
2.   IOC/UNESCO, France
3.   ITIC, UNESCO/IOC-NOAA, USA
      Enhancing understanding towards the
    development of Tsunami Warning Systems
•   Various wave forms from Local/Regional/Tele and
    small/large tsunamis
•   NTWC need how to interpret tsunami record.
•   NTWC need to recognize other non-tsunami signals.
•   Many NTWCs are newly establishing; many new staffs
    do not have any experience on tsunami.
==> Educational materials
•   To build a learning database, IOC and ITIC have
    compiled tsunami records.
•   The compilation is intended to provide;
   1. an interpreted reference on historical destructive
       tsunamis,
   2. timelines of actions and reactions of NTWC.
1960 Chilean Earthquake with Mw9.5 on May 22
• Terrible tsunami. Hit Chilean coasts 15 minutes
  (max run-up: 25m), Hawaiian Is. 15 hours, then
  Japan 22.5 hours.
• 1,655 people were killed in Chile. 61 in Hawaii,
  142 in Japan, 32 in Philippines.
• US NTWC in 1948 and Japan NTWC in 1952.
  However, NO international preparedness.
• JMA did not have experience for Tele-tsunami.
• Pacific Tsunami Warning System was
  established in 1965.
• Important: to learn from the past tsunami.
 End to End System (Warning to Preparedness)
Timeline of 22 May 1960, Chilean Tsunami
    Tsunami propagation maps
Manually created (JMA)   TTT software (NOAA)
Stations in the Anatomy
    Talcahuano, Chile
(TTT: 49 min, Max run-up 25 m)
Valparaiso, Chile
     (TTT: 1:07)
Long Beach and San Francisco
 (many small boats damaged due to the strong current)
Hilo, Hawaii (TTT:14:50 Max in Hilo: over 10m )
Honolulu, Hawaii (35 min after Hilo)
Johnston Island and Christmas Island
Hondagua and Legaspi, Phillipines
        (PHIVOLCS)   unit:feet
Hong Kong (TTT: 27:37)
Eden, S of Australia
(TTT: 17:11 p-p: over 1.5m)
Hanasaki and Kushiro, Japan (TTT: 21:30)
Hachinohe, Japan (p-p: over 3 m)
Miyako, Japan (TTT: 8 min after Hanasaki)
Onahama, Japan (TTT: 30 min after Hanasaki)
Kushimoto, Japan (TTT: 31 min after Hanasaki)
Tosashimizu, Japan (TTT: 57 min after Hanasaki)
    Lessons learned from this
• A tsunami warning system for local,
  regional and far-field tsunami.
• International cooperation on information is
  required for such far events.
• Discuss and study well to exchange more
  precise and adequate information in
  advance.
• To enhance the knowledge on tsunami
• End to End tsunami warning system
                UNESCO/IOC
     Intergovernmental Coordination Group
                    (ICG)
    Pacific       Indian Ocean       Carribbean        Mediterranean
    PTWS             IOTWS            CARIBE              NEAM
    1965/2005          2005              2005               2005

Risk Assessment        Seismic       Detection system Hazard Assessment
Detection/Warning     Sea level     Hazard Assessment       Seismic
   Awareness      Risk Assessment    Communication         Sea level
                      Modelling       Preparedness     Public Awareness
 Central America   Interoperability
    SE Pacific        Mitigation
   SW Pacific
   S China Sea
                >60 stations reporting continuously Feb 09
June 22, 2009           25th Session IOC-UNESCO Assembly   24
         Planned Workshop
       on Post Tsunami Survey
• Many NTWCs are under establishing
• Need to develop common, harmonized and
  standardized survey procedure
• Comprehensive survey from all aspects
• Advanced methods; GPS, GIS, Satellite etc

Revision of Post-Tsunami Field Guide
 (IOC Manuals and Guides 37, 1998 UNESCO)
Bridge between Research and Operational
 community

				
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