Docstoc

wwwrobertoworcomcsci1101lecture1asno5ppt

Document Sample
wwwrobertoworcomcsci1101lecture1asno5ppt Powered By Docstoc
					    CSCI 1101
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS




            5. Basic Computer
            Architecture
                                             ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




    What is a computer?

       Before 1940, a computer was defined as a
        person who performs calculations.
       The modern definition of the term “computer”
        emerged in the 1940’s.
         developed   as a response to World War II military
          needs




2
                                            ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




    Von Neumann’s Definition

       Von Neumann, eminent
        mathematician,
        wrote a report
        describing plans for
        first computer, the EDVAC.
       His report has been
        described as the
        most influential paper
        in the history of computer
        science
       A computer is a device that accepts input, processes
        data, stores data, and produces output.
3
                                             ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1



    What kinds of input can a computer
    use?

       Computer input is whatever you put into
        a computer system.
       Input means to feed information into a
        computer.
         words  and symbols in a document
         numbers for a calculation
         pictures




4
                                        ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




       Data refers to the symbols that represent facts
        and ideas.
       Processing is the way that a computer
        manipulates data.
         performing   calculations
         sorting lists and numbers
         drawing graphs




5
                                        ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




    Why does a computer store data?

       A computer stores data so that it will be
        available for processing.
       Memory is an area of a computer that holds
        data that is waiting to be processed.
       Storage is the area where data can be left on a
        permanent basis.




6
                                        ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1



    What kinds of output does a
    computer produce?

       Computer output is the results produced by the
        computer.
         reports
         documents
         music
         graphs
         pictures

       An output device displays, prints or transmits
        the results of processing.


7
                                          ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




    Computer System Basics

       A computer system includes a computer,
        peripheral devices, and software.
       Hardware refers to the computer itself.
       Peripheral devices are components that
        expand the computer’s input, output, and
        storage capabilities.
       Software is a set of instructions that tells the
        computer how to perform a particular task.

8
                                       ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1



    Why does a computer need
    software?

       A computer needs software to tell it how to
        interact with the user, and specifies how to
        process the user’s data.
       There are many software programs that you
        can buy including software for producing
        resumes, teaching Spanish, and helping you
        plan your diet.



9
                                        ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1



     How and why are computers
     categorized?

        Computers are categorized into four categories
         from least to most powerful:
          microcomputers
          minicomputers
          mainframecomputers
          supercomputers

        A computer is categorized based on its
         technology, function, size, performance, and
         cost.


10
                                        ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




     Microcomputers

        also known as personal computers
        typically found in homes and small businesses
        cost about $2000
        speed can exceed 1,500 mm operations per
         second
        may be stand-alone or may be connected to
         other computers in order to share data and
         software with other users

11
                                 ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




        Microcomputers
 A laptop computer is                 A personal digital
 light, and runs on                   assistant (PDA)
 batteries or electricity             accepts info
                                      on a touch-sensitive
                                      screen




                            Desktop
                            microcomputer


12
                                         ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




     Mainframes

        large, fast, and fairly expensive computers
        used by business or government
        provide centralized storage, processing, and
         management for large amounts of data
        like minicomputers, process requests from
         terminals and can support thousands of users
        often include several central processing units


13
                                        ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




     Supercomputers

        fastest and most expensive type of computer.
        cost between $500,000 and $35 million
        have expanded into business markets to
         handle large volumes of data
        process more than 1 trillion instructions per
         second
        create realistic animations


14
                                              ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




     Computer Platforms

        Two major computer platforms are PCs and
         Macs.
        PCs
          originally   created by IBM
        Macs
          manufactured     by Apple Computer, Inc.
        Computers that operate the same way are
         compatible.

15
                                         ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




         Password Security
        If someone knows your password and logs on
         sending offensive messages, it will look as
         though you did it.



                                                User ID


                              Password




16
                                                ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




         What's the Internet?
        The Internet is the world’s largest computer
         network.
           provides connections for millions of computers all
            over the globe
           provides many information services, the most
            popular being the World Wide Web, or Web
        The Web is a sort of “flea market” for
         information
           includes weather maps, census data, product
            information, course syllabi, music, and images


17
                                     ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




     The User Interface

        The means by which
         humans and computers
         communicate is referred
         to as the user interface.
        A good user interface is
         easy to learn and use.
        User interfaces are still
         evolving.




18
                                        ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




     Computer Commands

        A command is an instruction you input to tell
         the computer to carry out a task.
        Command words are often English words, such
         as print, begin, save, and erase, but they can
         also be more cryptic.




19
                                       ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




     More about Computer Commands

        Syntax specifies the sequence and
         punctuation for command words and
         parameters.
        A syntax error occurs when you misspell a
         command word, leave out punctuation, or type
         the commands out of order.
        A command-line interface is an interface that
         requires the user to type commands.


20
                                            ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




     Menus versus command line

        A menu displays a list of commands or options.
        Menus were developed in response to the difficulties
         people experienced with command-line user interfaces.
        Submenus are additional sets of commands that the
         computer displays after you make a selection from the
         main menu.
        Dialog boxes display the options associated with a
         command.




21
                                         ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




        Graphical objects are small pictures on the
         screen that you can manipulate using a mouse
         or other input device.
        Graphical objects include icons, buttons, and
         windows.

                                   Selected icon
           Icon




22
                                               ACS 160 - Computer Concepts - Chapter 1




     Why are GUIs so popular?

        Graphical objects are a key element of the
         graphical user interfaces, or GUIs, found on
         most of today’s microcomputers.
          display   menus and prompts in addition to graphical
           objects
          based on metaphors that represent real-world
           objects
               Recycle bin




23

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:3/1/2010
language:English
pages:23