A Direct Object is the person or thing that is directly affected by the verb. It generally
answers the question “qué or quién” (“what?” or “whom?”). We can do it. I invited them.

       Although you may associate Direct Object Pronouns –D.O.P.- with things –rather than
with people- there are verbs that will take Direct Object Pronouns with people.

       This will occur when the “object” being invited, seen, heard, known, helped, loved, etc.
is actually a person.

     Some common verbs used with D.O.P. and people are: ver, mirar, oír, escuchar,
conocer, esperar, ayudar, traer, querer (as to love), dejar, odiar, etc.

         1. “Yo La invité a la fiesta”. (I invited her to the party).
         2. “ El siempre los ayuda con la tarea”. (He always helps them with the homework).
         3. “Ella no lo quiere”. (She doesn’t love him).

      In the previous cases, la, los, lo represent Direct objects because there isn’t a thing or
an object between them and the person doing the action (Yo, El, Ella).

      Later, you will see that with Indirect Object Pronouns there is an object between the
two people.

         Direct object pronouns:

Subject                     Direct Object Pronouns
yo                          me (me)                           Tú me llamas.
tú                          te (you, informal)                Ella te invita.
Ud.                         lo (you, masc., formal)           Nosotros lo invitamos. (a Ud.)
                            la (you, fem., formal)            Yo la espero. (a Ud.)
él                          lo (him, it)                      Tú lo conoces. (a él)
ella                        la (her, it)                      Tú la conoces. (a ella)
nosotros                    nos (us, masc. and fem.)          Tú nos invitas.
Uds.                        los (you, masc. pl., formal)      Ella los espera. (a Uds.)
                            las (you, fem., pl., formal)      Nosotros las invitamos. (a
ellos                       los (them, masc.)                 Él los llama. (a ellos)
ellas                       las (them, fem.)                  Nosotras las conocemos. (a

      1. The direct object pronoun goes before a conjugated verb.

      Yo invito a Pedro.                         Yo     lo     invito.

      Ella conoce la escuela.                    Ella   la     conoce.

      Nosotros invitamos a los profesores.              Nosotros    los   invitamos.

      ¿Me invitas a tu casa?        (Will you invite me to your house?)
      Sí, te invito esta tarde.     (Yes, I invite you this afternoon.)

      2. If the sentence is negative, the no must precede the object pronoun.

             Yo     estudio      español.
             Yo     lo estudio.
             Yo     no lo estudio.

      3. If a conjugated verb and an infinitive appear together, the direct object
      pronoun may go before or after both verbs (attached to the infinitive).

             Yo te voy a invitar.
             Yo voy a invitarte.

      4. In the present progressive, the direct object pronoun can be placed either
before the verb estar or after the present participle.
              Lo está leyendo....   o....... Está leyéndolo.
An Indirect object generally answers the question “a quién” or ”para quién” (“to whom?” or
“for whom?”). An indirect object pronoun can replace the indirect object. Ana le dio un suéter
(a Pepa). Ana gave her a sweater (to Pepa): ¿A quién? A Pepa.

       When you say “Le voy a escribir” (I am going to write her/him/you (formal)
yesterday), you don’t mean to grab a marker and write all over her/him/you(formal). You
probably mean to write something, such as a letter, an e-mail or a note to her/him/you

       Some common verbs that will take Indirect Object Pronouns when referred to people
are: dar, decir, comprar, hablar, escribir, mandar, regalar, vender, etc, because you give,
say, buy, speak, write, send, give as a gift, sell, etc., something (an object) to/for/from

         Compare the following examples:

         Les escribí.      (I wrote to them/you (plural).
         Los escribí.      (I wrote them (the e-mails).

         Le hablo.         (I speak to her/him/you (formal).
         Lo hablo.         (I speak it (French, Chinese, Spanish, etc.)


yo                         me (to / for me)                            Tú me das dinero.
tú                         te (to / for you, informal)                 Yo te doy dinero.

Ud.                        le (to / for you, formal, masc.             Ellos le compran
                           and fem.)
ella                       le (to / for him / her)               Yo le vendo mi coche.

nosotros                   nos (to / for us, masc. and fem.)           Ellas nos venden pan.

Uds.                       les(to / for you, formal pl., masc.         Tú les das 5 dólares.
ellos                      and fem.)                                   La profesora les da
ellas                      les (to / for them, masc. and fem.

1. The forms of the indirect object pronouns are the same as the forms of the direct
object pronouns, except in the third person (singular and plural). As with Direct
pronouns, Indirect object pronouns go before a conjugated verb.

¿Quién les vendió el coche (a ellos)?                      “ Who sold them the car?”

2. When an infinitive follows the conjugated verb, the indirect object pronoun may be
placed in front of the conjugated verb or attached to the infinitive.

Te voy a prestar mi bicicleta....     o .......Voy a prestarte mi bicicleta.

3. In the present progressive, the indirect object pronoun can be placed either before
the verb estar or after the present participle.

Les estoy dando mi coche a Juan y Ana.          Estoy dándoles mi coche a Juan y Ana.

Since le and les mean so many things, these indirect object pronouns (le and les)
require clarification when the person(s) to whom they refer is not specified.

Le presto mi bicicleta (a ella, a él, a Ud.)
Les doy dinero (a ellos, a ellas, a Uds.)

This clarification can also be used to express emphasis.
¡Jorge me invitó a la fiesta a mí!     (He invited me and didn’t invite anybody else!)
                       (USADOS JUNTOS)
1. When both an indirect object pronoun and a direct object pronoun are used in the
same sentence, the indirect object pronoun always go first.

      Pepa me prepara tapas.          Pepa me las prepara.
           Ind.                            I. D.

2. Pronouns may NOT be separated. When having two verbs, the pronouns may go
either before or after both verbs. If they go after both verbs, they must be attached to
the second one.

           I. D.
      Pepa me las va a preparar.      Pepa va a preparármelas.

3. When both pronouns begin with “L”, the indirect object pronoun (le or les) is
changed to se.

           I.    D.
      Pepa le da dinero.                     Ana   se     lo   da.
                                             I.    D.

With all direct affirmative commands, the object pronouns are placed after the verb and are
attached to it, forming a single word.

Déle el regalo.                  “Give her/him the gift”.

Háblanos, por favor.                    “Speak to us”.

Siéntese aquí.                          “Sit here”.

Mándemelo el lunes, por favor. “Send it to me on Monday”.


With all negative commands, the object pronouns are placed in front of the verb.

No le de el regalo.                     “Don’t give her/him the gift”.

No nos hables, por favor.               “Don’t speak to us”.

No se siente aquí.                      “Don’t sit here”.

No me lo mande el lunes, por favor.     “Don’t send it to me on Monday”.

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