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									                     WORLD TRADITIONAL JUDO INSTITUTE
                            COMPETITION RULES
                                    THE COMPETITION AREA

Article 1. The minimum allowed size for the fighting area must be not less than 8 metres by 8 m
limited by a red stripe or red tatami. The tatami who made up the external area must be not less than
2 m. per side. The coatings of the tatamis could be out of vinyl or of another similar material


Article 2. The combatants must wear a white Judogi and will normally tie on the top of the belt a
piece of fabric or a white or red ribbon.
The judogi worn by the combatants will have to fulfil the following requirements
    (1) The jacket must be of fabric flexible enough to allow the grip and long enough to cover the
    (2) The sleeves must be long and broad enough to cover more than half of the fore arm (there
        must be a distance of at least 5 cm between the hem of the sleeve and the largest part of the
        fore arm).
    (3) The trousers must be broad and long enough to cover more than half of the calf (there must
        be a distance of at least 7 cm between the hem and the largest part of the calf).
    (4) The belt must be fastened with a tight enough reef knot to prevent the jacket from being too
        loose; it must be long enough so as to let pass the ends of at least 15 cm when the knot is
Article 3. The combatants must have short finger and toe nails and must not carry metallic objects
which can wound or cause injury to the adversary.


Article 4. The combat will take place in the fighting area.
Comment 1 - No technique will be valid if one or both combatants are off the fighting surface.
Comment 2 - The combatants must know that the limit of the red mat is the safety limit of the
fighting surface and that the referee will be able to interrupt with Mate if he considers it necessary.
Article 5. The combatants must be standing opposite each other on the surface of combat, at a
distance of 4 metres, and will bow. The combat will start as soon as the referee announces Hajime.
They can however bow from a kneeling position. After the bow, that they will complete in unison,
they will step forward, initially with the left foot then with the right foot to put themselves in
Shizen Hontai.
Article 6. The combatants must carry out the confrontation maintaining the position Shizentai, they
will be able to alternate with Jigotai if the situation makes it necessary.
Article 7. At the end of the combat the adversaries will turn back to their initial place in Shizen
Hontai and, while being opposite to each other, they will await the verdict then they will step
backwards, beginning with the right foot and then the left, and then they will bow.
Article 8. The result of the combat must be decided according to the Nage-wasa or the Katame-
Article 9. The combat must stop immediately as soon as one of the adversaries achieves 1 Ippon in
the competitions with Ipponshiai or a total of 3 in the competitions with Sanbonshiai.
Article 10. The combatants can pass to Ne -wasa in the cases indicated below, however the referee
will always have the possibility to ask them to go back to an upright position, if he judges that
there is no continuity in the undertaken technique.
1) When a combatant, after he has obtained a result from a throwing technique, continues the action
without interruption in Ne-wasa and take the offensive.
2) When a combatant falls following the unsuccessful execution of a throwing technique or when
one of the combatants can take advantage of the imbalance position of the adversary to take him
along on the floor.
(3) When one of the combatants obtains an important result by carrying out a Shime-wasa or a
Kanstsu-wasa in the upright position and continues, without interruption, in Ne -wasa.
(4) When one of the combatants involves the adversary in Ne-wasa with the particularly nimble
execution of a movement which, even if it can resemble to a throwing technique, cannot be
considered as such.
(5) In all the other cases unpredicted by the preceding paragraphs of this article, into which the
combatant can fall or being about to fall, the other one will be able to take advantage of the position
of the adversary to go in Ne-wasa.
Article 11. The length of the combat must be established previously. In certain special cases in
order to clear a situation of equality, one will be able to extend the pre-established length of the
Article 12. The end of the time established for the combat must be communicated to the referee
with a loud enough audible signal.
Article 13. Each throwing technique carried out at the same time as the audible signal will be
retained valid; the same for an Osae-komi announced at the time of the signal. The time of the
combat will be prolonged until the referee announces Ippon or Toketa.
Comment. Nage-wasa started simultaneously with the signal that announces the end of the time,
means that Ne-wasa is valid. It concludes the combat with a decisive result in a short amount of
Article 14. When the referee, after having announced Osea-komi and having observed that the
combatants are about to leave the red safety band, will be able to announce Sono-mama; in this
case, he will check that the combatants stop their actions and he will draw them inside the combat
surface; then, when he has assured himself that the Osae-komi position hasn’t changed, he will
announce Yoshi. The time spent between the announcement of Sono-mama and Yoshi will be
excluded from the specific time of Osae-komi. In all the other Ne-wasa cases, where the referee
considers that the combatants will soon leave the combat area, while their actions are temporarily
stopped and their relative position remains unchanged, he will have to draw them inside the combat
area and make them continue the action, as indicated in this article.
In a similar way, the referee will also be able to use the terms and the actions expressed above
concerning Tachi-wasa.


Article 15. Each decision taken by the referee and the judges will be final and without appeal.
Article 16. Generally a combat is directed by a referee and two judges. However, in certain cases, it
is possible that there is one referee and one judge, or, only one referee.
Article 17. The referee will be inside the combat surface and will have the responsibility for the
development of the combat and also for the judgement.
Article 18. The judges will assist the referee and will place themselves, out of the combat area, in
two opposite corners, to observe the combat attentively.
Article 19. The referee will announce Hajime, giving the commencement of the combat, after the
combatants will bow; by announcing Sore-made he will put an end to the combat.
Article 20. The referee will announce Ippon and Sore-made, giving an end to the combat when he
judges that a throwing or control technique, carried out by one of the combatants, deserves Ippon
and he will indicate the winner by raising his hand towards this one, after the combatants have
returned to their initial position.
Comment. If the two combatants obtain at the same time a result which deserves Ippon, for example
with choking techniques, the referee will announce Doji-ippon and Sore-made and the result of the
confrontation will be Hiki-wake.
Article 21. The referee will announce Waza-ari, when he judges that the technique carried out by
one of the combatants deserves the attribution of Wasa-ari. If the same combatant obtains Wasa-ari
twice the referee will announce Wasa-ari awasete-ippon and Sore-made, he will stop the combat
and will indicate the winner by raising his hand towards him, after the combatants have returned to
their respective starting places. The referee will announce Wasa-ari ni chikai wasa when he judges
that the technique carried out by the combatant is not worth Wasa-ari. The referee will announce
Kinza when he judges that the technique carried out by a combatant is not worth Wasa-ari ni chikai
Article 22. The referee will stop the combat announcing Sogo-gachi and Sore-made, he will
indicate the winner by raising his hand towards him, when the combatants join their respective
initial places, in the following cases: when one of the combatants has obtained Wasa-ari and the
adversary will immediately be penalized with Keikoku, or in the same manner when a combatant,
whose adversary has already received a penalty of Keikoku, gets a wasa-ari.
Article 23. The referee will announce Osea-komi when he judges that one of the combatants has
successfully undertaken a valid immobilization. If he estimates that the immobilization is
interrupted, he will immediately announce Toketa at any time after the announcement of Osae-
Article 24. If a judge does not agree with the referee’s decision, he will attract his attention in order
to express his opinion; the referee can adopt, or not, the judge’s opinion. The final decision
indicated or announced by the referee to the combatants is final and without appeal.
Article 25. If the end of the time established for the combat is reached and no one has achieved
Ippon, the referee will announce Sore-made giving an end to the combat and he will send the
combatants to their respective starting places. The referee, also going back to his initial place, will
ask Hantei, by raising a hand. In answer, the judges will raise at a level above the head a white or
red paperboard, to indicate the combatant whom they judge to have deserved the victory. To
indicate Hiki-wake they will raise in unison the two paperboards.
Comment. Some competition regulations can exclude Yushei-gachi (superiority).
Article 26. The referee will discuss his decision with those of the judges and will announce the
outcome which corresponds with the majority of the three opinions, that is to say Hiki-wake or
Yusei-gachi. If the two judges have different opinions, the referee will take the final decision. If
there is one judge, the referee will take into consideration his opinion before announcing Yusei-
gachi or Hiki-wake.
(1) In case the referee and the judges have contrary opinions, the referee can convene the judges in
order to discuss with them.
(2) When the referee has an opinion different from the judge or both judges regarding Hantei, he
can ask them for their reasoning.
Article 27. In the cases indicated below, the referee will pronounce Mate and stop the combat
temporarily, by then restarting it by announcing Hajime; if the referee announces Jikan, the time
spent between this declaration and that of the resumption of the combat with the Hajime order will
not be counted in the combat time:
(1) When one or both adversaries leave, or are about to leave the combat area.
(2) When one or both adversaries achieve or are about to achieve a prohibited act.
(3) When one or both adversaries are wounded or sick.
(4) When it is necessary that one or both adversaries straighten their clothing.
(5) When during a Ne-wasa there is no obvious progress and the combatants are in an Ashi-garami
(6) In any other case when the referee considers it necessary.
Article 28. When the result of a combat must be decided following Hansoku gachi, Fusen gachi or
Kiken gachi, the referee will indicate the winner of the combat, or will announce Hiki-wake if such
is the decision.
                                           THE REFEREE

Article 29. The announcements of the competition officials are accompanied by the following
    I.     Ippon. One will raise the hand above the head.
    II.    Wasa-ari. One will raise a hand, palm downwards, laterally, shoulder height.
    III.   Wasa-ari ni chikai wasa. Will not be pointed out by the referee.
    IV.    Kinza. Will not be pointed out by the referee.
    V.     Osea-komi. One will point the arm towards the combatants, with a flat tense hand, palm
           directed downwards.
    VI.    Osae-komi toketa. One will point the hand forwards and agitate it quickly from left to
           right two or three times.
    VII. To indicate that a technique is not valid, one will raise the hand above the head, palm
           forwards and one will agitate it from right to left two or three times.
    VIII. Hiki-wake. One will raise the hand upwards and will lower it in front of the body (thumb
           upwards), remaining still for a moment.
    IX.   Jikan. One will raise a hand at shoulder height and, with the arm almost parallel
           with the mat, will direct the palm of the hand (fingers upwards) towards the time clerk.


   I.       The judge will raise his hand and will bring it back to shoulder height, directed to the
            limit of the combat area ( thumb upwards), remaining still for a moment in order to
            indicate that he considers that one of the combatants has remained in the combat area.
     II.    The judge will raise his hand to shoulder height directed to the limit of the combat area
            (thumb upwards) and will shake it from right to left several times, to indicate that he
            considers that a combatant has left the combat surface.
Article 30. All the techniques and actions listed below are prohibited:
(1) To hit the back of the adversary’s supporting leg when this one is carrying out a technique like
(2) To throw the adversary with Kawazu-gake.
(3) All Shime-wasa, which applies actions of Do-jime, or scissors carried out directly with the legs
at the trunk, the neck or the head of the adversary.
(4) To apply Kansetsu-wasa to other parts of the body which are not the elbow.
(5) To apply any action which can wound the neck or the backbone of the adversary.
(6) To throw the adversary on the ground after having raised him from the tatami where he was
lying on the back.
(7) To fall voluntarily behind with the adversary, controlling him during this movement, remaining
clutched to the shoulders.
(8) To give a blow with the knee or the leg (or the foot) to the hand of the adversary to oblige him
to give up the hold on the judogi.
(9) To intentionally avoid the hold to prevent the action of combat and to break the hold of
the adversary with one or two hands to prevent him from carrying out a correct hold.
(10) To intentionally leave the combat area in order to oblige the adversary to do it.
(11) To leave the surface of combat in an upright position for a reason other than due to a technique
or an action of the adversary.
(12) To adopt improper tactics or positions to avoid defeat.
(13) To fight in an unrecognized position of one or both combatants.
(14) To force the adversary with an incorrect position by holding behind the neck or by
twisting holds.
(15) To hold continuously on one side only (with both hands) the collar or the sleeve of the
adversary, either his belt or jacket at the lower end.
(16) To thread one or more fingers inside the sleeve or of the hem of the trousers or to seize
the sleeve “by tightening it”.
(17) To remain too long with the fingers crossed on one or both hands.
(18) To disarray one’s own judoji, to straighten or to move the belt or the trousers without the
referee authorization.
(19) To drag the adversary onto the ground to go on in Ne-wasa.
(20) To make a hold with the adversary’s leg or foot, to drag him in Ne-wasa, unless to show an
exceptional ability.
(21) To wrap the end of the belt or the jacket around any part of the adversary’s body.
Comment. “To wrap” must be understood as making more than one turn. To wrap partially or make
half a turn is allowed.
(22) To seize with the mouth the adversary’s judoji , or to put a hand (or an arm) or a foot (or a leg)
directly on the adversary’s face.
(23) To thread a foot or a leg in the belt of the adversary or the neck of the judoji or to bend
backwards one of the adversary’s fingers or the fingers with the objective of breaking the hold in
the course of Katame-wasa.
(24) Not taking account of the referee’s instructions.
(25) To make useless appeals or observations or to make rude gestures to the adversary during the
(26) To achieve actions which can wound or cause injury, or which is against the Judo’s spirit.
(27) Execute Maki-komi thanks to Uchi-mata, Hane-goshi or Harai-goshi with the upper body
folded (throwing himself headfirst onto the tatami).
(28) To project himself suddenly in the execution of Kansetsu wasa in an upright position before
having obtained control.
(29) To maintain the hold on the belt of the adversary. The hold on the belt is only allowed to
carry out an immediate attack and not continually in the same action.
(30) The combatant who carries out one of the above-mentioned prohibited actions will be
Article 31. The referee will announce Shiso, Chui, Keikoku or Hansoku-make when one or both
combatants carry out or are going to carry out a prohibited action, by evaluating the gravity of the
infringement. Hansoku will be given according to the following points:
1) Shido. It is generally allotted to the combatant who has made, or will make, a very minor fault.
The repetition of the fault punished with Shido will be penalized with Chui.
(2) Chui. It is allotted to the combatant who transgressed the prohibited acts in such a serious way
that if he repeats it he risks Keikoku.
When a combatant is penalized with Chui, Yuko is then allotted to the adversary with the
consequences established by article 34. To give Chui (penalty), the referee will temporarily stop
combat, will send the combatants back to their respective initial positions and, leaving them in an
upright position, he will announce Chui (penalty).
(3) Keikoku (official recall). It is given to the combatant who has committed such a serious
infraction to deserve Hansoku-make (disqualification) if it is repeated, or to the combatant to which
one should give Chui (penalty) for the second time.
If a combatant is penalized with Keikoku (official recall), for the adversary it will be as if he had
deserved Wasa-ari (almost Ippon), with the consequences established in article 33. To give Keikoku
(official recall) the referee will temporarily stop the combat, will send the adversaries back to their
respective starting places, will ask them to go into a kneeling position and will announce Keikoku
(official recall).
 (4) Hansoku-make (disqualification). It is given to the combatant who made one of the
infringements listed in article 36.
Hansoku-make (disqualification) given to a combatant is equivalent to Ippon (point) for the other,
as stated in article 32.
(1) When both adversaries break a rule at the same time, they must be penalized according to the
seriousness of the infringement.
(2) When both combatants have been penalized with Keikoku (official recall) and then thereafter
both receive another penalty, they will be disqualified with Hansoku-make (disqualification).
In spite of that, the final decision of the competition officials can be taken, in case they would like
to make an exception, in the respect of article 39.
When a combatant deliberately leaves the combat surface or feigns carrying out a technique with
the only aim of leaving before the adversary, the penalty will be Keikoku (official recall).
When a combatant deliberately obliges the adversary to leave the combat surface (or deliberately
throws the adversary outside), the penalty will be Keikoku (official recall).
When a combatant voluntarily leaves the combat surface following a Shintai or Tai-sabaki
(movement of the body) in the upright position, the penalty will be Chui (warning). Whereas if he
leaves the combat area following an action of the adversary, he will not be penalized.
When a combatant drags the adversary in Ne-wasa (fight on the ground) in non-conformity with the
rules, the penalty will be allotted, according to the situation, in the following way:
1 When it is obvious that a combatant drags in Ne-wasa (fight on the ground) the adversary, which
does not take advantage of the change in Ne-wasa (fight on the ground), so the referee will
temporarily stop the combat, will send back the combatants to their respective starting places and,
maintaining them in upright position, he will announce Chui (penalty) addressed to the combatant
who has committed the offence.
2 When it is obvious that one of the combatants drags in Ne-wasa the adversary, even though he
takes advantage of this situation by continuing the Ne-wasa, the referee will punish with Chui
(penalty) the combatant who committed the offence, without stopping the combat.

                                      COMBAT JUDGEMENT

Article 32. The decision of “Ippon” (point) will be given according to the following cases:
(1) Nage-wasa (throwing technique).
    I.     When the combatant carries out a technique or counter-attacking the adversary, this one
           projects him in a clear way on the back showing technique, energy and speed.
    II.    When a combatant raises the adversary with agility, wide on the back, more or less at the
           proper height shoulders.
(2) Katame-wasa (control techniques).
     I.      When a combatant says Maitta (giving up), or beats on his own body or the the
             adversary’s or on the tatami, with the hand or the foot at least twice.
     II.     When a combatant holds the other, which doesn’t succeeded in releasing himself, during
             30 seconds, after Osae-komi was announced. If a combatant, who holds motionless the
             other in Osae-komi wasa, passes to another form of Osae-komi, without losing the
             control of the adversary, the downtime will be retained valid.
     III.    When the result of a technique of Shime-wasa (strangle-hold techniques), or Kansetu-
             wasa ( levers techniques) is sufficiently obvious. Comment. In Shime-wasa and
             Kansetu-wasa the referee can issue Ippon, according to his own judgement, when he
             retains that the technique was carried out in a fully effective way, taking into account the
             technical level of the combatants. This comment has the purpose of avoiding possible
Article 33. The attribution of Wasa-ari (almost Ippon) will be given in the following cases:
(1) When a combatant, who carries out a technique of projection, does not carry it out successfully
enough to deserve Ippon, highlighting the lack of one of the three characteristics to estimate Ippon
an action: technique, energy and speed.
(2) When a combatant immobilizes the other at least during 25 seconds. And thus so to this same
combatant Wasa-ari was already allotted it will be enough for him to keep Osae-komi during 25
Comment. When a combatant seeks to carry out a Tomoe-nage without an immediate success, and
then, after an appreciable amount of time, whereas he’s still on the back, successfully attempt to
carry the throwing of Tomoe-nage, he can obtain Wasa-ari.
Article 34. The decision of Yusei-gachi (victory for superiority) will be generally allotted in the
following cases:
(1) When there was Wasa-ari or a Keikoku penalty (official recall).
(2) When there was Yuko, wasa ari nichikai wasa or a Chui penalty (penalty).
(3) When there was Koka, Kinza or if one of the combatants with made improprieties.
     I.      The competition rules will establish, in particular, the criterion of attribution of Yusei-
             gachi (victory for superiority) while accepting completely or partially the paragraphs (1),
             (2), (3) of this article.
     II.      Each Osae-komi wasa announced and which lasts from 15 to 20 seconds must be
             regarded as yuko or Wasa-ari ni chikai wasa, from 10 to 14 seconds koka or Kinza.
Article 35. The decision of Hiki-wake (equality) will be adopted when there is no positive result, or,
if there is not the possibility to consider a combatant better than the other or in some way in the
competitions which provide this possibility.
Article 36. The decision Hansoku-make (disqualification) will be given to the combatant who
makes one of the following infringement:
(1) When a combatant commits a serious offence like, for example, an action or the execution of a
technique which risks to wound or endangers the adversary, or, if he makes useless appeals or
observations which are considered against the Judo’s spirit.
(2) When a combatant, who was already penalized with Keikoku receives another penalty of
Article 37. The decision of Fusen-gachi will be made in respect to the combatant whose adversary
did not present himself for the combat and the decision of Kiken-gachi will be made in respect to
the combatant whose adversary gives up the competition during the combat.
Article 38. The decision of Kachi, Make, Hiki-wake, will to be taken by the referee, after he has
consulted the judges, when one of the combatants is in the impossibility to continue because of an
injury, faintness or accident which happens to him during the combat, according to the following
(1) Injury.
    I.      If the responsibility for the injury can be attributed to the wounded combatant, this one
            will be declared defeated.
    II.     If the responsibility for the injury can be attributed to the healthy combatant, he will be
            declared defeated.
    III.    If it is not possible to establish the responsibility for the injury to one of the combatants,
            Hiki-wake (equality) will be decide.
2) Faintness. Generally, if the combatant feels suddenly sick during the combat and he cannot
continue, he is declared defeated.
(3) Accident. If an accident which makes impossible the continuation of the combat occurs, Hiki-
wake (equality) will be decide.
    I.      If an injured combatant is unable to continue the combat, the referee will not release
            immediately the verdict which declares him defeated, with the simple advertisement of
            Kiken (abandonment) towards the wounded combatant, but it will announce the
            responsibility for the injury and the medical report on the wounded combatant, then, it
            will take the adapted decision, based on what was established in the paragraphs of this
            article concerning the “case of injury”. When a combatant refuses to continue the
            combat, when he could do so, the combat is concluded with Kiken (abandonment).
    II.     The combatant who will be declared Make (loser) because he has wound the adversary,
            will not be allowed to take part at any of the following combat.
    III.    If it is impossible to give to the responsibility for the wound to none of the combatants
            and it is necessary to have an adversary which takes part in the following turn, like in the
            case of the individual competitions, the combatant able to continue will be allowed to
            take part of it.
    IV.     The combatant who will have received the decision of Kachi (victory), Make (loser) or
            Hiki-wake (equality) following his injury, will not be admitted to the following combat.
Article 39. If a situation unforeseen by these rules arises, it will be solved by a decision taken after
a consultation of all the referees and all the judges.

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