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Pollution in Hong Kong - PowerPoint

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					Pollution in Hong
      Kong
                   Introduction

 Pollution problems in Hong Kong are similar to
  those encountered in most comparable urban areas
  elsewhere in the world. Aspects that have given rise
  to public concern include: emissions from motor
  vehicles and industries; various water pollution
  black spots; and the continuing need to dispose, in
  an environmentally satisfactory manner, of the large
  amount of sewage and solid wastes generated by
  the community that cannot be reused or recycled.
Air Pollution
Air Pollution
   Definition of Air Pollution


  Air pollution occurs when the
    concentrations of certain
substances become high enough to
      toxify the atmospheric
           environment.
       Types of Air Pollution


          Primary Pollutants :
  Consists of materials dust, gases, liquids and
 other solids) that enter the atmosphere through
   natural and human-made events. The main
 primary pollutants influencing our atmosphere
in order of emission are carbon monoxide, sulfur
     oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic
       compounds, and particulate matter.
     Types of Air Pollution

    Secondary Pollutants :
Consists of primary pollutants that have
reacted with each other or with the basic
 components of the atmosphere to form
          new toxic substances
            Effects of Air Pollution

.   forest fires
   volcanic action
   lightning
   decreased visibility due to yellowish color of NO2
   NO2 contributes to heart and lung problems
   NO2 can suppress plant growth
   decreased resistance to infection
   may encourage the spread of cancer
          Effects of Air Pollution

all combustion processes account for only 5% of NO2
   in the atmosphere, most is formed from reactions
   involving NO
 concentrations likely to rise in the future
 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
 evaporation of solvents
 evaporation of fuels
 incomplete combustion of fossil fuels
          Effects of Air Pollution


 naturally occurring compounds like terpenes from
  trees
 eye irritation
 respiratory irritation
 some are carcinogenic decreased visibility due to
  blue-brown haze
 the effects of VOCs are dependent on the type of
  chemical
          Effects of Air Pollution


 samples show over 600 different VOCs in
  atmosphere concentrations likely to continue to rise
  in future
 Ozone (O3)
 formed from photolysis of NO2
 sometimes results from stratospheric ozone
  intrusions
 bronchial constriction
 coughing, wheezing
          Effects of Air Pollution


 respiratory irritation
 eye irritation
 decreased crop yields retards plant growth damages
  plastics breaks down rubber harsh odor
 concentrations of 0.1 parts per million can reduce
  photosynthesis by 50 %
 people with asthma and respiratory problems are
  influenced the most can only be formed during
  daylight hours
         Effects of Air Pollution

 Peroxyacetyl Nitrates (PAN)
 formed by the reaction of NO2 with VOCs (can be
  formed naturally in some environments)
 eye irritation
 high toxicity to plants
 respiratory irritation
 damaging to proteins
 was not detected until recognized in smog
 higher toxicity to plants than ozone
Noise Pollution
  Definition of Noise Pollution


Noise pollution means
unwanted and damaging sound
that pollute the environment.
                  Noise Pollution

 Noise pollution is caused by:

   Aircraft taking off and landing at the airport.
   Traffic.
   Machinery on construction sites, particularly drills and
    pile-drivers.
   Factory machinery.
   Air-conditioning.
   Discotheque music, radio, cassette-recorder, television
    sets, etc.
                             
         Effects of Noise Pollution

 How dangerous is noise pollution?
  Noise pollution can make people nervous. It can
  prevent people from concentrating on their work. It can
  prevent people from sleeping. It can change a man's
  physiological state by speeding up pulse and respiratory
  rates, and it can damage hearing permanently or
  temporarily. Millions of industrial workers are
  threatened with hearing damage. There is medical
  evidence that noises can cause heart attacks in
  individuals with existing cardiac injury and that
  continued exposure to loud noises could cause such
  chronic effects as hypertension or ulcers.
Land Pollution
                 Land Pollution

Land is very important. The land gives us food, paper,
  lumber, glass, metals, and many other things. Look
  around you. Everything you see started in the soil
  or rocks. Land is very precious, it is something that
  should be cherished and protected. But we don't
  always do this. We waste everything the land
  provided for us so that the land must produce even
  more.
                  Land Pollution

 Our waste ends up in garbage dumps that takes up
  and destroys more and more land every day. Waste
  is a form of pollution. It is litter when we toss it on
  the streets and in our parks carelessly; it adds to the
  garbage dumps when we throw it away in the
  garbage; it pollutes our water when we dump it
  down the drain; it clogs up our atmosphere when
  we burn it.
                  Land Pollution

 Hills and mountains in Hong Kong are now
  threatened by uncontrolled exploitation by human
  beings. They are being used to reclaim the sea,
  build buildings and other uses. When a hill or
  mountain is cleared, many plants and animals lose
  their homes. They must leave or die. Instead, the
  hills become a flat land and are filled with a lot of
  buildings and streets. The men in the buildings
  produce more wastes, and thus pollute more the
  land we live.
         Effects of Land Pollution

 Everything we throw away has to go somewhere.
  Some of solid wastes are burned, but burning of
  wastes will pollute the air. So most of them ends up
  the landfills. But the landfills in Hong Kong which
  are nearly full. At the same time, we have been
  producing more and more wastes, including
  chemicals and nuclear material, that will be around
  for a very long time and be incredibly dangerous.
  Soon, there will be no more room to put all of our
  garbage.
        Effects of Land Pollution

 According to the information provided by
  Agenda 21, the amount of solid waste
  produced will increase four to five times by
  2025. If we do nothing to change this, Hong
  Kong will be engulfed in a mountain of
  waste and pollutants! Can you think about
  when you are living around mountains of
  rubbish!
      Solutions to Land Pollution


 Actually there is a clear solution to the waste
  problem: waste should not be produced in the
  first place. We've got used to waste as simply
  a fact of life
       Solutions to Land Pollution

 but in fact waste is always a big mistake. Industry
  can and should introduce ways of making thing
  without producing waste.
 What can you do? Here are some ideas that you can
  do to help our environment:
 Don't drop litter.
 Ask people to keep your neighborhood a " litter-
  free zone."
 Organize your friends to do a litter pick up in your
  neighborhood.
       Solutions to Land Pollution

 Don't allow your pets to foul up the lawns or local
  parks. If it does, be sure to clean it up.
 Ask your parents to make sure the cleaners they use
  are biodegradable. (substances that will break down
  quickly and cause no pollution)
 Look out for things at home that can be recycled.
  (aluminium foil, tin cans, glass bottles, plastic bags,
  newspapers and bottles)
 Ask your friends to concern about the environment.
 Plant in you home.
Water Pollution
                Water Pollution

 Water pollution is increasingly becoming a large
  problem that we as humans need to confront. Water
  is our most valuable resource. Just think of how
  much we humans are dependent upon clean water .
 Besides the fact that we drink the water, we use it
  for irrigation of farm fields, cooking, washing
  clothes, flushing toilets, etc. and every industrial
  process requires water to function. Everyone knows
                Water Pollution

 that the Earth's surface is covered by 70% water, so
  why fuss over protecting water? Only 3% of all
  water is fresh and drinkable and of that 3%, 75% is
  frozen in polar ice caps, which leaves a grand total
  of only 1% of the Earth's surface water that is
  readily available for consumption After taking that
  fact into account, one can see why the conservation
  and protection of our remaining water supply is so
  vital. Before water pollution can be stopped, the
  sources of the pollution must be known.
                 Water Pollution


 The major sources of water pollution are organic
  pollution, agricultural pollution, runoff, toxic waste,
  and thermal pollution.
 Organic pollution is becoming more and more
  pressing on the environment, because of the
  growing population of the world. It's a simple
  concept, the more people there are in one area, the
  more waste they will produce. For example, in a
                Water Pollution

 city there are so many people that the sewage plants
  and the environment can't take care of all of the
  waste and function in its usual manner The sewage
  plants do their best, but the secondary discharge
  that gets into the water supply causes great
  problems. The excess waste acts as a food source
  for algae and the growth rate is uncontrollable. The
  algae will deposit on the shore and the water is
  clouded with algae. This situation is known as
                Water Pollution

 eutrophication, When excess waste is added to the
  water the body of water can no longer control the
  growth of the algae and the water soon becomes
  algae ridden and oxygen depleted. The water
  becomes oxygen depleted, because the dead algae
  goes to the bottom and uses the oxygen in the
  deeper water to decompose, but if there is too much
  dead algae all the oxygen is depleted.
      Solutions to Water Pollution

 In some cases people don't know that they are even
  polluting. Through education valuable information
  can be distributed. Education in schools has already
  begun for the next generation. Schools go on field
  trips to sewage plants to see how they work There
  is no reason to stop at the school level. Adults can
  also be educated at local meetings, newspapers,
  television, etc. The faster the people become
  educated the faster the reduction of water pollution
  can occur.
      Solutions to Water Pollution


 Many people ask that can I do to help ? The answer
  is simple, become educated about water pollution
  and use common sense. Think before you dump any
  chemicals into a drain or on the ground and ask
  yourself, There will these chemicals end up at ?
  Conserve water by reducing those long wasteful
  showers, turning off the water when it isn't in use,
  don't over water your lawn, etc. Remember that
  water is like gold, so treat it like gold and don't
      Solutions to Water Pollution

 waste an ounce. Every action has a consequence, so
  before you dispose of anything think of whether the
  consequence is going to be destructive or beneficial
  to you and the environment.
 Water is a necessity of life and it needs to be
  conserved and protected. If we value life as we
  know it, we need to change our way of life and look
  at water in a different way. Educate yourself and a
  friend and help stop the contamination of our most
  priceless commode, WATER.
    Suggestions to the Government
        and the Industrialists
 Here are also some advice to the government
  and industrialists:
  Soap Processing that uses coconut oil
  At present, soap and detergent industries in the
  country used hard alkyl benzene (HAB) as the
  major raw material for production. Studies showed
  that HAB should be banned because it is a pollutant.
  It aggravates the a pollution of our soil, ground
  water supply and our marine resources. This stand
  was based on a three to nine years study of the
  principal rivers Metro Manila.
  .
    Suggestions to the Government
        and the Industrialists
 The EEC banned the use of HAB in detergents
  because it failed to meet the minimum level of
  biodegradability of 80%. Fifty nine countries of the
  world, including USA and Japan, have banned the
  use of HAB for commercial detergents. It is
  unthinkable that Hong Kong should continue to use
  HAB to produce detergents especially when there is
  a better substitute available. In place of hard alkyl
  benzene, consumer groups and ecologists advocate
  the use of coconut oil. Coco chemicals are superior
  and safe base material in making soap by cold
  process.
    Suggestions to the Government
        and the Industrialists
 Biogas is produced out of fruit peels, food left-over,
  or animal manure in a digester with an integrated or
  separated gas holder. Animal manure like carabao
  or cow dung or fruit peels are initially mixed in a
  slurry for charging into the digester. To hasten the
  initial fermentation, microbes of water are added.
  Fermentation proceeds at a fast rate initially and
  levels off after 28 days. Then sludge and effluent
  are mixed. The sludge is either in dry or wet form
  that can be used as feed supplement for livestock or
    Suggestions to the Government
        and the Industrialists
 as fertilizer. The effluent can be used for chlorella
  culture and also liquid fertilizer after aeration.
  Aside from yielding fertilizer and feed by-products,
  biogas reduces the cost of energy especially when
  compares to the costs incur red with the use of LPG
  and electricity
    Suggestions to the Government
        and the Industrialists
 Biogas Technology
  Organic wastes such as fruit peels and house hold
  left-over continue to pose problems to garbage
  collectors and urban planners. A viable solution to
  this is the biogas technology that makes use of
  organic wastes to produce a kind of fuel called
  biogas. Biogas is produced by the fermentation of
  organic wastes in the absence of oxygen and has the
  following composition: methane, nitrogen, carbon
  monoxide and other gases. It is a good substitute for
  liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, kerosene
  and electricity.
    Suggestions to the Government
        and the Industrialists
 Tissue culture
  Vital environment concern today is our denuded
  forests. We have to replant trees and we have to
  do it now. Raising of fruit trees and forest
  species likes grapes, palm, and coffee trees can
  be done at fast rate by means of tissue culture.
  Stem cutting used to be one of the means of
  propagating plants. Now a single potato can
  reproduce a million plantlets within a year, a
  sugar cane can grow callus indefinitely, a
    Suggestions to the Government
        and the Industrialists
 coconut can sprout tiny clumps of cells. One can
  also culture citrus into a thousand embryos for
  large plantation, breed eucalyptus tree in green
  houses for reforestation.
 On the side of the government, there is a need
  for a strong political will to enforce environment
  laws so as to check the abuse and neglect of the
  environment. Local authorities should strictly
  enforce laws and ordinances on pollution control
  measures for industries, as well as proper
  garbage disposal.
        Everyone’s responsibility


 The environment is not the only one suffering,
  we also suffer from death and diseases due to
  damaged environment. Unless we act fast to
  protect and heal the scared Earth, we shall all
  bear the brunt of our own carelessness.

				
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