Biology 2401 The Nervous System Purpose This lab will

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					                                     Biology 2401
                                  The Nervous System

Purpose:

This lab will describe the composition of the nervous system including the brain, spinal
cord, nerves, and special senses.

I. Introduction to the Nervous System
       A. Identify the structures of a neuron

       B. List the main divisions of the nervous system

II. The Central Nervous System
       A. Identify the regions and lobes of the brain

       B. Identify the selected structures in the brain

       C. Identify the ventricles of the brain

       D. Identify major regions in a cross section of a spinal cord

III. The Peripheral Nervous System
       A. Identify selected cranial nerves

       B. Identify each major nerve plexus and nerves that arise from each plexus

IV. The Special Senses
       A. Identify major structures of the mammalian eye

       B. Identify extrinsic eye muscles

       C. Identify major structures of the external, middle and inner ear

V. Dissections
       A. Dissect the sheep brain (p. 170)

       B. Dissect the cow eye (p. 200)

References:
   o Exercise 5 – Classification of Tissues, 37

   o Exercise 13 – Neuron Anatomy and Physiology, 149

   o Exercise 14 – Gross Anatomy of the Brain and Cranial Nerves, 161

   o Exercise 15 – Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves, 181

   o Exercise 17 – The Special Senses, 197

   o Histology Atlas, 353

   WCJC Biology 2401                                                          Rev 081508
                                       The Nervous System


               Structure                                    Description       Page
Model of Neuron (p. 150)
cell body
axon
dendrite
nucleus
axon hillock
myelin sheath
Schwann cell and nucleus
axon terminal
Nissl substance (bodies)
nodes of Ranvier
Slide of multipolar neuron
axon
cell body
dendrite
Brain (p. 161)
            CEREBRUM*
cerebral hemispheres
longitudinal fissure*
gyri*
sulci*
cerebral cortex (gray matter)*
cerebral white matter*
precentral gyrus
central sulcus
postcentral gyrus
frontal lobe
parietal lobes
occipital lobe
temporal lobes
corpus callosum*
cingulate gyrus
lateral ventricles*
                             * also identify structure in dissected organ




WCJC Biology 2401                             Page 1 of 5                   Rev 010309
                                        The Nervous System


                                                             Description       Page
           DIENCEPHALON
optic chiasm*
thalamus*
hypothalamus*
pituitary gland*
infundibulum
3rd ventricle
pineal gland
           CEREBELLUM*
vermis
arbor vitae*
              BRAIN STEM
midbrain
pons*
medulla oblongata*
corpora quadrigemina*
  - superior colliculus*
  - inferior colliculus*
cerebral aqueduct*
4th ventricle


Spinal Cord (p. 181)
white matter
gray matter
  - gray commissure
  - anterior (ventral) horn
  - posterior (dorsal) horn
  - central canal
dorsal root ganglion
dorsal root
ventral root
spinal nerve
                              * also identify structure in dissected organ




WCJC Biology 2401                              Page 2 of 5                   Rev 010309
                                        The Nervous System


                                                             Description       Page
Meninges and Spaces (p. 166)
dura mater*
arachnoid mater
pia mater
epidural space
subarachnoid space


Cranial Nerves (p. 169)
olfactory bulb and tract (CN I)
optic nerves (CN II)
trigeminal nerve (CN V)
facial nerve (CN VII)
vagus (CN X)
vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)


Nerve Plexuses & Spinal Nerves (p. 184)
brachial plexus
  -radial nerve
  -ulnar nerve
  -median nerve
sacral plexus
  -sciatic nerve
  -tibial nerve
  -common peroneal (or fibular) nerve
sympathetic chain ganglia


Anatomy of the Eye
sclera*
choroid*
retina*
ciliary body*
ciliary muscle
                              * also identify structure in dissected organ



WCJC Biology 2401                              Page 3 of 5                   Rev 010309
                                         The Nervous System


                                                              Description       Page
iris
pupil*
suspensory ligaments of lens
lens*
optic nerve (CN II)*
optic disk ("blind spot")
anterior segment
 - aqueous humor
posterior segment
 - vitreous humor*
ora serrata
cornea*
lacrimal gland
fovea centralis
tapetum lucidum **


Extrinsic Eye Muscles
superior rectus
inferior rectus
medial rectus
lateral rectus
superior oblique
inferior oblique


Anatomy of the Ear (p. 205)
auricle or pinna
external auditory canal
tympanic membrane
middle ear cavity
auditory ossicles
  - malleus
  - incus
  - stapes
                               * also identify structure in dissected organ


WCJC Biology 2401                               Page 4 of 5                   Rev 010309
                                    The Nervous System


                                                       Description     Page
pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube
oval window
round window
vestibule
semicircular canals
  - anterior
  - posterior
  - lateral
vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
internal carotid artery
tensor tympani muscle
cochlea
-scala vestibuli
 -scala tympani
 -cochlear duct (scala media)
 -tectorial membrane
 -basilar membrane
 -hair cells




WCJC Biology 2401                        Page 5 of 5                 Rev 010309