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					IFLA Satellite Meeting, Scholarly Information on East Asia in the 21st Century

                                   (2006 : Yŏnse Taehakkyo)

                  IFLA General Conference (72nd : 2006 : Seoul, Korea)



 JTKU Bibliographic Records Loaded in RLG Union Catalog : Their Compatibility

       with LC Practices for Japanese-Language Monographic Title Cataloguing



                                      Hideyuki MORIMOTO

                               Columbia University Libraries



15 September 2006




Abstract




        Characteristics      of   JTKU     bibliographic     records        loaded    from    the   Keio

University Libraries into RLG Union Catalog are discussed from the point of

view    of    their   compatibility      with   the    United      States    Library     of    Congress

practices for Japanese-language monographic title cataloguing.                        Background and

related reports on loading of source records prepared in Japan into RLG Union

Catalog and WorldCat are reviewed.                Editing requirements for use in North

America of JTKU bibliographic records are then described, in comparison with

North American editing of WINE bibliographic records loaded in WorldCat and

TRC    MARC    bibliographic      records    loaded    in    RLG    Union     Catalog,       regarding:

records       clustering;   levels    of    bibliographic       description;         choice    of   main

entries;      Chinese   character     variants;       word   division;       capitalisation;        long

vowels; romanisation and original script data pair fields; physical details;


                                            - 1 of 34 -
name headings; subject headings; classification numbers; fixed-length field

codes; superfluous fields; and field ending punctuation.




                                 - 2 of 34 -
0.         Introduction



       Catalogue       data     exchange    on     an    international           scale      has         been      seeing

various twists and turns.            Some initial steps toward this direction were made

with the International Conference on Cataloguing Principles held in Paris in
                                                                    1            2              3                        4
1961 as well as with development of AACR1,                              AACR2,        ISBD,             and UNIMARC

standards.          Subsequent      years       have      witnessed        more       co-operation                toward

standardisation/harmonisation              of      cataloguing           conventions            to        facilitate

bibliographic         and     authority     data        exchange        across       national            boundaries.

Examples     include:           British      Library's         contribution            to       Name         Authority

Cooperative Program (NACO) and Subject Authority Cooperative Program (SACO)
                                                                                            5                            6
sponsored by the United States Library of Congress (LC);                                        REUSE project

undertaken     by     LC,    the   Niedersächsische           Staats-      und       Universitätsbibliothek

Göttingen, and OCLC to align headings established through application of RAK 7
                                                                                                    8
and   AACR2;    Multilingual        Access       to     Subjects        (MACS)    Project               of    national

libraries of Britain, France, Germany, and Switzerland examining feasibility

of mapping among LCSH, 9 RAMEAU, 10 and RSWK/SWD; 11 and Virtual International

Authority      File    Project      by    LC,    OCLC,        and   Deutsche         Bibliothek              to     study

applicability of an algorithm of automated correlation establishment between

the LC/NACO authority records and German name authority records. 12                                          13
                                                                                                                    RDA 14

currently      in     preparation        reflects       its     participants'           intention              of     de-

emphasising      the        Anglo-American       bias        inherent      in    AACR1          and       AACR2       for

international       adoption.        At    the        same    time,      with    cataloguing              convention

differences left intact, more bibliographic records prepared by agencies,

libraries, and vendors, situated outside North America, including Bibliothèque

nationale de France 15 , are loaded into such bibliographic utility databases as

OCLC's WorldCat and RLG Union Catalog.




                                                - 3 of 34 -
         In    line    with     this    general       trend        in   utilisation    of    catalogue    data
                                                      16
prepared        in     the     non-AACR2/LCRI                environment,        Japanese-imprint        title

bibliographic         records       prepared    in         Japan    through   application         of   Japanese

cataloguing conventions have been loaded to RLG Union Catalog and WorldCat.

East Asian studies library collections in North America remain to this date

unconnected to the NACSIS-CAT system, although NII Webcat Plus is heavily used

there.        Thus, bibliographic records loaded from Japanese sources of Japanese

imprint titles in such readily-accessible bibliographic utilities as OCLC and

RLIN     are     of     paramount         significance             to   Japanese    studies        information

professionals in North America, although such bibliographic records, while
                                                       17
being     converted          into   the      MACR21          format,      retain      traits      of   Japanese

cataloguing          conventions       not    necessarily           compatible     with     the    cataloguing

practices followed by LC.



         In this situation, this paper will discuss characteristics of one source

of such Japan-originated records, KOSMOS loaded from the Keio University Media

Centers system (JTKU) in RLG Union Catalog in terms of their compatibility

with LC practices for Japanese-language monographic title cataloguing.




1.            Background of Japan-Originated Source Record Loading in RLG Union

              Catalog and WorldCat



         A considerable number of bibliographic records from Japan of Japanese

imprints have been loaded in OCLC's WorldCat and RLG Union Catalog in the

MARC21 format.          Statistical figures and coverage description of these records

are provided in this chapter.




                                                - 4 of 34 -
       In    December       1995,    after        many      years    of   record   conversion    algorithm

refinement and negotiation, OCLC loaded in the then On-line Union Catalog

(OLUC) 282,980 WINE bibliographic records from the Waseda University Libraries

through Kinokuniya.           These represented "books" format (according to Waseda's

definition and treatment not necessarily in line with the North American

practices)        records    of     Japanese-language           titles     (washo)    acquired    for   the

University's Main Library general collections between 1948 and 1985.                                 Those

records were extracted from WINE's retrospective conversion file, which also

contained records for Main Library general collections' non-Japanese imprint

titles that were excluded in the data extraction process through a criterion

of JIS code data presence. 18           19   20   21
                                                         The record count of 282,980 was based on

OCLC's master record principle.                        That is to say, the number represented

records recognised by the machine as "new" to OLUC after application of the

record validation and deduplication algorithm to approximately 330,000 WINE

records that OCLC had originally received from Kinokuniya.                                   It is known,

however, that some of the 282,980 records that the machine determined as "new"

to   OLUC   duplicated       pre-existing          master      records     in   the   OCLC   bibliographic

database contributed by other sources than the Waseda University Libraries.



       In May 1998, after months of negotiation and testing, RLG made an

initial record mounting in their regular production-mode RLIN "books" file

over 91,000 bibliographic records from Toshokan Ryutsu Center (TRC) of post-

1997 Japanese imprints.             RLG added since then until February 2005 on a weekly

basis records newly processed at TRC for more recent Japanese imprint titles.

Due to RLG's data migration to and stabilisation of RLIN21, records loading

from TRC to RLG Union Catalog has been suspended since March 2005, which is
                                                                     22
planned     for    resumption       some     time      in    2006.         It   was   reported   that   TRC

catalogues approximately 1,000 new books per week representing 95 per cent of

the synchronous Japanese publishing output and that records should appear in


                                                  - 5 of 34 -
RLG Union Catalog well before North American libraries received corresponding

physical items from Japan.23



       In July 2001, OCLC added to its WorldCat 277,481 Phase II WINE records,

out of 421,497 bibliographic records that the Waseda University Libraries had
                                             24
sent   to   OCLC   through   Kinokuniya.           Those   represented      Japanese     imprints

acquired at Waseda's Main Library general collections before 1948 or after

1985 as well as titles housed at branch libraries' general collections.25



       In March 2004, 114,037 Phase III WINE records, out of 149,115 received

from the Waseda University Libraries, for further Japanese imprints were added

to   WorldCat.       Since   then,   additional     bibliographic      records    for    Japanese

imprints have been received on a monthly basis from the Waseda University

Libraries at OCLC for loading in WorldCat.26



       In   January 2005,     RLG    added   to   its    RLG   Union   Catalog    bibliographic

records for Japanese and Western imprints under library identifier JPKG from a

group of approximately 330,000 bibliographic records that the Keio University

Media Centers had extracted from its KOSMOS local system for shipment to RLG,

which collected all bibliographic records that the Media Centers had prepared

since October 1998, when the Media Centers made adjustment to their local

cataloguing practice to be more in line with the North American one.                     Based on

encouragement from RLG and Media Center's contemplated strategic initiatives,

the Keio University Media Centers have been considering their further and on-

going bibliographic records provision to North America.27



       Japan MARC records were test-loaded to both the then OLUC and RLIN in

1994 and 1995.        However, Japanese title cataloguing staff members surveyed

regarding    those    test-loaded    records      were   not   so   much   in   favour   of   such


                                         - 6 of 34 -
bibliographic data due to much editing needed to utilise them in the North

American cataloguing context.          In addition, both OCLC and RLG encountered some

contractual    difficulties       in   actually   starting   subscription        to    Japan    MARC

record delivery services.          Thus, Japan MARC records are not mounted in RLG

Union Catalog or WorldCat; and neither OCLC nor RLG has immediate plan of

loading those Japan MARC records into each bibliographic file.



         As of summer 1998, OCLC anticipated start, in 1999, of monthly mounting

of Kino MARC records from Kinokuniya into WorldCat of contemporary Japanese

imprints to number approximately 60,000 titles per year, 28                29   30
                                                                                     which did not

materialise.




2.         Related Reports



         Some reports have been prepared on usability of source bibliographic

records processed in Japan for Japanese imprints within the North American

cataloguing context.



         In May 1995, OCLC undertook a study, through its own analyses and a

questionnaire distributed to OCLC CJK user institutions, to compare Japan MARC

records and WINE records, both of which were test-loaded in the then OLUC.

Survey    result    tabulation    indicated   that   respondents      to   the       questionnaire

preferred    WINE    to   Japan   MARC   records,    which   lacked   romanisation         to   the

remainder of title data and publisher information entered respectively under

the then US/MARC field 245 subfield b and under field 260.                  Seventy-four (74)

per cent of respondents to the questionnaire supported an idea of actual

loading of WINE records in OLUC, while the positive answer rate to a proposal

of adding Japan MARC records was somewhat lower at the level of 65 per cent.


                                          - 7 of 34 -
Bibliographers responding to the survey noted enormous utility of both sources

of records for their collection development and reference work.31



      In 1998, Morimoto delivered a paper on compatibility of WINE records as

loaded in WorldCat with LC practices for Japanese-language monographic title

cataloguing, based on two and a half years up to that time of experience of

using Phase I WINE records appearing in WorldCat. 32                 That report concluded

that those records were of benefit to reference, collection development, and

interlibrary lending operations, but that, for cataloguing, while contributing

to time saving in Sino-Japanese original script data entry, those records

could not be used as they were in North America.



      In   preparation    for    the   Next   Decade    Planning     Meeting      of   the   North

American Coordinating Council on Japanese Library Resources (NCC) held in

March 2000, Morimoto and Harrison presented in October 1999 a position paper

regarding technical services. 33        As of that time, the position paper pointed

out that no systematic efforts had been made toward harmonisation of Japanese

and North American cataloguing practices or toward planning for automated

switching mechanism between Japanese and North American authority records as

well as classification numbers.



      At the Council on East Asian Libraries (CEAL) Plenary Session also held

in March 2000, Morimoto made a presentation entitled "CEAL at the dawn of the

21st century : comment from the CEAL Committee on Japanese Materials." 34                       It

emphasised    the   hindrances   to    realisation     of   cost-effectiveness         and   urged

achievement    of   consistent   application     on    a    global   level   of    particularly

problematic Japanese word division and development of automatic switching

mechanism between Japanese and LC authority as well as classification files.




                                        - 8 of 34 -
        In September 2002, Sakai presented a report on problems of bibliographic

data in Japan. 35   It pointed out that bibliographic data prepared in Japan for

Japanese     imprints   were     not    yet     ready      for        global    use    in    terms      of:

(1) difficulty associated with the Japanese language; and (2) difference in

cataloguing practice.           For solution of the problems and globalisation of

bibliographic data prepared in Japan, it advocated construction of unified

standard bibliographic data and, by use of cataloguers' time to be saved

through elimination of duplicative cataloguing efforts, assignment of subject

headings to each relevant individual bibliographic record.



        "TRC MARC bibliographic records loaded in RLIN : their compatibility

with LC practices for Japanese-language monographic title cataloguing" by

Morimoto     analysed   characteristics        of    TRC    MARC        bibliographic        records    as

appearing in RLG Union Catalog, from the point of view of their compatibility
                                          36
with    LC   cataloguing   practices.               Editing       needs    in    use    of    TRC      MARC

bibliographic    records    within     the     North    American        cataloguing     context        were

explained




3.         Editing Requirements of JTKU Records for Cataloguing Finalisation in

           North America



        No matter how meaningful it might be the presence of JTKU records in RLG

Union   Catalog,    they   do    not   always    conform         to    current    LC   practices       for

Japanese-language monographic title cataloguing.                      This is unfortunately given,

since, although JTKU records are already in modified MARC21 format within

KOSMOS and local cataloguing policy within the Keio University Media Centers

has been adjusted to better serve the needs of users of bibliographic records

outside Japan, the content designation somewhat reflects Japanese cataloguing


                                         - 9 of 34 -
norm, rather than North American ones.                       Thus, at North American libraries,

prior   to     cataloguing        finalisation      using    those    JTKU   records     in    RLG    Union

Catalog, some record editing is needed, although such needs are less prevalent

than with WINE and TRC MARC records.                 In this chapter, characteristics of JTKU

records as loaded in RLG Union Catalog will be discussed in terms of editing

performed at North American libraries to make those records compatible with LC

practices of Japanese-language title monographic records.




3.1.         Records Clustering



        Different from WorldCat structured on the master records principle, RLG

Union Catalog stores and maintains all contributed bibliographic records.

Therefore,      the      duplication      problem    of   bibliographic      records     for    the     same

resources from WINE and other sources within WorldCat is irrelevant inside RLG

Union Catalog.            However, RLG Union Catalog is organised through an automated

record clustering mechanism, by which records that the machine determines

represent the same resource, based on certain criteria, are collocated under

one cluster for retrieval.                 One of such clustering algorithm criteria is a

match in edition statements entered in MARC21 bibliographic field 250.



        As    is    the    case    with    TRC    records,    JTKU    records   often    lack     edition

statements         in   MARC21     bibliographic      field     250    or    elsewhere    in     affected

bibliographic           records,    even    when     edition    statements      clearly        appear     in

resources themselves.              Since North American libraries enter in field 250

edition statements found in prescribed sources of bibliographic information, 37

undesirable situations often happen of separate cluster formation of a JTKU

record and its corresponding ones prepared by North American libraries.                                 For

instance,


                                                 - 10 of 34 -
           ID: JPKGTT00366845-B (JTKU record in RLG Union Catalog)

           (ISBN 4766411153)

           lacks "Shohan" in field 250 or elsewhere in the record



         Therefore, in RLIN21 search, refinement by edition statements would miss

JTKU records.     That is to say, such search statement as "~;lim 250 shohan or

500 shohan" would lead to a lower recall score.




3.2.       Levels of Bibliographic Description



         WINE and TRC records reflect cataloguing treatment prevalent in Japan of

inventory control of each physical piece through a uniquely corresponding

bibliographic record rather than a North American handling, within open-stacks

environment, of each multipart resource without distinctive part title with

one bibliographic record to which item-level records for component parts are

attached.38



         However, JTKU records adopt North American handling of one bibliographic

record     representing     multiple    parts,    as    appropriate.         For     instance,

JPKGTT00370256-B       encompasses   both   volumes    within   a   2-volume   selection     of

Immanuel Kant's works translated into Japanese.




3.3.       Choice of Main Entries



         The current Japanese cataloguing rules do not have any provision for a

main   entry   other    than   titles   proper.       WINE   records   are   based    on   this


                                        - 11 of 34 -
cataloguing convention to treat titles proper as main entries.         TRC records

sometimes carry main entries other than titles proper, especially personal

names.     Most of personal name entries appearing in TRC records agree in the

choice of main entries with North American cataloguing practice; however,

there are instances, other than personal name main entries, of TRC records not

in line with main entry provisions in AACR2 39 or LCRI. 40     In addition, in TRC

records, it is unknown what the basis of the assignment is of the first

indicator value within MARC21 bibliographic field 245, which is supposed to be

chosen on the basis of each main entry.



         On the other hand, JTKU records are more in line with North American

practice in choice of main entries and assignment of the first indicator value

within bibliographic field 245.    For instance,



          ISBN 4166603973



          OCLC #56764353 (WINE in WorldCat)

          245 00 Daigo no kenryoku amerika no shinkutanku.

          700 1   Yokoe, Kumi, ╪d 1965-



          RLIN JGTR04042899-B (TRC record in RLG Union Catalog)

          100 1   ╪aYokoe, Kumi.

          245 00 ╪aDaigo no kenryoku amerika no shinkutanku.



          RLIN JPKGTT00358521-B (JTKU record)

          100 1   ╪aYokoe, Kumi,╪d1965-

          245 10 ╪aDaigo no kenryoku Amerika no shinkutanku /╪cYokoe Kumi cho




                                   - 12 of 34 -
3.4.       Chinese Character Variants



         Eureka as well as FirstSearch for end users and RLIN21 as well as

Connexion for library employees operate in the Unicode environment, although,

currently, Unicode Chinese characters outside the EACC (East Asian Character

Code) repertoire are still outside the scope in these systems.                       Also, since

AACR2, as a principle, requires, as much as practicable, faithful recording of

data appearing in the prescribed sources of bibliographic information, 41 if a

title page presents traditional Chinese characters, the traditional Chinese

characters should be entered in each corresponding bibliographic record within

the confines of EACC.            If a title page presents simplified Chinese characters,

those simplified Chinese characters should be entered in each corresponding

bibliographic record within the confinement of EACC.                    In that respect, WINE

records,    as   loaded     in    WorldCat,   carry   all   traditional    Chinese    characters

within the EACC repertoire used in, for instance, Meiji period publications as

converted into those as simplified in the Japanese way.                 Although, because TRC

records are mainly for recent Japanese imprints, the frequency of traditional

Chinese character occurrence is not high, since some authors and organisations

insist     on    use   of    traditional      Chinese    characters,      traditional    Chinese

characters sometimes appear in recent Japanese publications.                         TRC records

exhibit the same characteristics as WINE records in this regard.                  In addition,

even when Chinese characters are within the list of daily use in Japan,

variant Chinese characters are sometimes seen entered in TRC records.



         JTKU records are more faithfully transcribing Chinese characters as

appearing in each corresponding resource.               For instance,



           ISBN 4831878502




                                           - 13 of 34 -
              RLIN JGTR04052091-B (TRC record)

              260      ... :╪b 法蔵館,...




              RLIN JPKGTT00367433-B (JTKU record)

              260      ... :╪b 法藏館,...




Yet,     in    JTKU    records,     while   the   statement    of   responsibility    tries    to

transcribe the data from the resource itself, the CJK pairs to headings

convert traditional Chinese characters into Japanese simplified ones.                          For

instance,



              author name:        蓮實重彥




              RLIN JPKGTT00360803-B (JTKU record)

              100 1    ╪a 蓮実, 重彦╪d(1936-)


              245 10 ... /╪c〓實 重〓 著




3.5.          Word Division



         Although word division in romanised fields in MARC records for Japanese-

language titles sometimes poses difficulty and inconsistencies for the same

Japanese phrase and in the same context romanised with different word division

even among current LC records, due to the limited non-roman script value

search    options       available   in   North    America,    achievement   of   consistency    to

increase        word    division     predictability      in     records     within   any   given



                                            - 14 of 34 -
bibliographic    data   file   is   of   paramount   significance   from   an   information

retrieval point of view.        However, unfortunately, WINE records as loaded in

WorldCat often lack any word division in the publisher field (field 260

subfield b); and, in the title field (field 245 subfields a, b, and p), word

division convention is not always in line with the current ALA-LC romanisation

guidelines. 42    The same problems are found in TRC records; and, there is no

word division in the publisher field.



      JTKU records carry word division in publisher fields; and word division

practice is more in line with ALA-LC romanisation guidelines than WINE and TRC

records.    For instance,



           ISBN 4889151249



           RLIN JGTR04054405-B (TRC record)

           260    ... :╪bKichōbonkankōkai,╪c...



           RLIN JPKGTT00367360-B (JTKU record)

           260    ... :╪bKichobon kankokai,╪c...



although some JTKU word division exhibits differences, such as:



           RLIN JPKGTT00370360-B

           245 10 ╪aPuroguramingu no tameno senkei daisu ...



which, according to the ALA-LC romanisation guidelines, should instead read:



           245 10 ╪aPuroguramingu no tame no senkei daisū ...




                                         - 15 of 34 -
       In RLG Union Catalog and WorldCat, word division variation in the title

field threatens information retrieval efficiency whether through the title

browsing, title key-word search, or derived title search.




3.6.       Capitalisation



       WINE and TRC records only capitalise the initial character in romanised

title fields; and all the remaining letters are lower-cased, without regard to

presence of proper nouns.      JTKU records more or less follows the same pattern,

although some (but not all) proper nouns in the non-initial position receive

capitalised first characters.



       For instance,



           RLIN JPKGTT00172098-B (JTKU record)

           245 10 ╪aGaimusho ga keshita nihonjin :╪bNanbei imin no hanseiki ...



In North America, since "Nihonjin" is a proper noun, "N" should be capitalised

even when appearing in the non-initial position within the title proper.

Upper case "N" in "Nanbei," another proper noun, is retained as is in North

America.    Another example is:



           RLIN JPKGTT00370969-B (JTKU record)

           245 10 ╪aMurai masanori,Suda Hisashi ten :╪bNakamura Tsune sho kinen

              ...



In North American cataloguing context, just as "Suda Hisashi" and "Nakamura

Tsune,"     the   first   letter   in   another   proper   noun   "Masanori"   is   also


                                        - 16 of 34 -
capitalised.    ALA-LC romanisation guidelines dictate capitalisation of "each
                                                            43
word of a personal name, except the particle          no"        and "each separately

written word of a geographic name."44




3.7.     Long Vowels



       WINE records carry a macron for each romanised long vowel, in line with

the ALA-LC romanisation guidelines.      TRC records follow the same pattern,

although some cases of diphthong /ou/, as opposed to elongated /o/, are

romanised with "ō."    For instance,



         RLIN JGTR00025221-B (TRC record)

         245 10 Inaba no shirōsagi no sōgō kenkyū.



instead of:



         245 10 Inaba no Shirousagi no sōgō kenkyū.



       JTKU records do not have any macron, even when long vowels are involved,

with the exception of some cases where subject headings are from the LC files.

For instance,



         RLIN JPKGTT00367447-B (JTKU record)

         245 10 ╪aShogai gakushu no isan ...



which, in North America, should instead be romanised as:



         245 10 ╪aShōgai gakushū no isan ...


                                   - 17 of 34 -
while:



          RLIN JPKGTT00339159-B (JTKU record)

          610 10 ╪aJapan.╪bKokkai.╪bShūgiin



may be left as is during copy-assisted cataloguing operations performed at

North American libraries, as per



          LCCN n   81012046   (LC/NACO name authority record)

          110 1    ╪aJapan.╪bKokkai.╪bShūgiin



except for the missing final full stop in the JTKU bibliographic record.45




3.8.      Romanisation and Original Script Data Pair Fields



         WINE records have edition statements (field 250) and notes (field 5xx)

only in Sino-Japanese original script; and the corresponding romanisation

fields simply carry a set of angle brackets as place holders.        In addition,

some romanisation-original script pair fields have imbalanced data not as a

result of data entry mistakes but for data conversion peculiarities from the

WINE MARC format to the MARC21 one.       This trait is also seen in TRC records.

To the edition statements and notes fields in TRC records, no corresponding

roman fields are found; and Sino-Japanese original script data are entered

under ╪6.     In North America, corresponding romanisation data need to be added

in these cases.




                                    - 18 of 34 -
      JTKU records also carry notes in Sino-Japanese original scripts only.

For instance,



        RLIN JPKGTT00370360-B (JTKU record)

        504      ╪6╪a 参考文献: p. [351]




The Library of Congress instructs that, in machine-readable catalogue records,

no non-roman data should be entered unaccompanied by their fully corresponding

romanisation.    LC does not enter at this time any non-roman data in 5xx note

fields, 46 with the exception of bibliographic records for pre-Meiji books. 47

Following this instruction, the example above needs to be edited to read in

North America:



        504      ╪aIncludes bibliographical references (p. [351]).



      In addition, romanisation in the North American cataloguing context is

transliteration of non-roman data into a roman form, rather than substitution

of other expressions for words/phrases already appearing in roman alphabet.

For instance,



        publisher as found in publication:       NTT 出版




        RLIN JGTR04042434-B (TRC record)

        260      ... :╪bEnutītīshuppan,╪c...



is not romanisation from the North American cataloguing point of view, while:



        RLIN JPKGTT00360803-B (JTKU record)


                                  - 19 of 34 -
         260       ... :╪bNTT shuppan,╪c...



is, except for "s" in "shuppan," which should be capitalised, as mentioned in

Section 3.6 above, if ALA-LC romanisation guidelines are applied.




3.9.     Physical Details



       WINE    records    relegate    other     physical   details     data   to   note   fields

described     in   the   Japanese    language   and   always   enter    blanks     in   field 008

positions 18-21 (OCLC Connexion mnemonic, Ills).               Such other physical details

data are not recorded in any field within TRC records; and the value in

field 008 positions 18-21 is left to a default fill character.



       In JTKU records, other physical details data are duly recorded in field

300, although in the Japanese language; and field 008 positions 18-21 are

completed with corresponding codes as defined in MARC21.48                For instance,



         RLIN JPKGTT00370256-B

         008/18: a ; 008/19: c

         300       ╪a2satsu :╪bsozu, shozo ;╪c21 cm.

         300       ╪a2 冊 :╪b 挿図, 肖像 ;╪c21 cm.




To conform to current LC practices, North American libraries need much editing

with WINE and TRC records in this respect, while what is necessary with JTKU

records is only to replace the Japanese terms with AACR2 abbreviations and to

delete the non-roman counterpart of field 300, i.e.,




                                         - 20 of 34 -
          300      ╪a2 v. :╪bill., port. ;╪c21 cm.



although LC no longer       enters "port." or "ports.",    unless one is already

present in source records, based on which LC copy-catalogues.49




3.10.     Name Headings



        Neither WINE nor TRC records base themselves on LC/NACO established name

headings.       The same applies to non-subject authority-controlled fields (i.e,

fields 100, 110, 111, 700, 710, and 711) within JTKU records.



        For instance,



          RLIN JPKGTT00077415-C (JTKU record)

          700 1    ╪aRi, Haku,╪d701-762



instead of:



          LCCN n    50062078 (LC/NACO name authority record)

          100 1    ╪aLi, Po,╪d701-762



as well as:



          RLIN JPKGTT00154700-B (JTKU record)

          710 2    ╪aKeizai sangyosho╪bShomu joho seisakukyoku



instead of:




                                     - 21 of 34 -
          LCCN nr2003022504 (LC/NACO name authority record)

          110 1   ╪aJapan.╪bKeizai Sangyōshō.╪bShōmu Jōhō Seisakukyoku



Also,



          RLIN JPKGTT00370941-B (JTKU record)

          710 1   ╪aTokyoto╪bSangyo rodokyoku



in lieu of:



          LCCN nr2003021572 (LC/NACO name authority record)

          110 1   ╪aTokyo (Japan).╪bSangyō Rōdōkyoku



        For collocation to achieve optimal record retrievability, name headings

entered in fields under authority control in RLG Union Catalog should not

deviate from corresponding LC/NACO established headings.      Careful scrutiny and

editing of such entries in JTKU records, just as in WINE and TRC records, is

called for when North American libraries use these bibliographic records for

cataloguing purposes.




3.11.     Subject Headings



        WINE records in WorldCat carry Japanese corporate body names, meeting

names, uniform titles, topical, and geographic headings used as subjects under

uncontrolled free-text subject descriptor field 653 obviously in the Japanese

language and without word-division in romansation field.      TRC records contain

BSH (Japanese basic subject headings) entries under controlled vocabulary

subject access field 650 both in Sino-Japanese and romanised form as pairs.


                                   - 22 of 34 -
Personal name subject headings are entered under controlled field 600 in both

WINE   and   TRC   records.      In   neither    case,     subject    headings   are   based   on

LC/NACO/SACO established headings.



       JTKU records exhibit some mixed practice in subject headings entry.

Some   records     carry   BSH   entries    only;   some   other     records   include   LC/SACO

headings only; and yet some other records contain both.                 For instance,



         RLIN JPKGTT00370357-B (JTKU record)

         650     7 ╪2BSH╪aKagaku gijutsu seisaku╪xNihon

         <no LC/SACO heading>



         RLIN JPKGTT00370941-B (JTKU record)

         650     0 ╪aWomen╪xEmployment╪zJapan╪zTokyo╪vStatistics.

         650     0 ╪aWorking mothers╪zJapan╪zTokyo╪vStatistics.

         650     0 ╪aParental leave╪zJapan╪zTokyo╪vStatistics.

         650     0 ╪aHours of labor╪zJapan╪zTokyo╪vStatistics.

         <no BSH entry>



         RLIN JPKGTT00154700-B (JTKU record)

         650     7 ╪2BSH╪aTsushin kyoiku

         650     7 ╪2BSH╪aDenshi keisanki to kyoiku

         650     7 ╪2BSH╪aKonpyuta kyoiku

         650     0 ╪aComputer-assisted instruction╪zJapan

         650     0 ╪aInternet in education╪zJapan

         650     0 ╪aDistance education╪zJapan



When fields 600, 610, or 611 within JTKU bibliographic records carry the

second indicator value of "0," those headings are in line with the LC/NACO


                                           - 23 of 34 -
Authority File, which stands in contract to name headings appearing in fields

100, 110, 111, 700, 710, and 711 within                  JTKU records.     For instance, a

corporate body subject entry for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan:



         RLIN JPKGTT00172098-B (JTKU record)

         610 10 ╪aJapan.╪bGaimushō╪xHistory



is in line with:



         LCCN n    80044917      (LC/NACO name authority record)

         110 1     ╪aJapan.╪bGaimushō



while a corporate body added entry for one of the Ministry's Bureaux:



         RLIN JPKGZA00063841-S (JTKU record)

         710 2     ╪aGaimusho╪bTsushokyoku



does not agree with:



         LCCN n    83219343      (LC/NACO name authority record)

         110 1     ╪aJapan.╪bGaimushō.╪bTsūshōkyoku



       When only (a) BSH entry/ies appear(s) in a JTKU record, North American

libraries   need    to     convert   them    into   corresponding     strings     of   LC/SACO-
                                     50                                                      51
compatible subject headings,              and in some cases, to improve specificity

through use of narrower concept terms than the broader ones that BSH entries

may   express.      This    is   obviously    required    so   that   efficient   information

retrieval service within the North American context may be provided to the

library clientele and other bibliographic database users.


                                          - 24 of 34 -
3.12.       Classification Numbers



        WINE       records    receive     Japan     Decimal    Classification     (NDC)     number

assignment, and, in case of their derivation from Japan MARC match records,

additional        Japan    National     Diet    Library    classification   numbers.        No   LC

classification numbers appear in WINE records, unless subsequently enhanced in

WorldCat by North American OCLC member libraries.                  TRC records only carry NDC

numbers.



        JTKU       records    exhibit     the     same    characteristics   as    TRC     ones   in

classification numbers.           For instance,



            RLIN JPKGTT00366845-B (JTKU record)

            084      ╪2NDC9╪a198.8



to/for which North American libraries need to add/substitute:



            050      ╪aLB775.F82



        LC does not assign DDC numbers to Japanese-language titles, but only LCC

numbers in their bibliographic records of Japanese-language "books" titles.

Then, most, if not all, Japanese studies research collections in North America

use   the    LCC     or   Harvard-Yenching       classification    scheme   to   organise    their

stacks.           Some    large   Japanese-language       title   collections,    with     notable

exception of LC and the University of Michigan's Asia Library, have been

suffering from information retrieval inefficiency caused by their split files

of Harvard-Yenching classification shelves and the LCC number ones.                        In this


                                               - 25 of 34 -
situation, in order to ensure maximum browsability both physically in the

stacks and electronically on local call number scan screens in each library's

OPAC    system,       any   further    diversification          in    classification        number   use     is

avoided, since it would jeopardise responsiveness of each local collection to

patrons'    information        requests.        Therefore,           in    North   America,   NDC    numbers

assigned in JTKU records may not be utilised, but, in most cases, LCC numbers

need to be assigned anew.52




3.13.      Fixed-Length Field Codes



        WINE records consistently exhibit some peculiarities with coding for

fixed-length field elements.                  The columns for optional byte specification

field 008 positions 18-21 (illustrations), 24-27 (nature of contents), and 34

(biography) are always left blank, even in cases where LC would enter some

values in their full-level bibliographic records.                             By the same token, value

"0" is always present in optional byte specification field 008 positions 31

(index) and 33 (literary form) in WINE records, even when value "1" in lieu of
                                       53
"0"    would    be    appropriate.            For    government           publications,    code   value      in

field 008 position 28 (government publication) is always set to "o" in WINE

records,       even    when    the    level   of     a    government        entity    responsible      for    a

particular publication is readily ascertainable.                           In TRC records, default fill

characters are always entered under field 008 positions 18-21, 22 (target

audience), 23 (form of item), 24-27, 28, 29 (conference publication), 31, 34,

and 39 (Festschrift).54



        JTKU    records       carry   more    data       in   fixed-length         field   elements.       For

government publications, each code value in field 008 position 28 reflects an

appropriate level of government.               For instance,


                                              - 26 of 34 -
           RLIN JPKGTT00370941-B (JTKU record)

           008/28: s

           260     ... :╪bTokyoto sangyo rodokyoku rodobu rodo kankyoka,╪c...



Field 008 position 31 receives appropriate value, depending on presence or

absence of index(es) in the resource described.          When presence of illustrative

matter is specified in field 300 subfield b, corresponding code(s) is/are

entered in field 008 positions 18-21, although, position 18 is often left

blank and code entry starts at position 19, despite the MARC21 instruction to

left-justify alphabetically-ordered codes in the position range 18-21. 55            For

instance,



           RLIN JPKGTT00251968-B (JTKU record)

           008/18: [blank]

           008/19: a

           008/20: b

           008/21: [blank]

           300     ... :╪bsozu, chizu ;╪c...



However,    when   there   is   no   illustrative   matter,   field 008   positions 18-21

contain default fill characters.         In addition, field 008 positions 24-27, 33,

and 34 always carry default fill characters, which also calls for adjustments

during copy-assisted cataloguing at North American libraries.



      RLIN21 and some other systems provide means for searchers to specify

fixed-length field code values in their query statements for refined record

search.     In addition, even where ready use of those code values is not made at

this time, they serve, as long as accurately coded, as a source of various


                                        - 27 of 34 -
automated record manipulation criteria whenever database management routine

programmes are written.            Thus, consistent and meaningful coding of those

fixed-length field elements is critical at North American libraries.




3.14.      Superfluous Fields



        WINE    records    as   residing    in    WorldCat     contain   field 886s,   which   are

defined in the MARC21 bibliographic format but which neither LC nor most North

American libraries use in Japanese-language title bibliographic records at

this time.       MARC21 bibliographic field 886 is for foreign MARC information;

and, when most, if not all, North American libraries use WINE records for

their   cataloguing       purposes,   they       need   to   delete   field 886s   through   local

editing process, although those fields should be retained in WorldCat master
           56
records.         TRC records do not contain such superfluous fields, except a

constant local note in field 590 regarding purchase possibility of described

resource through TRC itself, which does not carry over into North American

libraries' records when the "copy" process is initiated in RLIN21.



        While JTKU records contain neither fields 886 nor 590, they routinely

include fields 041 and 044, even when not called for.                     According to MARC21,

field 041 is used for language codes, when "field 008/35-37 (language) is

insufficient to convey full information for a multilingual item or an item

that involves translation." 57             Likewise, field 044 is used for countries of

publishing/producing entities, when "field 008/15-17 (place of publication,

production, or execution) is insufficient to convey full information for an

item published or produced in more than one country." 58                    However, many JTKU

records simply repeat a single code each in field 041 and 044 from associated

field 008 positions 35-37 and 15-17.               For instance,


                                           - 28 of 34 -
          RLIN JPKGTT00367360-B (JTKU record)

          008/15-17: ja

          008/35-37: jpn

          041 0       ╪ajpn

          044         ╪aja



        North American libraries need to delete such superfluous fields 041 and

044, when each record copied from a JTKU one simply repeats a single code

already present in field 008.




3.15.     Field Ending Punctuation



        WINE    records       contain     value   "i"   for   ISBD    in    Leader       position 18

(descriptive cataloguing form).              Those records reflect ISBD punctuation; and

field ending punctuation is in line with current LC cataloguing practices

based on AACR2 and MARC21.              TRC records, although carrying code "a" for AACR2

in    Leader    position 18,     exhibit     systematic    difference      from    the   current   LC

practice in field ending punctuation for Sino-Japanese original script pair

fields.



        JTKU records, also containing code "a" for AACR2 in Leader position 18,

are    even    more    different    from    the   current     LC   practice       in   field   ending

punctuation in most fields.               In subject access 6xx fields, when the second

indicator is set to "0," an ending full stop is sometimes supplied but, at

other times, missing.59         For instance,



          RLIN JPKGTT00251968-B (JTKU record)


                                            - 29 of 34 -
         651   0 ╪aSenkaku Islands╪xInternational status.



but,



         RLIN JPKGTT00346618-B (JTKU record)

         651   0 ╪aOsaka (Japan)╪xCivilization╪vCongresses



Other fields, with the exception of fields ending with abbreviations, do not

end with any punctuation in JTKU records.             For instance,



         RLIN JPKGTT00367985-B (JTKU record)

         245 10 ╪aDanso jugunki /╪cNagata Minako cho

         260        ╪a...



does not carry any punctuation at the end of field 245, to which North

American libraries need to add an ending full stop.60              61




4.       Conclusion



        In recognition of the significance within the North American library

environment    of    seeing       Japan-originated    rich     sources   of   Japanese     imprint

bibliographic records in readily-accessible bibliographic utility databases,

such as RLG Union Catalog and WorldCat, as well as of substantial exposure in

North   America     to   such     records   in   cataloguing    operations,    in   this   paper,

characteristics of one source of such Japan-originated records from JTKU as

loaded in RLG Union Catalog were discussed in terms of their compatibility

with    LC   practices      for    Japanese-language       monographic    title     cataloguing.

Background of Japan-originated source record loading in RLG Union Catalog and


                                            - 30 of 34 -
WorldCat was summarised; related reports on loading of source records prepared

in Japan into RLG Union Catalog and WorldCat were reviewed; and editing

requirements of JTKU records for cataloguing finalisation in North America

were described.



      While emphasis in this paper was placed on JTKU records seen from the

current North American cataloguing perspective, even from which the saving in

Sino-Japanese original script data entry time with the presence of those

records in RLG Union Catalog outweighs some editing needed with them, those

records are evidently of benefit to reference, collection development, and

interlibrary lending operations.             Nevertheless, it is highly desirable that

future batches of JTKU records for mounting in RLG Union Catalog be made to

conform further to LC cataloguing practices so that needs for editing them at

North American libraries may be reduced.                    These relate to:             (1) records

clustering;     (2) levels    of   bibliographic          description;         (3) choice    of     main

entries;        (4) Chinese        character            variants;             (5) word       division;

(6) capitalisation; (7) long vowels; (8) romanisation and original script data

pair fields; (9) physical details; (10) name headings; (11) subject headings;

(12) classification numbers; (13) fixed-length field codes; (14) superfluous

fields; and (15) field ending punctuation.



      At the same time, the North American cataloguing scene has long been

witnessing constant changes and rethinking in face of influx of "foreign" and

vendor bibliographic records in bibliographic utility databases.                              In this

situation, this present discussion regarding JTKU records appearing in RLG

Union Catalog, supplemented by reports on WINE records in WorldCat 62 and TRC
                                        63
records    in   RLG   Union   Catalog        ,   should    form     a    basis     for   a   plan   for

international     co-operative     endeavour       in     solving       the    incompatibility      and




                                        - 31 of 34 -
inconsistency quandaries that libraries are currently facing in the course of

Japanese imprints cataloguing.


1
   Anglo-American cataloguing rules (Chicago : American Library Association,
1967)
2
   Anglo-American cataloguing rules, 2nd ed., 2002 revision (Ottawa : Canadian
Library Association, 2002)
3
   ISBD (M) international standard bibliographic description for monographic
publications, 1st standard ed. (London : IFLA Committee on Cataloguing, 1974)
4
   IFLA Working Group on Content Designators, UNIMARC : universal MARC format
(London : IFLA International Office for UNC, 1977)
5
   "Meeting with British Library representative," LC cataloging newsline 6 (7)
(June 1998)
6
   Bernhard Eversberg, et al.     "REUSE : a contribution to the enhancement of
international                     bibliographic                  compatibility,"
(http://webdoc.gwdg.de/ebook/aw/reuse/reuse_final_report.htm)
7
    Regeln für die alphabetische Katalogisierung, RAK, Autorisierte Ausg.
(Wiesbaden : L. Reichert, 1983-1993)
8
   "MACS (Multilingual Access to Subject) Project : report for 2000-2001,"
(https://ilmacs.uvt.nl/pub/node/7?PHPSESSID=0a62282b8462aed92bce915aac963867)
9
    Library of Congress, Library of Congress subject headings (Washington,
D.C. : Library of Congress, 1975- )
10
    France. Ministère de l'éducation nationale, de la jeunesse et des sports.
Cellule nationale de coordination de l'indexation-matière, RAMEAU répertoire
d'autorité-matière encyclopédique et alphabétique unifié (Paris : C.N.C.I.M.,
1990- )
11
     Praxisregeln zu den Regeln für den Schlagwortkatalog (RSWK) und der
Schlagwortnormdatei (SWD), 3., vollst., neu bearb. und erw. Aufl. (Frankfurt :
Deutsche Bibliothek, 2000- )
12
          "Virtual       International       Authority      File       Project,"
(http://www.OCLC.org/research/projects/viaf/index.shtm)
13
     "Bibliographic control of web resources : a Library of Congress action
plan. 2.2," (http://www.loc.gov/catdir/bibcontrol/2-2workplan.pdf)
14
    Joint Steering Committee for Revision of Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules,
"RDA           :        Resource         description        and         access,"
(http://www.collectionscanada.ca/jsc/rda.html)
15
     Karen Smith-Yoshimura, "National Library of France contributes current
cataloging to RLIN," RLIN Focus 31 (April 1998): 1-2.
16
    Library of Congress. Office for Descriptive Cataloging Policy, ed, Library
of Congress rule interpretations, 2nd ed. (Washington, D.C. : Library of
Congress, 1990- )
17
    MARC21 format for bibliographic data, 1999 ed. (Washington, D.C. : Library
of Congress, 1999- )
18
    Hisako Kotaka to OCLC CJK System Users, 31 January 1996, memorandum "OCLC
CJK Statistical Report & WINE Record Editing Guide," passim.
19
     Hisako Kotaka to Hideyuki Morimoto, 12 June 1998, electronic message
"Presentation on WINE records at EAJRS."
20
    Hisako Kotaka, telephone conversation with Hideyuki Morimoto, 12 June 1998.
21
    Fumikura 19 (1 September 1989): passim.
22
    Karen Smith-Yoshimura, "RLIN21 Users Forum," presentation made at RLG Forum,
Berkeley, Calif., 7 April 2006.
23
    Linda P. Lerman, "Vendor records from the Toshokan Ryutsu Center now in
RLIN," RLIN Focus 32 (June 1998): 5.




                                 - 32 of 34 -
24
    Hisako Kotaka to OCLC CJK System Users, July 2001, memorandum, "Waseda
University Information Network (WINE) MARC Project : the Phase II batchload
operations : WINE MARC record editing guide. 2001 version," 1.
25
    Hisako Kotaka to Hideyuki Morimoto, "Presentation on WINE records at
EAJRS."
26
   Hisako Kotaka to OCLC CJK System Users, March 2004, memorandum, "WINE MARC
Project Phase III report & editing guide for OCLC CJK software users," 1.
27
    Yasuyuki Sato to Hideyuki Morimoto, 17 April 2006, electronic message
"Loading of KOSMOS records in RLG Union Catalog."
28
   Gary Houk, "Annual report to the CJK Users Group," paper presented at OCLC
CJK Users Group Meeting, Washington, D.C., 28 March 1998.
29
   Kotaka, "Presentation on WINE Records at EAJRS."
30
   Ellen Caplan to OCLC Enhance Libraries, 8 December 1998, electronic message
"Vendor record information."
31
   OCLC Asia Pacific Services. CJK Services Section, "Report on the Japan and
WINE MARC survey," (OCLC, Dublin, Ohio, 1995, photocopy), 2-3.
32
   Hideyuki Morimoto, "WINE records loaded in WorldCat : their compatibility
with LC practices for Japanese-language monographic title cataloguing = Les
enregistrements WINE chargés au WorldCat : leur compatibilité avec la
catalographie mise à la place pour des monographies japonaises auprès de la
Bibliothèque du Congrès des Etats-Unis," paper presented at 9th Conference of
European Association of Japanese Resources Specialists, Louvain, Belgium,
23 September 1998.
33
   Hideyuki Morimoto and Scott Edward Harrison, "NCC Year 2000 Conference in
San Diego, Next Decade Planning Meeting : defining the issues for technical
services," position paper presented to North American Coordinating Council on
Japanese          Library          Resources,          5 October          1999,
(http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~ncc/archive/techserv.html)
34
   Hideyuki Morimoto, "CEAL at the dawn of the 21st century : comment from the
CEAL Committee on Japanese Materials," Journal of East Asian libraries 122:
1-3 (October 2000)
35
   Yukiko Sakai, "Nihon ni okeru shoshi dēta no mondaiten," paper presented at
4th Library System Study Group Meeting, Kyoto, Japan, 20 September 2002,
(http://libsys.lib.keio.ac.jp/proc020920/naiyo020920_3.html#marc)
36
    Hideyuki Morimoto, "RLIN ni shūsaisareta TRC MARC shoshi rekōdo : sono
Nihongo tosho ni taisuru LC junkyo mokuroku no kankō to no gokansei = TRC MARC
bibliographic records loaded in RLIN : their compatibility with LC practices
for Japnaese language monographic title cataloguing," Daigaku toshokan kenkyū
67 (Mar. 2003): 58-69.
37
   AACR2, 2.2B, 2.0B2, 1.2B.
38
   LCRI, 25.6A.
39
   AACR2, 21.
40
   LCRI, 21.
41
   AACR2, 1.0E1.
42
    "Japanese," in ALA-LC romanization tables : transliteration schemes for
non-roman scripts, comp. and ed. Randall K. Barry, 1997 ed. (Washington, D.C.:
Library of Congress Cataloging Distribution Service, 1997), 73-85.
43
   ALA-LC romanization tables, 73.
44
   Ibid.
45
     Library of Congress. Cataloging Policy and Support Office, Subject
cataloging manual. Subject headings, 5th ed. (Washington, D.C. : Library of
Congress, 1996- ), Appendix D, 1.
46
   LCRI, 1.7A3.
47
   Isamu Tsuchitani, "Descriptive cataloging guidelines for pre-Meiji Japanese
books,"                 7,                 (http://www.lib.washington.edu/east-
asia/japan/cjm/JRareBooksGuidelines.html#_Toc133317268)


                                 - 33 of 34 -
48
   MARC21, 008-Books, Positions 18-21.
49
   LCRI, 2.5C2.
50
    Library of Congress. Cataloging Policy and Support Office, Subject
cataloging manual. Subject headings, H40.
51
   Ibid., H180.
52
    Library of Congress. Cataloging Policy and Support Office, Subject
cataloging manual. Classification (Washington, D.C. : Library of Congress,
1992- )
53
    "Input standards for fixed-field elements and 006," in Bibliographic
Formats             and             Standards,            3rd             ed.,
(http://www.oclc.org/bibformats/en/fixedfield/default.shtm)
54
   MARC21, 008-Books.
55
   Ibid., 008-Books, 18-21.
56
   Kotaka, "WINE MARC Project Phase III report & editing guide for OCLC CJK
software users," 2.
57
   MARC21, 041.
58
   MARC21, 044.
59
    Library of Congress. Cataloging Policy and Support Office, Subject
cataloging manual. Subject headings, Appendix D, 1.
60
   AACR2, 2.4A1.
61
   MARC21, 245, Input Conventions, Punctuation.
62
   Morimoto, "WINE records loaded in WorldCat."
63
   Morimoto, "RLIN ni shūsaisareta TRC MARC shoshi rekōdo : sono Nihongo tosho
ni taisuru LC junkyo mokuroku no kankō to no gokansei."




                                - 34 of 34 -

				
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