Cholinergic Drugs

					Cholinergic Agonists
Choline Esters
Acetylcholine Methacholine

Alkaloids
Muscarine

Pilocarpineε
Arecoline

Carbachol
Bethanechol

Anticholinesterases
Reversible
Carbamates
Physostigmine(Eserine)

Irreversible
Organophosphates
Dyflos (DFP) Ecothiophate Parathion Malathion
(Insectisides)

Neostigmineε
Pyridostigmine Edrophonium Rivastigmine Donepezil

Diazinon (TIK-20)
Tabun ; Sarin ; Soman
(Nerve Gases for Chemical Warfare)

Acridine
Tacrine

Carbamates
Carbaryl (SEVIN)
Propoxur (BAYGON)

Anticholinesterases (antiChEs) are agents which inhibit ChE, Protect Ach from hydrolysis- produce cholinergic effects in vivo and potentiate Ach both in vivo and in vitro. Some anti ChEs have additional direct action on cholinergic receptors.

Anticholinergic Drugs
(Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists, Atropinic, Parasympatholytic) 1. Natural alkaloids - Atropineε, Hyoscine (Scopolamine). 2. Semisynthetic derivatives - Homatropineε , Atropine methonitrate, Hyoscine butyl bromideε, Ipatropium bromide, Tiotropium bromide. 3. Synthetic Compounds (a) Mydriatics: Cyclopentolate, Tropicamideε. (b)Antisecretory-antispasmodics: (i) Quarternary compounds: Propantheline, Oxyphenonium, Clidinium, Pipenzolate methylbromide, Isopropamide, Glycopyrolate. (ii) Tertiary amines: Dicyclomineε, Oxybutynin, Flevoxate, Pirenzepine, Telenzepine. (c) Antiparkinsonian: Trihexphenidyl (Benzhexolε), Procyclidine, Biperidenε, Cycrimine, Ethopropazine.

Drugs acting on Autonomic Ganglia
Ganglionic Stimulants
Selective nicotinic agonists
Nicotine (small dose) Lobeline Dimethyl phenyl piperazinium iodide (DMPP) Tetramethyl ammonium (TMA)

Nonselective/muscarinic agonists
Acetylcholine Carbachol Pilocarpine Anticholinesterases MCN 343-A

Ganglion Blocking Agents
Competitive Blockers
Quarternary ammonium compounds Hexamethonium Pentolinium Amines Mecamamine Pempidine Monosulfonium compound Trimethaphan camforsulfonate

Persistent depolarising blockers
Nicotine (large dose) Anticholinesterases (large dose)


				
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