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Need definition No title count Not specifically religious category and/or no definition needed Under recommendation, not yet approved. Take action Existing New BISAC Category Super Category Primary Category Sub-category Definition ARCHITECTURE / Facilities, layouts, Religious Buildings CHURCH & MINISTRY designs, other CHURCH LIFE CHURCH ARCHITECTURE All Christian biography BIOGRAPHY & and autobiography AUTOBIOGRAPHY / including African Religious INSPIRATION MOTIVATION Americans, missions. BIOGRAPHY & AUTOBIOGRAPHY BUSINESS & Personal financial ECONOMICS / Personal planning and money Finance / General CHRISTIAN LIVING PRACTICAL LIFE management. PERSONAL FINANCE Cookbooks, collections of recipes and preparation COOKING / General GENERAL INTEREST GENERAL TOPIC COOKBOOK techniques. Biblical, historical & contemporary dramas and skits in a church setting. Also resources. DRAMA / Religious & Include puppet ministries Liturgical CHURCH & MINISTRY MINISTRY RESOURCES DRAMA and clown resources here. Books for aging process including seniors, mid-life crises, menopause, retirement, etc. Resources in providing care for aging are in FAMILY & Church Ministry to RELATIONSHIPS / Aging CHRISTIAN LIVING PRACTICAL LIFE AGING Seniors. FAMILY & RELATIONSHIPS / Eldercare CHRISTIAN LIVING PRACTICAL LIFE CARE GIVING Giving care to others Fiction written before FICTION / Christian 1950 & allegorical style Fiction / Classic & Allegory FICTION GENERAL fiction. CLASSIC & ALLEGORY Apocalyptic novels set in the future (usually End FICTION / Christian Times). Includes science Fiction / Futuristic FICTION GENERAL FUTURISTIC fiction. FICTION / Christian Happening in today's Fiction / General FICTION GENERAL CONTEMPORARY setting. General fiction not FICTION / Christian covered by other Fiction / General FICTION GENERAL GENERAL categories. The historical setting is primary driving element FICTION / Christian of story. Includes Biblical Fiction / Historical FICTION GENERAL HISTORICAL fiction. FICTION / Christian Fiction / Romance FICTION GENERAL ROMANCE Central theme is romance. Collection of brief fictional FICTION / Christian stories with Christian Fiction / Short Stories FICTION GENERAL SHORT STORIES characters and values. "Who done it" and fiction with high degree of FICTION / Christian suspense, including Fiction / Suspense FICTION GENERAL SUSPENSE Action/thrillers. A western setting usually during second half of FICTION / Christian 19th century though early Fiction / Western FICTION GENERAL WESTERN 20th Century. Word games, quizzes, crossword puzzles, mostly for individual enjoyment for general adults. Children's quizzes, etc. goes with activity books - see GAMES / Puzzles GENERAL INTEREST GENERAL TOPIC Children. PUZZLES & GAMES Books with trivia GAMES / Trivia GENERAL INTEREST GENERAL TOPIC TRIVIA questions and answers. Books designed to help the Christian lead a healthy life-style. HEALTH & FITNESS / Resources on diet, Healthy Living CHRISTIAN LIVING DIET & HEALTH illness, and injury. PRACTICAL LIFE Gardening; home arts and crafts, decorating HOUSE & HOME / and home maintenance. General GENERAL INTEREST HOUSE & HOME Crafts in general. GENERAL TOPIC Cartoons, joke books with HUMOR / General GENERAL INTEREST GENERAL TOPIC HUMOR humor as prime content. JUVENILE FICTION / Religious / Christian YOUTH TEEN YOUTH INTERESTS FICTION YOUTH YOUTH INTERESTS GENERAL JUVENILE NONFICTION / Christianity / Christian Life / General YOUTH YOUTH INTERESTS ISSUES JUVENILE NONFICTION / Christianity / Christian Life / General YOUTH YOUTH INTERESTS CHRISTIAN LIVING JUVENILE NONFICTION / Christianity / Christian Life / General JUVENILE NONFICTION / Religion / Devotional & Prayer YOUTH DEVOTIONAL & PRAYER YOUTH INTERESTS JUVENILE NONFICTION / Social Issues / Dating & Dating for teens. Sex Sex YOUTH YOUTH INTERESTS DATING & SEX education for teens. Gift books for graduates JUVENILE NONFICTION are under seasonal / Study Aids / General YOUTH YOUTH INTERESTS books. COLLEGE PREPARATION YOUTH Studies BIBLE JUVINILE NONFICTION / Religion / Biblical YOUTH INTERESTS STUDY Resources for professional, minister & MUSIC / Religious / Christian CHURCH & MINISTRY worship leaders. CHURCH LIFE CHURCH MUSIC RESOURCES General music books of value to Christian reader. Music books of various topics. Examination of role of music in Christian's life. Include MUSIC / Religious / critiques of rock music Christian GENERAL INTEREST LITERATURE & MUSIC THE ARTS here. Collections of poetry of value and interest to Christian reader. Usually written by Christian authors. Does not POETRY / Inspirational & include poetry books in Religious GENERAL INTERESTLITERATURE & POETRY THE ARTS gift format. Decorative and inspirational. Often given Recategorize - See Album super category inGIFTCPCs INSPIRATION Gift BOOK as gifts. ALBUMS, SCRAPBOOKS, ADDRESS Recategorize - See Album super category inGIFTCPCs INSPIRATION Gift BOOK Dedication BABY BOOK & BIRTH Includes dated "Life Systems". Personal Recategorize - See Calendar super categoryGIFT BOOK INSPIRATION in Gift CPCs planners. CALENDAR & DATEBOOK - DATED Includes undated "Life Systems". Personal Recategorize - See Calendar super categoryGIFT BOOK INSPIRATION in Gift CPCs planners. CALENDAR & DATEBOOK - UNDATED Decorative and Recategorize - See CPC inspirational. Often given Super Album INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK as JOURNAL & DIARY gifts. INSPIRATION GIFT category CPCs Wedding related Recategorize - See Wedding & Anniversary super BOOK inWEDDING & GUESTBOOKS, ETC. RELIGION / Antiquities & Archeology of Biblical Archaeology BIBLICAL STUDIES periods and BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY regions. GENERAL STUDIES Commentaries are books which focus systematically on one or more books of Scripture with comments on the meaning of each verse and/or chapters. It includes other types of analysis and background material such as author, date, political situation, etc. Books dealing with topics or themes only of individual books of RELIGION / Biblical Scripture will be in Commentary / General BIBLICAL STUDIES COMMENTARIES ENERAL G General Biblical Studies. RELIGION / Biblical Complete Bible in 1 vol., Commentary / General BIBLICAL STUDIES COMMENTARIES NE VOLUME O OT 1 vol., NT 1 vol. RELIGION / Biblical Complete, OT set, NT Commentary / General COMMENTARIESET & SERIES set, or series of any type. BIBLICAL STUDIES S Singles, sets on single RELIGION / Biblical book, exegesis of NT Commentary / New Testament BIBLICAL STUDIES COMMENTARIESEW TESTAMENT N book Singles, sets on single RELIGION / Biblical book, exegesis of OT Commentary / Old Testament COMMENTARIES LD TESTAMENTbook. BIBLICAL STUDIES O A collection of maps of Bible lands and regions. RELIGION / Biblical Include geography books Reference / Atlases REFERENCE BIBLE ATLASES here. BIBLICAL STUDIES An alphabetical listing of common Biblical words with Scripture references RELIGION / Biblical indicating where they Reference / Concordances BIBLICAL STUDIES REFERENCE CONCORDANCE occur in the Bible. An alphabetical listing of Bible words and theological terms with RELIGION / Biblical Reference / descriptions and Dictionaries & Encyclopedias BIBLICAL STUDIES REFERENCE explanations of meaning. BIBLE DICTIONARY A collection (alphabetical) of articles generally RELIGION / Biblical Reference / covering the whole body Dictionaries & Encyclopedias BIBLICAL STUDIES REFERENCE ENCYCLOPEDIA of Biblical knowledge. Broad general interest RELIGION / Biblical with ideas generally Reference / General GENERAL INTEREST GENERAL TOPIC REFERENCE accepted by Christians. General Reference books whose value can be applied to the whole Bible e.g. concordances, dictionaries, Bible RELIGION / Biblical pronunciations, Gospel Reference / General BIBLICAL STUDIES REFERENCE GENERAL Harmonies, etc. Scripture passages arranged under headings by topic or subject. Arranged alphabetically and usually with system RELIGION / Biblical of cross references. Reference / General REFERENCE BIBLICAL STUDIES TOPICAL BIBLE Overview of entire Bible, book by book (mainly in broad outline) including author, context, etc. Arranged in order of the RELIGION / Biblical Bible. Also called Reference / Handbook BIBLICAL STUDIES REFERENCE HANDBOOK Companion. Bilingual dictionaries, RELIGION / Biblical grammars, phrase books, Reference / Language etc. English as a second Study GENERAL INTEREST GENERAL TOPIC language (ESL). FOREIGN LANGUAGE Grammars, Lexicons, and related books on Biblical Greek, Biblical Hebrew, Aramaic, Latin, etc.; Original language theological word books or RELIGION / Biblical dictionaries; books on the Reference / Language theory and practice of Study BIBLICAL STUDIES LANGUAGE TOOLS GENERAL translation. Includes Bible words (alpha in English) which are defined and explained. Also may provide idioms and nuance of the original Greek/Hebrew text, word derivation, exegetical commentary, word history and etymology, and synonym and antonym lists. Word studies alpha in Greek/Hebrew are RELIGION / Biblical listed with Language Reference / Language Tools. Study REFERENCE WORD STUDIES BIBLICAL STUDIES RELIGION / Biblical Reference / Quotations GENERAL TOPIC GENERAL INTEREST QUOTE BOOK Individual (independent) or small group study, usually interactive with fill- in-blank format, based on RELIGION / Biblical Studies / a specific Bible book or Bible Study Guide BIBLICAL STUDIES STUDY BOOK RELATED topic. BIBLE RELIGION / Biblical Studies / Bible Study Guide BIBLE BIBLICAL STUDIES STUDY GENERAL Individual (independent study) or small group study, usually interactive RELIGION / Biblical Studies / with fill-in-blank format. Bible Study Guide BIBLICAL STUDIES STUDY TOPICAL BIBLE Based on a general topic. RELIGION / Biblical Studies / Exegesis & Theory and practice of Hermeneutics BIBLICAL STUDIES GENERAL STUDIES biblical interpretation. EXEGESIS & HERMENEUTICS Bible characters, general themes, general surveys of Bible, Canon, guides to various translations, inclusive language debates. Items/themes RELIGION / Biblical not part of theology. Also Studies / General BIBLICAL STUDIES GENERAL STUDIES GENERAL introductions to the Bible. Gospel of Thomas, Mary, Nag Handmaid, plus other 2nd century books RELIGION / Biblical not accepted in the Studies / General BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES NEW APOCRYPHA cannon of Scripture. RELIGION / Biblical DEUTEROCANONICAL Studies / General BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES OLD & Apocrypha books. DEUTEROCANONICAL & APOCRYPHAL History of Bible times, Jewish History, Acho Vol., Extra Biblical of whole Bible. Includes Manners and Customs of Bible times explaining many everyday lifestyle and customs of individuals in Bible times. Includes things like people, places, food, housing, clothing, social customs, etc. Include Philo, Josephus, RELIGION / Biblical Studies / Qumran community and History & Culture BIBLICAL STUDIES GENERAL STUDIES the Dead Sea Scrolls. BIBLICAL HISTORY & CULTURE RELIGION / Biblical Studies / Matthew, Mark, Luke, Jesus, the Gospels & Acts NEW GOSPELS & John, Acts. BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES ACTS Works that deal with Christ's earthly ministry and teachings. Life and Teachings, Sermon on the Mount, Parables. (Books on Christology - the scholarly study of the RELIGION / Biblical Studies / nature of Christ are found Jesus, the Gospels & Acts NEW JESUS STUDIES in theology). BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES RELIGION / Biblical I & II Peter, James, Studies / New Testament NEW OTHER LETTERSHebrews BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES RELIGION / Biblical Studies / New Testament BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES NEW REVELATION Revelation, Apocalypse RELIGION / Biblical Include translator's Studies / New Testament BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES NEW GENERAL handbooks. Introduction and overview of NT literature, history, RELIGION / Biblical languages. Includes NT Studies / New Testament BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES NEW surveys. NT INTRODUCTION RELIGION / Biblical Theology in the New Studies / New Testament BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES NEW THEOLOGY Testament. RELIGION / Biblical Studies / Old Testament BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES OLD HISTORICAL Judges - Esther First five books of OT. Commentaries would not go here but books dealing with themes, RELIGION / Biblical characters or parts of Studies / Old Testament BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES OLD PENTATEUCH individual books would. RELIGION / Biblical Studies / Old Testament OLD GENERAL BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES Introduction and overview of OT literature, history, RELIGION / Biblical languages. Includes OT Studies / Old Testament BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES OLD surveys. OT INTRODUCTION RELIGION / Biblical Studies / Old Testament BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES OLD THEOLOGY Theology in the OT. Paul, Letters of Paul, RELIGION / Biblical Colossians, Ephesians, Studies / Paul's Letters NEW PAUL AND HIS etc. BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES WRITINGS Studies of "predictive" RELIGION / Biblical prophecy and fulfillment Studies / Prophecy BIBLICAL STUDIES GENERAL STUDIES in OT & NT PREDICTIVE PROPHECY Focus on the OT RELIGION / Biblical prophets and their Studies / Prophets BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES OLD PROPHETS messages. RELIGION / Biblical Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Studies / Wisdom Ecclesiastes, Song of Literature Songs, BIBLICAL STUDIES TESTAMENT STUDIES WISDOM Ruth, Joshua OLD WRITINGS & Books that offer specialized training and enrichment for church business managers, pastors, and others responsible for administration in local church congregations, church agencies and RELIGION / Christian institutions. Also church Church / Administration CHURCH & MINISTRY staff relations. CHURCH LIFE CHURCH ADMINISTRATION Addressing the complex issues of our world's ongoing cultural shifts and the impact this will RELIGION / Christian Church / have on the local church General and CHURCH LIFE EMERGING CHURCHits ministries. CHURCH & MINISTRY Books on understanding and organizing the ministries of the church. Also church renewal, body life, etc. Include RELIGION / Christian roles of deacon and Church / General CHURCH & MINISTRY CHURCH LIFE GENERAL elders here. Studies that focus on the planting and growth of congregations. Include Cell ministries, house churches plus books like RELIGION / Christian Purpose Driven Church/ Church / Growth CHURCH & MINISTRY Revival CHURCH LIFE CHURCH GROWTH History of the church. Includes Patristics (early Church Fathers) and RELIGION / Christian Hagiography (Lives of the Church / History CHURCH & MINISTRY Saints). CHURCH LIFE CHURCH HISTORY Stewardship is the responsibility given to humans in creation for managing the resources of the earth. Church finance provides resources for church leaders responsible for financial administration in local church congregations, church agencies and RELIGION / Christian institutions. Often these Church / Stewardship & two topics are combined Giving CHURCH LIFE STEWARDSHIP &as a church focus. CHURCH & MINISTRY CHURCH FINANCE Theory and methodology of various aspects of Christian education. Also includes general educational issues: private vs. public schools, funding for public education, and Christian RELIGION / Christian and church related higher Education / General CHURCH & MINISTRY MINISTRY RESOURCES education. CHRISTIAN EDUCATION Books used by teachers in classroom setting. Includes coloring books and lesson books. RELIGION / Christian Education Annual Lesson / General CHURCH & MINISTRY MINISTRY RESOURCES TEACHING HELPScommentaries here. Books for parents on methodology, theory and practice of education and learning within the family RELIGION / Christian Education / General RELATIONSHIPS CHRISTIAN LIVING HOME SCHOOLINGcontext. Death and dying, grief, and consolation. Also RELIGION / Christian Life treatments of life after / Death, Grief, & death. Books for pastor Bereavement CHRISTIAN LIVING are CONSOLATION GRIEF, SUFFERING, in Pastoral Care. PRACTICAL LIFE Books with devotional entries, usually intended to be read on daily basis. RELIGION / Christian Life / Short meditations, usually Devotional INSPIRATION MOTIVATION DEVOTIONAL with prayer and Scripture. Lectionary, Christian Year. Lectionary is a compilation of Scripture readings for each day of RELIGION / Christian Life / year for personal or Devotional CHURCH & MINISTRY church worship LECTIONARY RESOURCES services. PASTORAL HELP Books dealing with family RELIGION / Christian Life / life usually in Christian Family CHRISTIAN LIVING RELATIONSHIPS context. FAMILY CONCERNS RELIGION / Christian Life / Parenting resources Family CHRISTIAN LIVING RELATIONSHIPS PARENTING (including single parents) Books that apply Christianity to practical areas of life. Christian Life titles usually will RELIGION / Christian Life / focus on the following General CHRISTIAN LIVING PRACTICAL LIFE GENERAL Sub-cats and issues. Usually hard back gift books. Much smaller than mass size. Limited text and illustration. Often RELIGION / Christian Life sold like cards. Gift / Inspirational INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK MINI BOOK oriented. Gift by design, binding, RELIGION / Christian Life illustration, generally / Inspirational INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK GENERAL themed. Generally 100 years old RELIGION / Christian Life / with long history of Inspirational INSPIRATION MOTIVATION CLASSICS readership. A broad category of books which encourage and promote Christian faith. May contain some mixture of memoirs, life stories, insight of divine RELIGION / Christian Life / guidance, as perceived to Inspirational INSPIRATION MOTIVATION GENERAL be received from God. RELIGION / Christian Life / Inspirational INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK Illness ILLNESS & GET WELL Size of Honor series - limited text often with RELIGION / Christian Life / Inspirational INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK POTABLES visuals. All scripture promise RELIGION / Christian Life / Inspirational INSPIRATION GIFT BOOK PROMISES books here. Books dealing with the many facets of marital life and intimacy including issues of growing healthy RELIGION / Christian Life marriages, romance, and / Love & Marriage CHRISTIAN LIVING RELATIONSHIPS troubled marriages. LOVE & MARRIAGE Focus on the marriage relationship for couples RELIGION / Christian Life who are getting ready for / Love & Marriage CHRISTIAN LIVING RELATIONSHIPS marriage. MARRIAGE PREPARATION Books to honor mothers RELIGION / Christian Life and celebrate Father's / Men GENERAL INTEREST SEASONAL FATHER'S DAY Day. Focused on unique needs and interests or men including parenting and marriage issues when strictly focused on RELIGION / Christian Life / Men CHRISTIAN LIVING PRACTICAL LIFE MEN men. Branch of science that deals with the inner workings of the mind. Approached from a RELIGION / Christian Life / Personal GrowthPRACTICAL LIFE CHRISTIAN LIVING PSYCHOLOGY scientific point of view. Looking at ones individuals needs in order to grow as a human. Includes emotional and mental well being. Approaches from a RELIGION / Christian Life / Personal GrowthPRACTICAL LIFE CHRISTIAN LIVING SELF HELP personal point of view. RELIGION / Christian Life / Personal Growth PRACTICAL LIFE CHRISTIAN LIVING PERSONAL GROWTH Prayer books, theory and practice. Also, books on Blessings and fasting. (Rosary and Novenas are RELIGION / Christian Life in the Catholic sub- / Prayer CHRISTIAN LIVING SPIRITUAL GROWTH PRAYER category Church Life). Choosing or changing jobs, job hunting and being a Christian in the RELIGION / Christian Life workplace. Include time / Professional Growth CHRISTIAN LIVING PRACTICAL LIFE CAREER management books here. Business leadership, business management, often written from with Biblical insights. John RELIGION / Christian Life / Maxwell business Professional Growth CHRISTIAN LIVING PRACTICAL LIFE oriented here. BUSINESS & LEADERSHIP Deals with addiction, RELIGION / Christian Life / codependency, and Counseling & Recovery CHRISTIAN LIVING PRACTICAL LIFE RECOVERY the12-step programs. Books to help understand and survive the breakup of a marriage. Including RELIGION / Christian Life Biblical understanding of / Relationships CHRISTIAN LIVING RELATIONSHIPS DIVORCE divorce. RELIGION / Christian Life General not covered in / Relationships CHRISTIAN LIVING RELATIONSHIPS GENERAL other categories. Sex education books for use in family setting. Usually in series. Books aimed at teens for RELIGION / Christian Life / personal use will go Relationships CHRISTIAN LIVING RELATIONSHIPSSEX EDUCATION under youth. Examines the unique aspects of single life. Does not includes books RELIGION / Christian Life on family life for single / Relationships CHRISTIAN LIVING RELATIONSHIPSSINGLE LIVING parent. RELIGION / Christian Life / Relationships CHRISTIAN LIVING RELATIONSHIPSDATING Dating issues for adults. Focus on the relationship roles of males and RELIGION / Christian Life / females in context of Relationships CHRISTIAN LIVING RELATIONSHIPSSEXUALITY sexual needs. RELIGION / Christian Life / Social Issues PRACTICAL LIFE CHRISTIAN LIVING CONTEMPORARY ISSUES Development of a disciplined and joyful spiritual life, especially one enhanced by the Holy Spirit. Expressed through practices and rituals that enhance the sense of God's presence and reality. Enables one RELIGION / Christian Life / to draw closer to God. Spiritual Growth CHRISTIAN LIVING SPIRITUAL GROWTH GENERAL Gifts of the Spirit here. Restoring to health and wholeness of human life RELIGION / Christian Life / through spiritual reliance Spiritual Growth CHRISTIAN LIVING SPIRITUAL GROWTH HEALING on God. The experience of the union with God that brings a sense of direct knowledge of and RELIGION / Christian Life / fellowship with God Spiritual Growth CHRISTIAN LIVING SPIRITUAL GROWTH MYSTICISM centered in Jesus Christ. Aids and resources designed to foster growth in spiritual life through techniques, methods, habits, tools, or regimens. Will usually be identified RELIGION / Christian Life / as "Spiritual Growth/ Spiritual Growth CHRISTIAN LIVING SPIRITUAL GROWTH Formation". SPIRITUAL FORMATION To study, meditate and give thought to the meaning of ones spiritual life, Include here non- sectarian monastic rules (Rule of St Benedict), RELIGION / Christian Life Veniti. General / Spiritual Growth CHRISTIAN LIVING CONTEMPLATIVEmeditation books here. SPIRITUAL GROWTH LIFE Books that help Christian RELIGION / Christian Life / discern and resist the Spiritual Warfare CHRISTIAN LIVING work of SPIRITUAL WARFARE Satan. SPIRITUAL GROWTH Books to honor mothers RELIGION / Christian Life and celebrate Mother's / Women GENERAL INTEREST SEASONAL MOTHER'S DAY Day. Focused on unique needs and interests or women including parenting and marriage issues when strictly focused on women. Includes vignettes of life as a woman, a wife, a mother as well as titles RELIGION / Christian Life dealing with home / Women CHRISTIAN LIVING PRACTICAL LIFE WOMEN management. Ministry resources focused on Children including After School Care, Day Care, Mother's Day Out, Pre-school, etc. Include activity and coloring books designed for Sunday School use. Often reproducible or RELIGION / Christian Ministry / have multiple copies of Children CHURCH & MINISTRY MINISTRY RESOURCES same picture. CHILDREN'S MINISTRY Includes resource books with clip art, bulletin board design, banner RELIGION / Christian Ministry / design, Christmas, Jessie Children MINISTRY RESOURCES ARTS & Tree, etc. CHURCH & MINISTRY CHURCH CRAFTS Of interest to the pastoral RELIGION / Christian Ministry / counselor in church Counseling & Recovery CHURCH & MINISTRY PASTORAL HELPPASTORAL CAREsetting. & COUNSELING Spiritual art of encouragement RELIGION / Christian Ministry / especially by non- Counseling & Recovery CHRISTIAN LIVING PRACTICAL LIFE professional. ENCOURAGEMENT & LAY COUNSELING Books that help a disciple (pupil, learner or adherent) learn how to live their faith in the RELIGION / Christian Ministry / world. Also include books Discipleship CHRISTIAN LIVING SPIRITUAL GROWTH for new believer. DISCIPLESHIP & NEW BELIEVER RELIGION / Christian Ministry / Theory and practice of Evangelism CHURCH & MINISTRY evangelism. CHURCH LIFE EVANGELISM & OUTREACH Packages of tracts (folded, printed sheets). Booklets usually book RELIGION / Christian Ministry / form and stapled. Evangelism GENERAL INTEREST Usually TRACTS & BOOKLETS 32 pages or less. GENERAL TOPIC Church wide programs. Programs for special celebrations in a church RELIGION / Christian setting. Includes chalk Ministry / General CHURCH & MINISTRY talks. CHURCH LIFE PROGRAM RESOURCES RELIGION / Christian Ministry / Ministry resources General CHURCH & MINISTRY ADULT MINISTRYfocused on Adults MINISTRY RESOURCES RELIGION / Christian Ministry / Stephen Ministries, General CHURCH & MINISTRY Parish MINISTRY RESOURCES MINISTRIES nurse, Hospice. CARING RELIGION / Christian Ministry / Ministry resources General CHURCH & MINISTRYMINISTRY RESOURCESMINISTRY FAMILY focused on Families RELIGION / Christian Ministry / Include general church General CHURCH & MINISTRYMINISTRY RESOURCES GENERAL wide programs here. RELIGION / Christian Ministry / Ministry resources General CHURCH & MINISTRYMINISTRY RESOURCESMINISTRY SINGLE focused on Singles RELIGION / Christian Ministry / Ministry resources General CHURCH & MINISTRY SMALL GROUP focused on Small Groups MINISTRY RESOURCES RELIGION / Christian Ministry / Ministries to deaf and General CHURCH & MINISTRY other MINISTRY RESOURCES MINISTRY disabilities SPECIAL Ministry resources RELIGION / Christian Ministry / General MINISTRY CHURCH & SENIOR focused on Seniors. MINISTRY RESOURCES MINISTRY History, theory and practice of Christian missionary endeavors. RELIGION / Christian Ministry / Include cross-cultural Missions CHURCH & MINISTRY CHURCH LIFE MISSIONS evangelism here. General books that aid the pastor in his ministry. Includes pastoral tax guides. (Church RELIGION / Christian Ministry / administration is under Pastoral Resources CHURCH & MINISTRY PASTORAL HELP GENERAL Church Life). Analysis and insight for pastoral leadership skills; Congregational ministry/leadership; Chaplaincy; Leadership of Special Ministries such RELIGION / Christian Ministry / as Street Ministry, Prison Pastoral Resources CHURCH & MINISTRY PASTORAL HELP LEADERSHIP Ministry, etc. Focuses on liturgy and the concepts of the ordinances, Sacraments, RELIGION / Christian Ministry / Wedding/Funeral Pastoral Resources CHURCH & MINISTRY PASTORAL HELP Resources. MANUALS & RESOURCES Resources for clergy on professional skills, the RELIGION / Christian Ministry / pastoral role, and other Pastoral Resources CHURCH & MINISTRY PASTORAL HELP special needs. PROFESSIONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Sermon preparation, sermon outlines and the RELIGION / Christian Ministry / theology and practice of Preaching CHURCH & MINISTRY PASTORAL HELP PREACHING preaching. RELIGION / Sermons / Children Sermons, object Christian CHURCH & MINISTRY lessons, CHILDREN'S SERMONS and resources PASTORAL HELP RELIGION / Sermons / Christian PASTORAL HELP CHURCH & MINISTRY Collections of sermons. SERMONS & ILLUSTRATIONS Theology and shape of worship, liturgical studies, and worship aids. Liturgy is the service of God by RELIGION / Christian Ministry / Worship MINISTRY CHURCH & & Liturgy the people of God. CHURCH LIFE WORSHIP & LITURGY Ministry resources (including ideas and theory) focused on Youth RELIGION / Christian Ministry / including youth group Youth CHURCH & MINISTRY MINISTRY RESOURCESMINISTRY YOUTH activities. An academic study of the RELIGION / Christian Rituals & place of rituals and myths Practice / General GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION OTHER within religion. RITUAL & MYTH STUDIES Theology of Sacraments RELIGION / Christian Rituals & (Manuals/Liturgy under Practice / Sacraments THEOLOGY THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE SACRAMENTS Pastoral Helps) RELIGION / Christian Theology Doctrine of Angels/ / Angelology & Demonology THEOLOGY SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY Demons ANGEOLOGY & DEMONOLOGY RELIGION / Christian Theology / Anthropology THEOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGYDoctrine of Man SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY & MAN Resources that defend the faith, usually from a philosophical or Biblical perspective. Also the endeavor to provide a reasoned account of the RELIGION / Christian Theology grounds for believing in / Apologetics THEOLOGY THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE APOLOGETICS the Christian faith. Doctrine of Christ or nature of Christ. Usually somewhat scholarly. Books that Works that deal in general with Christ's earthly ministry and teachings are found RELIGION / Christian Theology in Biblical Studies - New / Christology THEOLOGY CHRISTOLOGY Testament. SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY RELIGION / Christian Theology / Ecclesiology THEOLOGY SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY Doctrine of Church. ECCLESIOLOGY & CHURCH RELIGION / Christian Theology Doctrine of Last Things / Eschatology THEOLOGY SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY and Times. ESCHATOLOGY & END TIMES RELIGION / Christian Theology History and theory of / Ethics THEOLOGY THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE ETHICS ethics, Christian morality. General Doctrines & RELIGION / Christian Theology Theology, including / General THEOLOGY THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE DOCTRINES methodology. RELIGION / Christian Theology Theology based on / General THEOLOGY Creeds and DOGMATICS & CREEDS Confessions. THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE What is theology, how to think theologically, RELIGION / Christian Theology Introduction to various / General THEOLOGY THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE GENERAL theologies, etc. RELIGION / Christian Theology Study of numbers in the / General THEOLOGY NUMEROLOGY Bible THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE A branch of practical theology dealing with the relationships between the Word of God and the RELIGION / Christian Theology Christian lives of God's / General THEOLOGY PASTORAL people. THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE & PRACTICAL THEOLOGY The approach to theology that employs the RELIGION / Christian Theology methods, terms and / General THEOLOGY PHILOSOPHICAL resources of philosophy. THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE THEOLOGY The study of the views of theologians and of the RELIGION / Christian Theology Christian Church, in their / History THEOLOGY historical HISTORICAL THEOLOGYcontexts. THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE Theological efforts to relate Christian theology to the contemporary world. Includes Constructive Theology, Postmodern theology, RELIGION / Christian Theology Feminist Theology, and / Liberation THEOLOGY THEOLOGY & DOCTRINE Liberation Theology. CONTEMPORARY THEOLOGIES Doctrine of Holy Spirit including works, gifts and theology of Holy Spirit. Books on fruits of the RELIGION / Christian Theology Spirit should go to / Pneumatology THEOLOGY PNEUMATOLOGYSpiritual Growth. SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY & HOLY SPIRIT RELIGION / Christian Theology Doctrine of Salvation, / Soteriology THEOLOGY SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY Atonement, Justification SOTEIRIOLOGY & SALVATION The branch of Christian theology that attempts to present theological thinking and practice in an orderly and coherent way and implies an underlying philosophical frame of reference and method. Include works on nature and methodology of systematic theology; RELIGION / Christian Theology multi-volume complete / Systematic THEOLOGY SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY GENERAL systematic theologies. RELIGION / Christian Theology / Systematic THEOLOGY HAMARTIOLOGY Doctrine of Sin. SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY & SIN RELIGION / Christian Theology Inspiration and authority / Systematic THEOLOGY SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY of Scripture REVELATION & INSPIRATION SCRIPTURE Practices and beliefs specifically connected with the Roman Catholic Church (such as RELIGION / Christianity / Mariology, Novenas, Catholic CHURCH & MINISTRY Papacy). CHURCH LIFE ROMAN CATHOLIC Practices and beliefs specifically connected RELIGION / Christianity / with the Roman Catholic Catholic YOUTH YOUTH INTERESTS Church. ROMAN CATHOLIC General art books of value to Christian reader. Collections of Christian RELIGION / Christianity / art. Books dealing with Literature & the Arts GENERAL INTEREST LITERATURE & ART ARTS THE art and the Christian. A short treatise or a written account of events/ recollections that do not RELIGION / Christianity / specifically include Literature & the Arts GENERAL INTEREST THE ARTS Christian testimony. LITERATURE & ESSAYS & MEMOIRS General books of literature of value to Christian reader. Including secular general RELIGION / Christianity / interest titles with topics Literature & the Arts GENERAL INTEREST LITERATURE & GENERAL THE ARTS of interest to Christians. Greek, Russian and other Orthodox communions: RELIGION / Christianity / Orthodox & MINISTRY CHURCH CHURCH LIFE ORTHODOX history, polity & doctrine Books from Pentecostal and charismatic circles. Works on theology of the RELIGION / Christianity / Holy Spirit are found in Pentecostal & Charismatic INSPIRATION MOTIVATION CHARISMATIC Pneumatology/Holy Spirit. Books of interest to various denominations, including Baptist, Methodist, Church of Christ etc. Statement of denomination beliefs and government. Include comparison of denominations. Include history of specific RELIGION / Christianity / churches, denominations Protestantism CHURCH & MINISTRY here. CHURCH LIFE PROTESTANT DENOMINATIONS GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION RELIGION / Comparative Religion OTHER JUDAISM GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION RELIGION / Comparative Religion OTHER BUDDHISM Studies of religions in general and other religions not listed following, plus inter- RELIGION / Comparative Religion GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION OTHER GENERAL religious dialogue. Analysis, study and comparison of various world religions, often from the perspective of RELIGION / Comparative Religion GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION OTHER Christianity. COMPARATIVE RELIGIONS Non orthodox groups or movements claiming to be Christian yet have unorthodox theology. Include books on Mormons and Jehovah's RELIGION / Cults GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION OTHER CULTS Witness here. Non Christian beliefs centered around Satanism, demonology, RELIGION / Comparative Religion GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION OTHER and witchcraft. OCCULT, DEMONOLOGY, WITCHCRAFT Spiritualist movements originating in 1970's (and since) that as a loose grouping emphasis beliefs such as reincarnation, importance of dreams, psychic or holistic healing, and self- fulfillment, etc. Expanded human potentials and social and planetary RELIGION / Comparative Religion GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION OTHER NEW AGE renewal are advocated. GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION RELIGION / Comparative Religion OTHER HINDUISM GENERAL INTEREST RELIGION RELIGION / Comparative Religion OTHER ISLAM Books which focus on the desire for unity among churches and believers in RELIGION / Ecumenism CHURCH & MINISTRY CHURCH LIFE ECUMENISM Jesus Christ. Books with historical and cultures issues of African American cultures and of special interest to the African American market. RELIGION / Ethnic & Tribal ETHNIC Not AFRICAN AMERICAN biographies. GENERAL INTEREST & CULTURAL Books with historical and cultures issues of ethnic RELIGION / Ethnic & Tribal GENERAL INTEREST & CULTURAL ETHNIC ASIAN cultures. Not biographies. Books with historical and cultures issues of ethnic RELIGION / Ethnic & Tribal GENERAL INTEREST & CULTURAL ETHNIC GENERAL cultures. Not biographies. Books with historical and cultures issues of Hispanic cultures. Not RELIGION / Ethnic & Tribal GENERAL INTEREST & CULTURAL ETHNIC HISPANIC biographies. Books with historical and cultures issues of other ethnic cultures. Such as Native Americans, aboriginals. Not RELIGION / Ethnic & Tribal GENERAL INTEREST & CULTURAL ETHNIC biographies. ETHNIC OTHER General interest; general for homeschooling use, RELIGION / History GENERAL INTEREST GENERAL TOPIC HISTORY etc. Items for celebrating of Advent/ Christmas. Includes Advent calendars, programs, RELIGION / Holidays / Christmas & Advent SEASONAL GENERAL INTEREST ADVENT supplies. Books with Christmas/Advent mixed RELIGION / Holidays / Christmas & Advent SEASONAL GENERAL INTEREST CHRISTMAS go here. All adult gift and season RELIGION / Holidays / theme books included Christian GENERAL INTEREST SEASONAL GENERAL here. RELIGION / Holidays / Easter & Lent GENERAL INTEREST SEASONAL EASTER Easter related RELIGION / Holidays / Easter & Lent and Easter Lent GENERAL INTEREST SEASONAL LENT combined would go here. RELIGION / Holidays / Halloween related Other GENERAL INTEREST SEASONAL HALLOWEEN (Christian Perspective) RELIGION / Holidays / Other GENERAL INTEREST SEASONAL THANKSGIVING Thanksgiving related Books to celebrate RELIGION / Holidays / someone on Valentine's Other GENERAL INTEREST SEASONAL VALENTINES day. RELIGION / Philosophy GENERAL INTEREST GENERAL TOPIC PHILOSOPHY General interest Exams relationship of science and Christian faith, including the issue of creation and evolution. Also focuses on the Christian response to RELIGION / Religion & new scientific knowledge Science CHRISTIAN LIVING SCIENCE, FAITH, and culpability. PRACTICAL LIFE EVOLUTION Primarily focused on RELIGION / Religion, Christian's involvement in Politics & State CHRISTIAN LIVING PRACTICAL LIFE POLITICS politics. Christian travel helps; TRAVEL / Special Interest / sites of historical interest Religious GENERAL INTEREST GENERAL TOPIC TRAVEL to Christians. RELIGION / Christian Rituals & Practice / General New Definition ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only No titles in this category ECPA Definition Only No titles in this category Recategorize based on subject, use theme. No titles in this category Those that apply to Liberation, otherwise General No titles in this category ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only ECPA Definition Only WIKIPEDIA The art and science of designing religious buildings and structures including the total environment, from the macro level of town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture to the micro level of creating furniture. Architectural design usually addresses both feasibility and cost for the builder, and function and aesthetics for the user. Planned architecture often manipulates space, volume, texture, light, shadow, or abstract elements in order to achieve pleasing aesthetics. Many architectural works may be seen also as cultural and political symbols, and/or works of art. A genre of literature based on the written accounts of the lives of religious individuals, usually in reference to non-fiction. A biography develops complex insight and highlights different textures of personality including intimate details of experiences. A biography is more than a list of impertinent facts like birth, education, work, relationships and death. It also delves into the emotions of experiencing such events. An autobiography is a biography written by the subject or composed conjointly with a collaborative writer. Biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints; an autobiography may be based entirely on the writer's memory. Management of personal finance issues from a foundation of Biblical principles and teachings. Includes mortgages, retirement, bankruptcy, credit, budgeting, saving, investing, planning, and taxation issues. ***May need to include tithing and giving. Cooking is the act of preparing food for consumption. It encompasses a vast range of methods, tools and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavor or digestibility of food. It generally requires the selection, measurement and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the desired result. Constraints on success include the variability of ingredients, ambient conditions, tools and the skill of the individual cooking. The diversity of cooking worldwide is a reflection of the myriad nutritional, aesthetic, agricultural, economic, cultural and religious considerations. Cookbooks include a collection of recipies that may comprise dishes served for religious meals. Drama is a literary form involving parts written for actors to perform. Dramas can be performed in a variety of media: live performance, film, or television. "Closet dramas" are works written in the same form as plays (with dialogue, scenes, and "stage directions"), but meant to be read rather than staged. Drama is also often combined with music and dance, such as in opera which is sung throughout, musicals which include spoken dialog and songs, or plays that have musical accompaniment. Drama content is biblical in nature, either historical or contemporary, and is usually performed in a church setting. Aging is the process of becoming older. The social, cultural, and economic effects of aging. Aging is an important part of all human societies reflecting the biological changes that occur, but also reflecting cultural and societal conventions. Age is usually, but wholly arbitrarily, measured in years and a person's birthday is often an important event. Older people have different requirements from society and government as opposed to young people, and frequently differing values as well. Older people are also far more likely to vote and thus have comparatively more political influence. Elder care is a broad term encompassing such services as assisted living, adult day care, long term care, nursing homes, hospice care, and Alzheimer's care. The majority of elderly care facilities are freestanding, but they may also be part of a continuing-care retirement community, seniors apartment complex, or wing or floor of a nursing home. Elder care emphasizes the social and personal requirements of senior citizens who need some assistance with daily activities and health care, but who desire and deserve to age with dignity. It’s an important distinction, in that the design of housing, services, activities, employee training and such is truly customer- centered. Elder Care is focused on satisfying the expectations of two tiers of customers: the resident customer and the purchasing customer. An allegory is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other than (and in addition to) the literal. Though it is similar to other rhetorical comparisons, an allegory is sustained longer and more fully in its details than a metaphor, and appeals to imagination, while an analogy appeals to reason or logic. The fable or parable is a short allegory with one definite moral. A short story is a form of short fictional narrative prose. Short stories tend to be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction, such as novellas (in the modern sense of this term) and novels. Because of their brevity, successful short stories rely on literary devices such as character, plot, theme, language, and insight to a greater extent than long form fiction. Short stories have their origins in the prose anecdote, a swiftly-sketched situation that comes rapidly to its point, with parallels in oral story-telling traditions. Short stories tend to be less complex than novels. Usually, a short story will focus on only one incident, has a single plot, a single setting, a limited number of characters, and covers a short period of time. Modern short stories occasionally have an exposition. More typical, though, is an abrupt beginning, with the story starting in the middle of the action. As with longer stories, plots of short stories also have a climax, crisis, or turning-point. However, the endings of many short stories are abrupt and open and may or may not have a moral or practical lesson. Determining what exactly separates a short story from longer fictional formats is problematic. A classic definition of a short story is that it must be able to be read in one sitting. Other definitions place the maximum word length at 7,500 Suspense or tension is the feeling of uncertainty and interest about the outcome of certain actions an audience perceives in a dramatic work. It consists of having some real danger looming and a ray of hope. The two common outcomes can be: the danger hits, whereby the audience will feel sorrowful or the hope comes true, whereby the audience will first feel joy, then satisfaction. If there is no hope, the audience will feel despair. The thriller is a broad genre of literature with numerous overlapping sub- genres. Thrillers are suspenseful adventures with fast-paced plots and action, where resourceful heroes are pitted against villains, with the hero facing danger alone, or in the company of a small band of companions. The hero may be a law enforcement agent, a journalist, a soldier, or an ordinary citizen, drawn into danger and intrigue by circumstances beyond his or her control. The plot is often driven by a villain, who presents obstacles that the hero must overcome. A thriller uses suspense as an indispensable ingredient, evoking feelings of tension and excitement. Plot devices such as red herrings, foreshadowings, and cliffhangers are often employed. Westerns are set in the American West, almost always in the 19th century, generally between the 1860's and 1900. Some incorporate the Civil War. Westerns often involve semi-nomadic wanderers, often cowboys, with life reduced to its elements. Their sole possessions consisting of: clothing, a gun, and a horse. The high technology of the era – such as the telegraph, printing press, and railroad – may appear, usually symbolizing the coming end of the frontier soon to give way to the march of civilization. The Western takes these simple elements and uses them to tell simple morality tales, usually set against the spectacular scenery of the American West. Westerns often stress the harshness of the wilderness and frequently set the action in a desert-like landscape. Specific settings include lonely isolated forts, ranches, the isolated homestead, the saloon or the jail. Other iconic elements in westerns include Stetsons and Spurs, Colt .45s, prostitutes and the faithful steed. The western genre often portrays the conquest of the wilderness and the subordination of nature, in the name of civilization or the confiscation of the territorial rights of the original inhabitants of the frontier. The Western depicts a A puzzle is a problem or enigma presented as entertainment that is written down, acted out, etc. Many puzzles stem from serious mathematical or logistical problems, whereas others are devised for the sole purpose of being brain teasers. The term trivia is widely used to refer to unimportant (or trivial) information, but it can also refer to basic or elementary knowledge. Before the trivia subculture became widespread, via radio and TV quiz shows and books, the term commonly referred to bits of information to which most adults in the culture had at one time been exposed, via standard education or via popular culture. In time, the term came also to comprise more obscure and arcane bits of knowledge. Health is a term that refers to a combination of the absence of illness, the ability to cope with everyday activities, physical fitness, and high quality of life. In any organism, health can be said to be a "state of balance," or analogous to homeostasis, and it also implies good prospects for continued survival. Wellness is a term sometimes used to describe the psychological state of being healthy, but is most often used in the field of alternative medicine to describe one's state of being. Health is maintained through the science of medicine, but can also be improved by individual effort. Physical fitness, weight loss, healthy eating, and stress management training are examples of steps to improve one's health. Workplace programs are recognized by an increasingly large number of companies for their value in improving health and well-being of their employees, and increasing morale, loyalty and productivity at work. A company may provide a gym with exercise equipment, implement smoking cessation programs, and provide nutrition, weight or stress management training. Other programs may include health risk assessments and health screenings. Use for ECPA only. House and home includes issues pertaining to cleaning and caretaking, decorating, design and construction, carpentry, electrical, masonry, plumbing, appliances, furniture, hand tools, house plans, outdoor areas, and remodeling. Garden design is the process of designing the layout and planting of domestic gardens. Garden designers are also concerned with the layout of yardscape, including paths, water features, patios and decking. The elements of garden design include landform, water features, fountains, garden ponds, garden planting, garden buildings, garden lighting, garden sculpture, garden ornament, garden furniture and hard landscape materials. These elements are used to make a wide range of garden types. Interior decoration is the art of decorating a room so it looks good, is easy to use, and functions well with the existing architecture. The goal of interior decoration is to provide a certain "feel" for the room; it encompasses applying wallpaper, painting walls and other surfaces, choosing furniture and fittings, such as light fixtures, and providing other decorations for the area such as paintings and sculptures. There is a distinct difference between interior decorating and interior design. Interior decorating is generally focused on finishes, such as wallpaper, paint, window coverings, and furnishings. Home repair involves the diagnosis and resolution of problems in a home, and Use for ECPA only. Humor is the ability to evoke feelings of amusement in other people. The term encompasses a form of entertainment or human communication which evokes such feelings, or which makes people laugh or feel happy. Includes cartoons and joke books with humor as the main content. Fiction is the storytelling of imagined events and stands in contrast to non- fiction, which makes factual claims about reality. A large part of the appeal of fiction is its ability to evoke the entire spectrum of human emotions: to distract our minds, to give us hope in times of despair, to make us laugh, or to let us experience empathy without attachment. Fictional works—novels, stories, fables, fairy tales, Anime and Manga—may be partly based on factual occurrences but always contain some imaginary content. The term is also often used synonymously with literature and more specifically fictional prose. In this sense, fiction refers only to novels and is often divided into two categories, popular fiction (e.g., science fiction or mystery fiction) and literary fiction (e.g., Victor Hugo or William Faulkner). These books specifically relate to juvenile audiences and are of a religous content. Use same as CL / General once the definition is developed use same as CL / Social Issues? dup Devotion is a term used to designate several related activities within the Christian church. Most frequently, this term refers to a period of time set aside to study the Bible and pray in an effort to build a stronger spiritual relationship with God. This time is often spent alone or with a small group of people. These books contain directed Bible studies often incorporating stories or anecdotes that convey Biblical principles, similar to the parables used by Jesus in his ministry. Devotionals are most often formatted in an ordinal manner. The term also refers to an individual story or message that follows the above format. Pastors and youth ministers who speak using stories as opposed to sermons are said to be giving a "devotion(al)". In the Roman Catholic Church, devotions are generally forms of prayer that take place outside of the official liturgy of the Mass and Divine Office. While the faithful are required to paticipate in the liturgy, devotions are strictly optional, although highly recommended, and by Canon Law must take place outside of the liturgy to avoid confusion. In the Latin Rite, well-known devotions include the Rosary, Divine Mercy Chaplet, the Stations of the Cross, Lectio Courtship or dating is the process of selecting and attracting a mate for companionship, marriage, and sexual reproduction. In many traditional societies, courtship is a highly structured activity, with well-known rules. A date is an occasion when one socializes with a potential spouse. In this sense, the purpose of a date is for the people dating to get to know each other and decide whether they want to have a relationship. Dating may be the term describing the relationship of two people attending a date. Sex education is a broad term used to describe education about human sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, and other aspects of human sexual behavior. It often includes topics such as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and how to avoid them, as well as methods of contraception. Abstinence. Yikes, help with this one please. A common approach to sex education is to view it as necessary to reduce risk behaviors such as unprotected sex, and equip individuals to make informed decisions about their personal sexual activity. Study aids are student tools used to help facilitate learning and comprehension of literature, research topics, history, and other subjects. Most study guides summarize chapters of novels or the important elements of the subject. There are a number of companies that produce or distribute study guides, including Cliffs Notes, SparkNotes, BookRags, QuickStudy, Pinkmonkey and eNotes. Independent or small group studies of a biblical book or theme usually containinig interactive discussion quesitons or having a fill-in-the-blank format. Religious music includes sheet music or books of music with a staff and treble cleff, etc. The history of music, music programs, and musicals for the chruch setting are included. dup Poetry is traditionally a written art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. The increased emphasis on the aesthetics of language and the deliberate use of features such as repetition, meter and rhyme, are what are commonly used to distinguish poetry. Poetry often uses condensed form to convey an emotion or idea to the reader or listener, as well as using devices such as assonance, alliteration and repetition to achieve musical or incantatory effects. Furthermore, poems often make heavy use of imagery, word association, and musical qualities. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Antiquities, ancient history, is the study of significant cultural and political events from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages. The classical antiquity is a term that is often used to refer to ancient history since the apogee of Ancient Greece in about 776 BC. This coincides – roughly – with the traditional date of the Founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of Ancient Rome. The span of recorded history is roughly 5 000 – 5 500 years, with Sumerian cuneiform being the oldest form of writing discovered so far. Archaeology is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. The goals of archaeology are to document and explain the origins and development of human culture, understand culture history, chronicle cultural evolution, and study human behavior and ecology, for both prehistoric and historic societies. A commentary is provided by a person who offers reasoned judgment or analysis, value judgment, interpretation, or observation. Commentaries are books that focus systematically on one or more books of Scripture with comments on the meaning of each verse and/or chapter. It often includes other types of analysis and background material such as author, date, political situation, etc. dup dup dup dup A collection of maps showing Bible lands, regions, cities, journeys, or other themes. May contain geographic features and political boundaries, many often feature geopolitical, social, religious, and economic statistics. An alphabetical list of the principal words used in the Bible, with their immediate contexts. They often contain additional material, including commentary on, or definitions of, the indexed words, and topical cross- indexing. A topical concordance is a list of subjects that a book (usually the Bible) covers, with the immediate context of the coverage of those subjects. Unlike a traditional concordance, the indexed word does not have to appear in the verse. For example, an entry for 'homosexuality' in a Biblical topical concordance will list all the verses in the Bible that deal with the subject of homosexuality, even if the word 'homosexual' doesn't actually appear in that verse. A dictionary is a list of Bible words and theological terms with their definitions, a list of characters with their glyphs, or a list of words with corresponding words in other languages. In some languages, words can appear in many different forms, but only the lemma form appears as the main word or headword in most dictionaries. Many dictionaries also provide pronunciation information; grammatical information; word derivations, histories, or etymologies; illustrations; usage guidance; and examples in phrases or sentences. An encyclopedia is a written a concise yet comprehensive compilation of knowledge. dup A reference work is a compendium of information, usually of a specific type, compiled in a book for ease of reference. That is, the information is intended to be quickly found when needed. Reference works are usually referred to for particular pieces of information, rather than read cover to cover. The writing style used in these works is informative; the authors avoid use of the first person, and emphasize facts. Indexes are commonly provided in many types of reference work. Updated editions are published as needed, in some cases annually. Examples of reference works not listed in other categories include: almanac, citation index, lexicon, gazetteer, mathematical tables, periodical index, scientific tables, and thesaurus'. dup dup A handbook overviews the entire Bible, book by book and in broad outline. It often includes author and context information and Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. The set of rules governing a particular language is also called the grammar of the language; thus, each language can be said to have its own distinct grammar. Grammar is part of the general study of language called linguistics. The subfields of contemporary grammar are phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Traditional grammars include only morphology and syntax. A lexicon is usually a list of words together with additional word-specific information. Lexicon is a word of Greek origin (λεξικόν) meaning vocabulary. When linguists study the lexicon, they study such things as what words are, how the vocabulary in a language is structured, how people use and store words, how they learn words, the history and evolution of words, types of relationships between words as well as how words were created. dup dup A quotation is a fragment of a human expression that has been inserted into another human expression. It is most often a writte Independent or small group studies of a biblical book or theme usually containinig interactive discussion quesitons or having a fill-in-the-blank format. dup dup Exegesis involves an extensive and critical interpretation of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible. The word exegesis means "to draw the meaning out of" a given text. In general, exegesis presumes an attempt to view the text objectively. Traditional exegesis requires the following: analysis of significant words in the text in regard to translation; examination of the general historical and cultural context, confirmation of the limits of the passage, and lastly, examination of the context within the text. Hermeneutics is a philosophical technique concerned with the interpretation and understanding of texts. It may be described as the theory of the interpretation and understanding of a text on the basis of the text itself. Biblical studies is the academic study of the Judeo-Christian Bible. Christianity traditionally includes the New Testament and Old Testament, sometimes called the "Scriptures." Biblical studies is a branch of theology, but also draws on the disciplines of history, literary criticism, philology, and increasingly the social sciences. dup dup History is information about the biblical past. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of humans, families, and societies.. Culture generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. Different definitions of "culture" reflect different theoretical bases for understanding, or criteria for evaluating, human activity. The universal human capacity to classify, codify, and communicate their experiences symbolically. Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, in which context he is known as Jesus Christ. Christians believe that Jesus was born of a virgin, crucified and entombed, resurrected on the third day of death, and ascended into Heaven where he resides with God the Father until the Second Coming. Christians also believe that Jesus fulfilled Biblical prophecy. In Christianity, gospel means "good news". Gospel has generally been used in two ways: 1. To denote the proclamation of God's saving activity in Jesus of Nazareth or to denote the message proclaimed by Jesus of Nazareth. 2. More popularly to refer to the four canonical Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) that offer a narrative of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, the fifth in the New Testament. It describes many of the journeys and actions taken by the apostles, meaning "those who have been sent" by God, to be His witnesses. The book of Acts contains many descriptions of miraculous events (which were given as signs from God to validate the apostles' teachings), which were performed by the Holy Spirit through the apostles. These included miraculous healings, casting out evil spirits, and the raising of the dead. The narrative also contains dup The New Testament (Καινή Διαθήκη), sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures, and sometimes also New Covenant, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written by various authors c. 48-140 AD and gradually collected into a single volume over the next few centuries. Messianic Judaism commonly refers to the New Testament as the B'rit Chadashah, Hebrew for New Covenant, or the Apostolic Writings. The New Testament is made up of twenty-seven separate works, these being four narratives of Jesus Christ's ministry, called "Gospels;" a narrative of the Apostles' ministry, which is also a sequel to the third Gospel; twenty-one early letters, commonly called "epistles" in Biblical context, which were written by various authors and consisted mostly of Christian counsel and instruction; and an Apocalyptic prophecy, which is also technically the twenty-second epistle. General Epistles See main article: General Epistles The General or Catholic Epistles are those written to the church at large (Catholic in this sense simply means universal). • Epistle of James - traditionally James, brother of Jesus and Jude Thomas; actually anonymous • First Epistle of Peter - traditionally the Apostle Simon, called Peter; actually anonymous • Second Epistle of Peter - traditionally the Apostle Simon, called Peter; actually anonymous • First Epistle of John - traditionally the Apostle John, son of Zebedee; actually anonymous • Second Epistle of John - traditionally the Apostle John, son of Zebedee; actually anonymous • Third Epistle of John - traditionally the Apostle John, son of Zebedee; actually dup dup dup dup The Old Testament constitutes the first major part of the Bible according to Christianity. It is usually divided into the categories of law, history, poetry (or wisdom books) and prophecy. All of these books were written before the birth of Jesus of Nazareth who is the subject of the subsequent Christian New Testament. Traditional Christianity affirms that the laws or Torah of the Old Testament is the word of God. dup dup dup dup The Pauline epistles are the thirteen or fourteen letters in the New Testament of the Christian Bible traditionally believed to have been written by the apostle Paul. Among them are some of the earliest extant Christian documents. They provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of formative Christianity and, as part of the canon of the New Testament, they have also been, and continue to be, hugely influential in Christian theology and ethics. The Pauline epistles are: Romans, First Corinthians, Second Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, First Thessalonians, Second Thessalonians, First Timothy, Second Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and disputably, Hebrews. Prophecy, in a broad sense, is the prediction of future events. It is also used as a general term for the revelation of divine will. The Old Testament of the Bible contains prophecies from various Hebrew prophets who foretold of their people's trials and tribulations. The Book of Revelation in the New Testament is accepted by many Christians as a prophecy related by its author, John the Evangelist, of the events of the end times and Armageddon. Christians believe that Jesus fulfilled many prophecies of the Old Testament, thus proving he was the son of God, or messiah, and that he will return in the future to fulfill other prophecies. In the New Testament, the stories of Jesus telling a Samaritan woman about her life, or telling the apostles the future, are examples of prophecy in the Christian tradition Christians believe a prophet is a person who speaks for God, in the name of God, and who carries God's message to others. For Christians, the authenticity of a prophet is judged by their fruits as Jesus said that one should judge a prophet by his fruits, (Gospel of Matthew 7) and by checking whether his predictions come true. Deuteronomy 18:21-22 contains several warnings about false prophets and is very specific about the test of whether a prophet is true or false. A false prophet is considered to be someone who is purposely trying to deceive, or is delusional, or is under the influence of Satan. Wisdom literature is the a genre of literature is characterized by praise of God, often in poetic form, and by sayings of wisdom intended to teach about God and about virtue. The following Biblical books are classified as wisdom literature: Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs (also known as Song of Solomon). Church administration consists of the performance or management of transactions and other matters, and the making and implementing of major decisions. Administration can be defined as the universal process of efficiently organizing people and resources so to direct activities toward common goals and objectives. Administration is both an art and a science as administrators are judged ultimately by their performance. Church administrators, broadly speaking, engage in a common set of functions to meet the organization's goals. The act of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting. The term Christian Church expresses the idea that organised Christianity is seen as an institution. The phrase "The Church" in its widest sense (as "the Body of Christ") has a similar breadth. dup Church Growth describes a wide movement within Christianity to aid and encourage the spread of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Most advocates have a real concern for the salvation of the individuals represented by the numbers. Church planting is a process by which churches are begun in new areas. Christian denominations such as Evangelicals view church planting as a necessary adjunct to the work of evangelism. Churches do not necessarily have to own their buildings, and many churches have been planted using school or community halls, and even people's houses. Over the last century there has been a great movement in the Christian faith to restore the New Testament model of church planting. A revival meeting is a series of Christian religious services held with an eye to encourage active members of a religious body and to provoke those outside of it to become part of it. Generally speaking, a revival meeting consists of several consecutive nights of services conducted at the same time and location each night, most often the building belonging to the sponsoring congregation but sometimes a rented secular assembly hall, for more adequate space or an attempt to appeal to the unchurched in a setting that will presumably be less intimidating to them. Tents were very frequently employed in this effort in the recent past, and occasionally still are, but less so due to the difficulties in heating and cooling them and otherwise making them comfortable, an increasing consideration with modern audiences. Ecclesiastical history is the scientific investigation and the methodical description of the temporal development of the Church considered as an institution founded by Jesus Christ and guided by the Holy Spirit for the salvation of mankind. Patristics (early church fathers) and hagiography (lives of the saints) are an important aspect of church history. In a general way the subject matter of history is everything that suffers change owing to its existence in time and space; more particularly, however, it is the genetic or natural development of facts, events, situations, that history contemplates. In a Christian context, stewardship refers to the responsibility that Christians have in maintaining and using wisely the gifts that God has bestowed, including the environment. In some settings, stewardship is operationalized as time, talent and treasure. An example of stewardship is in Genesis 2:15. The verse teaches that humans are responsible for nature. In recent years, tithing has been taught in Christian circles as a form of "stewardship" that God requires of Christians. The primary argument is that God has never formally "abolished" the tithe, and thus Christians should pay the tithe (usually calculated at 10 percent of all gross income from all sources), usually to the local congregation (though some teach that a part of the tithe can go to other Christian ministries, so long as total giving is at least 10 percent). Giving, in the church context, can include generously giving of one’s time, talent, and money for the benefit of the church. Christian education proclaims God’s word as the source of wisdom and knowledge through the social science of education. Education encompasses teaching and learning specific knowledge, beliefs, and skills based on Christian principles and beliefs. Christian education addresses teaching practices and subjects including lectures, game playing, testing, scheduling, record keeping, bullying, seating arrangements, interests, motivation, computer access, and more. dup dup Grief is a multi-faceted response to loss. Although conventionally focused on the emotional response to loss, it also has a physical, cognitive, behavioral, social and philosophical dimensions. Common to human experience is the death of a loved one, be they friend, family, or other. While the terms are often used interchangeably, bereavement often refers to the state of loss, and grief to the reaction to loss. Losses can range from loss of employment, pets, status, a sense of safety, order, possessions, to the loss of the people nearest to us. Our response to loss is varied and researchers have moved away from conventional views of grief (that is, that people move through an orderly and predictable series of responses to loss) to one that considers the wide variety of responses that are influenced by personality, family, culture, and spiritual and religious beliefs and practices. Devotion is a term used to designate several related activities within the Christian church. Most frequently, this term refers to a period of time set aside to study the Bible and pray in an effort to build a stronger spiritual relationship with God. This time is often spent alone or with a small group of people. Books contain directed Bible studies often incorporating stories or anecdotes that convey Biblical principles, similar to the parables used by Jesus in his ministry. The term also refers to an individual story or message that follows the above format. Pastors and youth ministers who speak using stories as opposed to sermons are said to be giving a "devotion(al)". dup A family is a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by comparable legal relationships. Family issues are addressed in the context of a relationship with Christ and through biblical principles and teachings. Parenting is the process of raising and educating a child from birth until adulthood. This is usually done in a child's family by the mother and father (i.e., the biological parents). Where parents are unable or unwilling to provide this care, it is usually taken on by close relatives (including older siblings) and grandparents, adoptive parents, foster parents, godparents, or institutions (such as group homes or orphanages). dup The Christian life category focuses on the living out of one’s faith in Jesus Christ, including the practical application of faith to specific areas and responsibilities of life, the spiritual growth and development of personal disciplines and practices that enhance one’s sense of God’s presence, and the interacting with others in ways that glorify God and promote spiritual development. Christian inspirational writing includes an attempt to persuade the reader to incorporate principles of faith into his or her life. They motivate, encourage, and promote biblical principles. The writings strive to benefit the reader emotionally and spiritually. Often, inspirational writing includes novels, short stories, Scripture quotations, or promises. They can be mixtures of memoirs, life stories, or narrative prose. Books are sometimes organized around subjects such as illness or get well. They are formatted with illustrations and often differ in size compared to traditional books. Often these books are used for gift giving. dup dup dup dup dup dup Love can describe an intense feeling of affection, an emotion or an emotional state. In ordinary use, it refers to interpersonal love. Marriage is a relationship between individuals which has formed the foundation of the family for most societies. Marriage can include legal, social, and religious elements. In The Christian view of marriage has regarded marriage as ordained by God for the lifelong union of a man and a woman. Included are books dealing with the many facets of marital life and intimacy including issues of growing healthy marriages, romance, and troubled marriages. dup The Christian life of men creates unique topics of interest specifically for men. Parenting and marriage issues focused on men's needs and intersts are included. dup Personal growth comprises the development of the self. Referring to personal development means a full and total transformation from deep within and not just a temporary personality change for a specific occasion or context. There are certain areas of life that are considered in personal growth. Mental knowledge and learning, openness to new skill, self help, character, emotions, physical health, fun and adventure, social circles, friends and clubs. Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of the mind and behavior, both human and nonhuman. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness. Psychology involves studying the mental processes and behavior of individuals (alone or in groups) rather than the behavior of the groups or aggregates. Psychology is primarily concerned with the interaction of mental processes and behavior and of the overall processes of a system. The term self-help can refer to any case whereby an individual or a group, such as a support group, betters themselves economically, intellectually or dup dup Prayer is an effort to communicate with God either to offer praise, to make a request, or simply to express one's thou Professional growth encompasses the developing of skills relevant to the one's current occupation. Professional growth can include aspects of the career such as job seeking, resume writing, time management, skill development, and being a Christian in the workplace. Professional growth also includes developing goals, work life, job matching, and job transitioning. Professional growth can also includes business issues such as managing people to organize and maintain collective productivity toward accomplishing particular creative and productive goals. With some exceptions, businesses are formed under the motivation of earning profit and growing personal wealth of its members. Christians seek to balance the need to operate profitably with biblical principles for business operation. Leadership includes giving guidance or direction for the benefit of all. People have come to expect transformational change stemming from the leader. Such entities may encourage their followers and believers to respect leadership and to strive to become proficient in it. dup Christian counseling includes the entire ‘community of care,’ licensed professionals, pastors, and caring church members with little or no formal training. Books in this category are intended to equip clinical, pastoral, and lay care-givers with Biblical truth and psycho-social insights that ministers to hurting persons and helps them move to personal wholeness, interpersonal competence, mental stability, and spiritual maturity. Recovery is an ongoing process of yielding. Christians overcoming the lingering affects of addiction, trauma, or abuse and moving into the fullness of the abundant life is an involved, long-term process. Often support groups are part of the recovery process. A support group is, first, a place where recovering addicts will find true acceptance and a sense of what unconditional love is all about. It is a safe, non-judgmental setting where they can express struggles, thoughts, ideas, and feelings without fear of rejection. Hearing the stories of others with similar difficulties and how they overcame them, gives the struggling addict great encouragement to go on in a life of sobriety. Healthy support groups can provide a sort of "family" atmosphere that stimulates the hope for a better life in all involved. Because addiction wreaks havoc upon an Interpersonal relationships are social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. They vary in differing levels of intimacy and sharing, implying the discovery or establishment of common ground, and may be centered around something(s) shared in common. In many traditional societies, courtship is a highly structured activity, with well- known rules. In many cultures, courtship is made redundant, or eliminated altogether, by the practice of arranged marriages, where partners are chosen for young people, typically by their parents. In some societies, the parents or community choose potential partners, and then allow limited dating to determine whether the parties are suited. In Western societies, a date is an occasion when one socializes with a potential spouse. In this sense, the purpose of a date is for the people dating to get to know each other and decide whether they want to have a relationship. Dating may be the term describing the relationship of two people attending a date, but other terms are often used. Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse, which can be contrasted with an annulment which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody and distribution of property. dup dup dup dup dup Social issues are matters that can be explained only by factors outside an individual’s control and immediate social environmen Spirituality is, in a narrow sense, a concern with matters of the spirit. The spiritual concerns eternal verities regarding Man's ultimate nature. It may include belief in supernatural powers, as in religion, but the emphasis is on personal experience. It may be an expression for life perceived as higher, more complex or more integrated with one's worldview, as contrasted with the merely sensual. Spirituality in religion connotes the nature of a believer's personal relationship or "connection" with their God. One aspect of 'Being spiritual' is goal-directed, with aims such as: simultaneously improve one's wisdom and willpower, achieve a closer connection to God, and remove illusions or false ideas at the sensory, feeling and thinking aspects of a person. Others say that spirituality is a two-stroke process: the "upward stroke" is inner growth, changing oneself as one changes his/her relationship with God, and the "downward stroke" is manifesting improvements in the physical reality around oneself as a result of the inward change. Another connotation is that change will come onto itself with the realization that all is oneself; whereupon the divine inward manifests the diverse outward for experience and progress. Mysticism is the philosophy and practice of a direct experience of God. In the Christian context it is traditionally practiced through pursuit of the three dup dup dup dup Spiritual warfare has been understood as a metaphor that broadly covers the individual Christian's struggle with sin and temptation. Spiritual conflict (less than "war") exists throughout Christian thought and practices (e.g. prayer). However, since the late Twentieth century, the term spiritual warfare has been popularized in such a way that it is frequently equated with the interaction of persons with the angelic and demonic realms in positive or negative ways (e.g. exorcism). The Christian life of women creates unique topics of interest specifically for women. Parenting and marriage issues focused on women's needs and intersts are included. dup A religious ministry is a specialized activity or set of activities performed by a religious organization in addition to standard church services. The term "ministry" can also apply to the collected activities of a religious group such as a church or an individual ministry, as listed below. As churches attempt to meet the needs of their congregations, they often separate their members into groups according to age categories. Age-specific groups meet for religious study including Sunday school programs, fellowship, and other activities. These ministries allow churches to provide 'age-appropriate' activities and content to maximize spiritual education and growth as well as peer group fellowship. In terms of religious education, the 'socialization' of children into the faith community is one important approach that requires connecting the children and family with the wider congregation. dup dup dup A disciple is one who receives instruction from another; a scholar; a learner; especially, a follower who has learned to believe in the truth of the doctrine of his teacher, and implies that the pupil is under the discipline of, and "understands", his teacher; an adherent in doctrine. In many versions of Christian theology, discipleship is used to refer to the decision to become a committed follower of the teachings of Jesus. Jesus taught that "as I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another.” (John 13:34-35, TNIV). Evangelism is the preaching of the Christian Gospel or, by extension, any other form of preaching or proselytizing. For many groups, a church planter is called an evangelist. Sometimes, the regular minister of a church is called an evangelist in a way that other groups would typically use the term pastor. Focus on evangelism and the drawing-in of new converts. Outreach is an effort by an organization or group to connect its ideas or practices to the efforts of other organizations, groups, specific audiences or the general public. Unlike marketing, outreach does not inherently revolve around a product or strategies to increase market share. Typically non-profits, civic groups, and churches engage in outreach. Outreach often takes on an educational component (i.e., the dissemination of ideas), but it is increasingly common for organizations to conceive of their outreach strategy as a two-way street. In this case outreach is also framed as engagment, rather than simple dissemination/education. Outreach strategies are linked to the organization's mission, and define targets, goals, and milestones. dup n/a A religious ministry is a specialized activity or set of activities performed by a religious organization in addition to standard church services. The term "ministry" can also apply to the collected activities of a religious group such as a church or an individual ministry, as listed below. As churches attempt to meet the needs of their congregations, they often separate their members into groups according to age categories. Age-specific groups meet for religious study including Sunday school programs, fellowship, and other activities. These age divisions may include: • Nursery • Pre-school • Children, generally elementary age students • Youth, generally middle and high school students • College and career, designed for university-age students • Adults, which is often broken up into single adults, couples ministry, men's and women's ministries, and senior adults. Advantages and disadvantages There are several advantages to the concept of age-specific ministries. • Many parents / caregivers are glad to allow the church to be in charge of the spiritual enrichment of their children. Similarly, they are used to using programs for the development of their children such as weekday childcare, preschool, and grade school and enjoy the ability to continue a similar format in church. • These ministries allow churches to provide 'age-appropriate' activities and content to maximize spiritual education and growth as well as peer group fellowship. • Ministries often provide fellowship activities outside of the church service that encourage the involvement of non-church going friends and relatives. Age-specific ministry does have certain disadvantages, mostly stemming from the separation of children from the primary church functions. dup dup dup dup dup dup dup Since the Lausanne Congress of 1974, a widely-accepted definition of a Christian mission has been "to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement." This definition is motivated by theological analyses of the acts required to enhance God's reputation (usually translated as "glory" or "honor"). The definition is claimed to summarize the acts of Jesus' ministry, which is taken as a model for all ministries. The motivation is said to be God's will, plainly stated throughout the Bible, including the Old Testament (see below). The movement must "plant" (start) churches because the process of forming Godly disciples is necessarily social. "Church" should be understood in the widest sense, as an organization of believers. It is not a building. Many churches start by meeting in houses. Discipling is required to grow the number of believers to the largest extent, and maximize their quality and therefore the acceptability of their worship to God and non-Christians. "Viable" means that it is self-governing, self-supporting and self-propagating. This is the famous "three-self" formula invented by Henry Venn of the London Church Missionary Society in the 19th century. "Indigenous" means that fully native members of the culture have all the needed abilities and accept all the required duties. Only indigenes can fully adapt the Gospel to their culture, maximizing both natural, high-quality worship and the number of people that can be reached in that culture. It must be a "movement," because special organization is required for the task of planting churches. This movement naturally forms cross-cultural missions, dup dup dup Are sermons and preaching together? Should they be? A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. Sermons address a Biblical, theological, or religious topic, usually expounding on a type of belief or law. Sermons are usually, but not always, delivered in a house of worship, most of which have a pulpit or ambo, an elevated architectural feature from which sermons are given. Sermons are occasionally known as homilies, especially in the Roman Catholic Church and similar traditions. The word "sermon" comes from a Middle English word which was derived from an Old French term, which in turn came from the Latin word sermō; ("discourse"). (Actually, it meant "conversation", and early sermons were delivered in the form of question and answer, only later did it come to mean a monologue) In modern language, the word "sermon" can also be used pejoratively in secular terms to describe a lengthy or tedious speech delivered with great passion to a disinterested audience. A sermonette is a short sermon. Preacher is a colloquial term for a clergyman, in particular a local priest, pastor or Minister; one who preaches. Some believe a preacher is distinct from a theologian by focusing on the communication of the doctrine rather than the development of the doctrine. Others see preaching and theology as being intertwined. Preaching is not limited to religious views, but it extends to moral and social world-views as well. Preachers are common throughout most cultures. They can take the form of a Christian "Reverend" on a Sunday A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. Sermons address a Biblical, theological, or religious topic, usually expounding on a type of belief or law. Sermons are usually, but not always, delivered in a house of worship, most of which have a pulpit or ambo, an elevated architectural feature from which sermons are given. Sermons are occasionally known as homilies, especially in the Roman Catholic Church and similar traditions. The word "sermon" comes from a Middle English word which was derived from an Old French term, which in turn came from the Latin word sermō; ("discourse"). (Actually, it meant "conversation", and early sermons were delivered in the form of question and answer, only later did it come to mean a monologue) In modern language, the word "sermon" can also be used pejoratively in secular terms to describe a lengthy or tedious speech delivered with great passion to a disinterested audience. A sermonette is a short sermon. There are a number of different types of preaching, that differ both by their subject matter and by their intended audience. Not all types of preaching are within the gift of every preacher. These types of preaching include: • Topical preaching - concerned with a particular subject of current concern; • Biographical preaching - tracing the story of a particular biblical character through a number of parts of the Bible; • Evangelistic preaching - seeking to convert the congregation or bring them back to their previous faith through a recounting of the Good News; • Expository preaching - exegesis, or preaching from a text and seeking to expound the text to the congregation; • Redemptive-Historical Preaching - Preaching that takes into consideration the context of any given text within the broader history of salvation as recorded in the canon of the bible. Delivery methods Sermons also differ on the amount of time and effort used to prepare them. • Scripted preaching - preaching with a previous preparation, it can be with help of notes or a script, or rely on the memory of the preacher. • Extemporaneous preaching - preaching without notes and sometimes without preparation. dup A liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), or a daily activity such as the Muslim Salats (see Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, p.582-3). The unprogrammed meeting of Quakers in The United States is an example of a non-liturgical service because there is no minister or structured order of events. Methods of dress, preparation of food, application of cosmetics or other hygienic practices are all considered liturgic activities. Liturgies are natural and common in all human activities such as organized sports venues. They appear to resonate with human salutory needs. In the Christian church, liturgical churches are those that use a well-defined liturgy dating to the second century and earlier, in which many of the words and music used follow basic patterns each time the service is conducted. Most Orthodox, Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches are liturgical while most others are to a far lesser extent. So-called non-liturgical churches usually do follow a common worship sequence from one service to the next, but identical elements are few. dup A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. A ritual may be performed at regular intervals, or on specific occasions, or at the discretion of individuals or communities. It may be performed by a single individual, by a group, or by the entire community; in arbitrary places, or in places especially reserved for it; either in public, in private, or before specific people. A ritual may be restricted to a certain subset of the community, and may enable or underscore the passage between religious or social states. The purposes of rituals are varied; they include compliance with religious obligations or ideals, satisfaction of spiritual or emotional needs of the practitioners, strengthening of social bonds, demonstration of respect or submission, stating one's affiliation, obtaining social acceptance or approval for some event — or, sometimes, just for the pleasure of the ritual itself. Rituals of various kinds are a feature of almost all known human societies, past or present. They include not only the various worship rites and sacraments of organized cults and religions, but also the rites of passage of certain societies, oaths of allegiance, coronations, and presidential inaugurations, marriages and funerals, school "rush" traditions and graduations, club meetings, sports events, halloween parties and veteran parades, Christmas shopping, and more. In any case, an essential feature of a ritual is that the actions and their symbolism are not arbitrarily chosen by the performers, nor dictated by logic or necessity, but are, at least in part, prescribed and imposed upon the A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace—a holy mystery. In the Western tradition, it is often defined as an outward, visible sign that conveys an inward, spiritual grace. The Latin word sacramentum had its origin as the oath of allegiance taken by Roman soldiers; hence, a sacred ceremony used to impress an obligation; a solemn oath-taking; an oath. Among many Protestants, the word mediates or conveys would mean only that it is a visible symbol or reminder of invisible grace. Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians, the Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian Christians, members of the Anglican, United Methodist, and Old Catholic traditions, the Independent Catholic Churches and Lutherans hold that sacraments are not mere symbols, but rather, "signs or symbols which effect what they signify", that is, the sacraments in and of themselves, rightly administered, are used by God as a means to communicate grace to faithful recipients. Generally, there are seven sacramental rites used since apostolic times in the Church, though not all of them are accepted as such by all groups. These are: Baptism, Chrismation (or Confirmation), the Eucharist (Communion), The Sacrament of Order (Ordination), Reconciliation of a Penitent, Anointing of the Angelology is a branch of theology that deals with a hierarchical system of angels, messengers, celestial powers or emanations, and the study of these systems. It primarily relates Christianity, where it is one of the ten major branches of theology, albeit a neglected one. In the New Testament angels appear frequently as the ministers of God and the agents of revelation (E.g. Matthew 1:20 (to Joseph), 4:11. (to Jesus), Luke 1:26 (to Mary), Acts 12:7 (to Peter)); and Jesus speaks of angels as fulfilling such functions (E.g. Mark 8:38, 13:27), implying in one saying that they neither marry nor are given in marriage (Mark 12:25). Angels are most prominent in the Apocalypse. The New Testament takes little interest in the idea of the angelic hierarchy, but there are traces of the doctrine. The distinction of good and bad angels is recognized, with the good angels Gabriel (Luke 1:19), Metatron (Rev. 10:1), and Michael (Daniel 12:1), and the evil angels Beelzebub, (Mark 3:22) Satan (Mark 1:13), and Apollyon (Rev. 9:11); ranks are implied, archangels (Michael, Jude 9), principalities and powers (Rom. 8:38; Col. 2:10), thrones and dominions (Col 1:16). Angels occur in groups of four or seven (Rev 7:1). The Angels of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor are described in Rev. 1-3. These are probably guardian angels, standing to the churches in the same relation that the angel-princes in Daniel stand to the nations; practically the angels are personifications of the churches. The archangel Gabriel appeared to Mary in the traditional role of messenger to inform her that her child would be the Messiah, and other angels were present to herald his birth. In Matt. 28:2, an angel appeared at Jesus' tomb, frightened the Roman guards, rolled away the stone from the tomb, and later told the myrrh-bearing women of Jesus' resurrection. Alternately, in Mark 16:5, the angel is not seen until the women enter the already-opened tomb, and he is described simply as "a young man." In Luke's version of the resurrection tale (Luke 24:4), two angels suddenly appear next to the women within the tomb; they are described as being clothed in "shining apparel." This is most similar to Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθπωπορ, "human" or "person") consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). It is holistic in two senses: it is concerned with all humans at all times and with all dimensions of humanity. A primary trait that traditionally distinguished anthropology from other humanistic disciplines is an emphasis on cultural relativity, in-depth examination of context, andis the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a Apologetics cross-cultural comparisons. position. Someone who engages in apologetics is called an apologist or an "apologete". Religious apologetics is the effort to show that the preferred faith is not irrational, that believing in it is not against human reason, and that in fact the religion contains values and promotes ways of life more in accord with human nature than other faiths or beliefs. Apologetics serves an intellectual function within religious communities by providing arguments that support the doctrinal and ethical tenets of the religion. These arguments strengthen the believer's faith and support the propagation of the religion by offering arguments intended to persuade the uncommitted. Skeptics engaged in debate with apologists tend to expect apologetics to consist of powerful arguments intended to persuade skeptics. The effectiveness of these arguments can occasionally fail to meet skeptical anticipation, largely because the arguments are not always directed to skeptics, but have the stated purpose of reaffirming the beliefs of current believers. These arguments aim for a much lower burden, not trying to do more than make the religious belief plausible or cast doubt on skeptical arguments. This faith-affirming aspect is often downplayed or even overlooked, but it can be very important, particularly in psychological and sociological terms. For some, the mere fact that even superficially reasonable arguments exist in support of their beliefs suffices to prevent them from making any effort at all to question whether they should continue to believe. For others, the ready-made arguments allow simplified defense of beliefs, sometimes to the detriment of intellectual debate. In the case of so-called true believers, more far-fetched arguments may replace traditional logic. This is consistent with the observations of sociologists of religion, such as Peter Berger and Douglas Cowan, who found that boundary maintenance of belief occurs when one religious tradition encounters another. In this view, engaging in apologetics is less about converting others than boosting their own faith. There are a variety of Christian apologetic styles and schools of thought. In the Thomistic or Classical apologetics tradition philosophical arguments for God's Christology is that part of Christian theology that studies and defines who Jesus the Christ was and is. It is generally less concerned with the minor details of his life; rather it deals with who he was, the incarnation, and the major events of his life (his birth, death, and resurrection). Important issues in Christology include: • His human nature • His divine nature • The interrelationship between these two natures; how they interacted and affected each other Christology may also cover questions concerning the nature of God like the Trinity, Unitarianism or Binitarianism, and what, if anything, Christ accomplished for the rest of humanity. There are almost as many Christological views as there are variants of Christianity. The different Christological views of various Christian sects have led to accusations of heresy, and, infrequently, subsequent religious persecution. In many cases, a sect's unique christology is its chief distinctive feature; in these cases it is common for the sect to be known by the name given to its christology. Controversies concerning those who deny Christ's divine nature Some important controversies have included the controversy with Arians over Christ's divinity and relationship with the Father, which led to the adoption of the Nicene-Constantinople Creed; the controversy over Nestorianism, and that over Monophysitism (and its derivates Monothelitism and Monoenergism) which led to the first Seven Ecumenical Councils and their many decrees, canons and professions of faith. The adoption of the Chalcedonian view of Christology was, as Karl Rahner would say, key to the beginning of Christological Discussion. Other controversies in Christology included the Docetists and the Adoptionists. We can describe most of these in terms of whether they believed Christ had a divine nature, human nature or both; and if both, in terms of how the two natures coexisted or interacted. All of these views will be presented in simplified form. One of the earliest dispute within Christianity centered on whether Jesus was God. A number of early Christian sects believed that Jesus was not divine, but Ecclesiology is a branch of Christian theology that deals with the doctrines pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the "church" is: its role in salvation, its origin, its relationship to the historical Christ, its discipline, its destiny (see Eschatology) and its leadership. It is, therefore, the study of the Church as a thing in itself, and of the Church's self-understanding of its mission and role. In addition to describing a broad discipline of theology, ecclesiology may be used in the specific sense of a particular church or denomination’s character, self-described or otherwise. This is the sense of the word in such phrases as Roman Catholic ecclesiology, Lutheran ecclesiology, and ecumenical ecclesiology. Ecclesiology asks the questions: • Who is the Church? Is it a visible or earthly corporation -- a "church" in the sense of a specific denomination or institution, for instance? Or is it the body of all believing Christians regardless of their denominational differences and disunity? What is the relationship between living Christians and departed Christians -- do they (those on Earth and those in Heaven) constitute together the Church? • Must one join a church? That is, what is the role of corporate worship in the spiritual lives of believers? Is it in fact necessary? Can salvation be found outside of formal membership in a given faith community, and what constitutes "membership?" • What is the authority of the Christian church? Is the institution itself, either in a single corporate body, or generally, an independent vehicle of revelation or of God's grace? Or is the Church's authority dependent on and derivative of a prior divine revelation, and individual institutions are the Church to the extent Eschatology is a part of theology and philosophy concerned with the final events in the history of the world or the ultimate destiny of human kind, commonly phrased as the end of the world. In many religions, the end of the world is a future event prophesied in sacred texts or folklore. More broadly, eschatology may encompass related concepts such as the Messiah or Messianic Age, the afterlife, and the soul. The Greek word αιών means "age"; some translations may read "end of the age" instead of "end of the world". The distinction also has theological significance, for the "end times" in many religions may involve the destruction of the planet (or of all living things), but with the human race surviving in some new form, ending the current "age" of existence and beginning a new one. Most Western monotheistic religions have doctrines claiming that 'chosen' or 'worthy' members of the one true faith will be "spared" or "delivered" from the coming judgment and wrath of God. They will be ushered into paradise either before, during, or after it depending upon the end-time scenario to which they hold. As well as the wrath of God at the end of the age there is the wrath of man. Christians in the 1st century AD believed the end of the world would come during their lifetime. Jesus in Mark 13:8 compared the end of the world with a mother's birth pain, and the image implied the world was already pregnant with its own destruction, but no one but God knows when it will happen. When the converts of Paul in Thessalonica were persecuted by the Roman Empire, they Ethics is the branch of axiology, one of the four major branches of philosophy, which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to distinguish that which is right from that which is wrong. The Western tradition of ethics is sometimes called moral philosophy. Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with right and wrong in human behavior. All religions have a moral component, and religious approaches to the problem of ethics historically dominated ethics over secular approaches. From the point of view of theistic religions, to the extent that ethics stems from revealed truth from divine sources, ethics is studied as a branch of theology. Many believe that the Golden Rule, which teaches people to "treat others as you want to be treated", is the common denominator of all moral codes and religions. Christian ethics developed while early Christians were subjects of the Roman Empire. Christians eventually took over the Empire itself. Saint Augustine adapted Plato, and later, after the Islamic transmission of his works, Aquinas worked Aristotelian philosophy into a Christian framework. Christian ethics in general has tended to stress grace, mercy, and forgiveness; it stresses doubt in human (as opposed to divine) judgment. It also codified the Seven Deadly Sins. For more see Christian philosophy and the Seven virtues. Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God. his moral refer the hearts Paul teaches (Rom., ii, 24 ff) that God has written It can alsolaw in to the study of other religious topics. A theologian is a person learned in theology. Christian theology practices theology from a Christian viewpoint or studies Christianity theologically. Given the overwhelming influence exercised by Christianity, especially in pre-modern Europe, Christian theology permeates much of Western culture and often reflects that culture. The history of Christian theology intertwines with Church history and covers important developments in philosophy and in the history of ideas. Specific issues such as heresy, Arianism, and the Protestant Reformation are of particular importance. Doctrine means "a body of teachings" or "instructions", taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. The Greek analogy is the etymology of catechism. Often doctrine specifically connotes a corpus of religious dogma as it is promulgated by a church, but not necessarily: doctrine is also used to refer to a principle of law, in the common law traditions, established through a history of past decisions, such as the doctrine of self-defense, or the principle of fair use, or the more narrowly applicable first-sale doctrine. Examples of religious doctrines include: • Christian Trinity and virgin birth • Roman Catholic transubstantiation and immaculate conception • Pentecostal Jesus-Only doctrine • Calvinist predestination • Methodist Prevenient Grace Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas) is belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. There are some conceptual similarities between dogma and the axioms used as the starting point for logical analysis. Axioms may be thought of as concepts or "givens" so fundamental that disputing them would be unimaginable; dogmata are also fundamental (e.g. "God exists") yet incorporate also the larger set of conclusions that comprise the (religious) field dup dup dup dup dup Earliest emergence of Christianity Debatably and Biblically speaking, Christianity began with the Messianic promise (Genesis 3:15) at the dawn of creation and therefore with Adam and Eve, the first people with faith in the Messiah (Christ) to come. It then follows the history of those peoples, mostly the Jewish "nation", who kept that faith. The term "Christian" itself is however not really recognized until the first century AD at Antioch as recorded in Acts 11:26. By way of secular history, Christianity began among a small number (about 120, see Acts 1:15) of Jews and Jewish Proselytes. By the 3rd century AD, Christianity had grown to become the dominant religion of the northern Mediterranean world. It also gained important extensions to the east and south of the Mediterranean. The core history of the Roman Catholic Church is said to extend in an unbroken timeline from this period. This section will examine those first 300 years.  Earliest Church Main article: Early Christianity The term "Early Jewish Christians" is often used in discussing Early Christianity. Jesus, his Twelve Apostles, his relatives, the Elders, and all or essentially all of his early followers were Jewish or Jewish Proselytes. Hence the 3,000 converts on the Pentecost following the Crucifixion described in Acts 2 were all Jews and Proselytes. All converts to Christianity were non-Gentile prior to the conversion of the Roman Centurion Cornelius by Simon Peter (Kephas) in Acts 10, who is traditionally considered the first Gentile convert to Liberation theology is an important, sometimes controversial school of theological thought. At its inception, it was predominently found in the Roman Catholic Church after the Second Vatican Council; although some suggest that it was first articulated by Dietrich Bonhoeffer during the late 1930s. It is often cited as a form of Christian socialism, and it has had particularly widespread influence in Latin America and among the Jesuits, although its influence has diminished within Catholicism in the past decade. Though important parts of its teachings were rejected by the Vatican, curtailing its growth in some sectors, within Protestant circles it is recognized as an important school of thought, of equal standing with neo-Orthodoxy, Feminist Theology, Process Theology, and others. The current Pope, Benedict XVI, has also been long known as an opponent of liberation theology, when he headed the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. In essence, liberation theology explores the relationship between Christian theology (usually Catholic) and political activism, particularly in areas of social justice, poverty, and human rights. The main methodological innovation of liberation theology is to do theology (i.e. speak of God) from the viewpoint of the economically poor and oppressed of the human community. According to In Christian theology, pneumatology refers to the study of the Holy Spirit. In mainstream Christian doctrine, the Holy Spirit is the third person of God in the Trinity. Unitarian forms of Christianity deny that the Holy Spirit is personal, although holding that it may, in some sense, influence people. In the Gospel of John, pneuma is linked to re-birth in water and spirit, which has been suggested to be baptism. Salvation refers to deliverance from an undesirable state or condition. In theology, the study of salvation is called soteriology and is a vitally important concept in several religions. Christianity regards salvation as deliverance from the bondage of sin and from condemnation, resulting in eternal life with God. Salvation is arguably one of the most important Christian spiritual concepts, perhaps second only to the deity of Jesus Christ. Among many Christians, the primary goal of religion is to attain salvation. Others maintain that the primary goal of Christians is to do the will of God, or that the two are equivalent. In many traditions, attaining salvation is synonymous with going to heaven after death, while most also emphasize that salvation represents a changed life while on Earth as well. Many elements of Christian theology explain why salvation is needed and how to attain it. The idea of salvation rests upon there being some sort of unsaved sinful state from which the individual (or mankind) is to be redeemed by a Savior. This Savior, Christians believe, is Jesus Christ. For the Catholic Church, salvation is not just a negative deliverance from sin (original sin and actual sin) and its effects: God saves us not just from something, but for something. God’s action is a positive liberation that raises human beings to a supernatural status, to eternal life on a higher plane than earthly life, to union in a single body with Christ, one of the three Persons of the Trinity, to the dignity of not only being called but actually being adopted children of God, to seeing God "as he is" (1 John 3:2) in communion of life and love with the Trinity and all the saints (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1023- 1025, 1243, 1265-1270, 2009). These blessings man could never merit. Indeed, in the strict sense, man can never merit anything from God: the creature has received everything, including abilities and potentialities, from the Creator. The possibility of meriting anything in the eyes of God derives entirely from a free gift or grace of God. Salvation or justification can by no means be merited, but once God has justified us, we can then, through the influence of the Holy Spirit and love, merit graces useful for sanctification, for growth in grace and love and for reaching the eternal life for which God destines us. We can merit even material benefits, such as health and friendship (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2006-2011). Systematic theology is the study of Christian theology organized thematically (as opposed to historically, as in Historical Theology or Biblical Theology - according to some uses of the latter term). There are three overlapping uses of the term 'systematic theology' in contemporary theology. • In evangelical circles, it is used to refer to the topical collection and exploration of the content of the Bible, in which a different perspective is provided on the Bible's message than that garnered simply by reading the biblical narratives, poems, proverbs, and letters as a story of redemption or as a manual for how to live a godly life. One advantage of this approach is that it allows one to see all that the Bible says regarding some subject (e.g. the attributes of God), and one danger is a tendency to assign technical definitions to terms based on a few passages and then read that meaning everywhere the term is used in the Bible (e.g. "justification" as Paul uses it in his letter to the Romans is different from how James uses it in his letter). • The term can also be used to refer to theology which self-avowedly seeks to perpetuate the classical traditions of thematic exploration of theology described above - often by means of commentary upon the classics of those tradition: Damascus, Aquinas, Calvin, Melanchthon and others. • Normally (but not exclusively) in liberal theology, the term can be used to refer to attempts to follow in Schleiermacher's footsteps, and reinterpret Christian theology in order to derive it from a core set of axioms or principles. • Topics often covered in systematic theology are: God, revelation, creation and providence, Theological Anthropology, Theodicy, Christology, soteriology, church, sacraments, Pneumatology, Christian life, Heaven, and other religions. Harmatology Sin has been a term most usually used in a religious context, and today describes any lack of conformity to the will of God; especially, any willful disregard for the norms revealed by God is a sin. The word is from the old English synn, presumed to be from Germanic *sun(d)jō (literally "it is true").  It is recorded in use as early as the 9th century. The most common formal definition is an infraction against religious or moral law. Colloquially, any thought, word, or act considered faulty, shameful, harmful to oneself or to dup dup Catholicism has two main ecclesiastical meanings, described in Webster's Dictionary as: (1) "the whole orthodox Christian church, or adherence thereto"; and (2) "the doctrines or faith of the Roman Catholic Church, or adherence thereto." 1 The term Catholicism, derived from the Greek adjective καθολικόρ (katholikos), meaning "general" or "universal", is widely understood to refer to the Church, governed by the Bishop of Rome and the bishops in communion with him. However, other Churches that trace their historic episcopate to the apostolic succession — such as the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Churches of the Anglican Communion, and the Old-Catholics — consider themselves to be branches of the Catholic Church. Neo-Lutheranism argues that Lutheran Churches are simply a Protestant reform movement that remains within the greater Church catholic. Beliefs Catholic Churches share certain essential distinctive beliefs and practices (though some Anglicans and Lutherans differ in regard to emphasis and particular pieties): • Papal Infallibility (Only the Roman Catholic Church) • Direct and continuous organizational descent from the original church founded by Jesus (see e.g. Mt 16:18). • Possession of the "threefold ordained ministry" of Bishops, Priests and Deacons. • All ministers are ordained by, and subject to, Bishops, who pass down sacramental authority by the "laying-on of hands", having themselves been ordained in a direct line of succession from the Apostles (see Apostolic Succession). • Belief that the Church is the vessel and deposit of the fullness of the teachings of Jesus and the Apostles from which the Scriptures were formed. This teaching is preserved in both written Scripture and in unwritten Tradition, neither being independent of the other. • A belief in the necessity of sacraments (generally counted as seven). • The use of sacred images, candles, vestments and music, and often incense dup Christian literature is writing that deals Christian themes. This constitutes a huge body of extremely varied writing. Letters, theological treatises and other instructive and devotional works have been produced by Christian authors since the times of Jesus. For early Christian times almost all writing would be non-fiction, including letters, biblical commentaries, doctrinal works and hagiography. See Patristics. Since the invention of the printing press non-fictional literature has been used for the dissemination of the Christian message, and also for disseminating different viewpoints within Christianity. The tract (a small pamphlet containing an explanation of some point, or an appeal to the reader) was in use at the time of the Reformation and continues to be used as a part of proselytization. Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. Per each religious sect, art mediums, style, and representations change; however, the unifying theme is ultimately the representation of the life and times of Jesus Christ and in some cases the Old Testament. Each Christian religious sect has its own rules defining what is an appropriate way to represent the life and times of Jesus. Differences between mediums and style can typically be attributed to various interpretations of the Bible (the leading Christian religious text) and local cultural influences. Traditional Christian art mediums include architecture (cathedral, church), iconography (icon, painting, fresco, mosaic), sculpture (Byzantine ivory statues, Catholic plague columns), wood carving, manuscript miniature, and stained glass. A work of Christian art, whatever the medium, usually portrays a specific person or religious event. Each masterpiece usually presents symbolism native to that religious sect. There is no unifying or defining "Christian" symbol; for example, the Christian Cross does not look the same throughout Christian denominations, nor is the Bible the same work of literature for each sect. However, the following are general symbols that are replete throughout most Christian works: • Jesus : the central individual in Christianity : Images of Jesus • The Christian cross: represents the life, death, and the resurrection of Jesus Christ as well as human salvation because of His sacrifice dup dup The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho ('right', 'correct') and doxa ('thought', 'teaching' , 'Glorification'), is typically used to refer to the correct theological or doctrinal observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body. The term did not conventially exist with any degree of formality (in the sense in which it is now used) prior to the advent of Christianity in the Greek-speaking world, though the word does occasionally show up in ancient literature in other, somewhat similar contexts. Orthodoxy is opposed to heterodoxy ('other teaching'), heresy and schism. People who deviate from orthodoxy by professing a doctrine considered to be false are most often called heretics, while those who deviate from orthodoxy by removing themselves from the perceived body of believers, i.e. from full communion, are called schismatics. Not infrequently these occur together. The distinction in terminology pertains to the subject matter; if one is addressing corporate unity, the emphasis may be on schism; if one is addressing doctrinal coherence, the emphasis may be on heresy. Derived from late classical and medieval Christian apologetics for orthodoxy, more specifity is often applied when defending a claim to orthodoxy or refuting heresy. Apostasy, for example is a violation of orthodoxy that takes the form of abandonment of the faith, be it for some form of atheism or for some other faith, a concept largely unknown before the adoption of Christianity as the official religion of Rome. The first well-known apostate is probably Julian, the last pagan emperor of Rome. A lighter deviation from orthodoxy than heresy is commonly called error, in the sense of not being grave enough to cause total estrangement while yet seriously affecting communion. Sometimes error is also used to cover both full heresies and minor errors. Religion embraces conceptualization of the divine and practice of worship, and how adherents of all faiths represent to others how they perceive these things, both from within and from without. In each there is a degree of openness, and The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit, as shown in the Biblical account of the Day of Pentecost. Pentecostalism is similar to the Charismatic Movement, but developed earlier and separated from the mainstream church. Charismatic Christians, at least in the early days of the movement, tended to remain in their respective denominations. Pentecostals believe that you must be saved by believing in Jesus as Lord and Saviour for the forgiveness of sins and to be made acceptable to God. Pentecostals believe in water baptism as an outward sign of conversion, and that the baptism in the Holy Spirit is a distinct spiritual experience that all who have believed in Jesus should receive. Some Pentecostals believe that the baptism in the Holy Spirit is always accompanied initially by the outward evidence of speaking in tongues. This is a major difference between Pentecostal and Charismatic Christians who believe that a Christian who is baptized in the Holy Spirit may exhibit other physical signs instead of speaking in tongues. However, the idea that one is not saved unless one speaks in tongues is rejected by most major Pentecostal denominations. Pentecostals also believe that the Bible has the final authority in matters of faith. Theologically, most Pentecostal denominations are aligned with Evangelicalism in that they emphasize the reliability of the Bible and the need for the transformation of an individual's life with faith in Jesus. Most Pentecostals also adhere to the doctrine of Biblical inerrancy. Pentecostals differ from Fundamentalists by placing more emphasis on personal spiritual experience. Pentecostals have a transrational worldview. Although Pentecostals are concerned with orthodoxy (correct belief), they are also concerned with orthopathy (right affections) and orthopraxy (right reflection or action). Reason is esteemed as a valid conduit of truth, but Pentecostals do not limit truth to the realm of reason. Dr. Jackie David Johns, in his work on Pentecostal formational leadership, states that the Scriptures hold a special place in the Pentecostal worldview because the Holy Spirit is always active in the Bible. For him, to encounter the Scriptures is to encounter God. For the Pentecostal, the Scriptures are a Protestantism is one of three primary branches of Christianity. The term "Protestant" represents a diverse range of theological and social perspectives, denominations, individuals, and related organizations. While no particular belief or practice can be said to define this branch of Christianity, those denominations considered to be well within the realm of Protestantism all have firm roots in the Protestant Reformation in Europe during the sixteenth century. Protestants often refer to specific Protestant churches and groups as denominations to imply that they are differently named parts of the whole church. This "invisible unity" is assumed to be imperfectly displayed, visibly: some denominations are less accepting of others, and the basic orthodoxy of some is questioned by most of the others. Individual denominations also have formed over very subtle theological differences. Other denominations are simply regional or ethnic expressions of the same beliefs. The actual number of distinct denominations is hard to calculate, but has been estimated to be over thirty thousand. Various ecumenical movements have attempted cooperation or reorganization of Protestant churches, according to various models of union, but divisions continue to outpace unions. Most denominations share common beliefs in the major aspects of the Christian faith, while differing in many secondary doctrines. According to the World Christian Encyclopedia (2001) by David B. Barrett, et al, there are "over 33,000 denominations in 238 countries". Every year there is a net increase of around 270 to 300 denominations.  Protestant families of denominations Please note that only general families are listed here (tens of thousands of individual denominations exist); some of these groups do not consider themselves as part of the Protestant movement, but are generally viewed as such by scholars and the public at large: • Anabaptist • Anglican / Episcopal • Baptist • Calvinist / Reformed/Congregational and Presbyterian dup Comparative religion is a field of religious studies that analyzes interpretive differences of common themes and ideas among the world's religions. This field of study relies heavily upon the examination of myth, deriving essential themes from religious metaphor, and tracing in various ways a possible direct cultural connection between them. It also makes comparisons between the rituals and other aspects of various faiths besides just the myths. Humanists, in particular, favour the teaching of comparative religion. dup dup dup dup dup dup The word "ecumenism" (also oecumenism, œcumenism) (IPA: /ɛkˈju ːmɛˈn ɪzəm/) is derived from the Greek oikoumene, which means "the inhabited world". In its broadest meaning ecumenism is the religious initiative towards world-wide unity. A more limited goal of ecumenism is the promotion of co-operation and improved understanding between distinct religious groups or denominations within the same religion. The word is used predominantly with reference to (and by) Christianity, regarding movement toward unity (although not necessarily union), of Christian denominations separated by doctrine, history and practice. Christian ecumenism is the promotion of unity or cooperation between distinct religious groups or denominations of the Christian religion, broadly defined. Ecumenism in this sense is distinguished from interfaith pluralism. Because Christianity is diverse, so is the definition of Christian ecumenism. The interfaith movement strives for greater mutual respect, toleration, and co- operation among the world religions. Ecumenism in this sense is called religious pluralism, as distinguished from ecumenism within a faith movement. Ecumenism as interfaith dialogue between representatives of diverse faiths, does not necessarily intend reconciling their adherents into full, organic unity with one another but simply to promote better relations. It promotes toleration, mutual respect and cooperation, whether among Christian denominations, or between Christianity and other faiths. Alternatively, ecumenism can have the goal of reconciling all who profess An ethnic group is a human population whose members identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry (Smith 1986). Ethnic groups are also usually united by common cultural, behavioural, linguistic, or religious practices. In this sense, an ethnic group is also a cultural community. From an objective standpoint, an ethnic group is also an endogamous population, that is, members of an ethnic group procreate primarily with other members of their ethnic group, something which is measureable in terms of characteristic average genetic frequencies. These differences, however, may not approach the magnitude of racial difference in that the genetic differences within an ethnic group are greater than the difference between any two ethnic groups. The characteristic of endogamy is reinforced by proximity, cultural familiarity, and also social pressure (in extreme cases, by legal command) to procreate within the ethnic group. In general, two types of ethnic groups have arisen in human history. The earliest form is the kinship-based ethnic group most closely corresponding to the term "tribe". As human populations became more mobile, another type of ethnic group arose, most closely associated with the evolution of the state ("country"), as the opportunity to procreate outside the old kinship systems presented itself. Invasion, migration, and pan-ethnic religions have contributed to a further evolution of new ethnic groups out of the mixture of older ethnic groups. At the same time, ethnic distinction can persist, even within the bounds of a single country as long as members of an ethnic group procreate primarily among themselves, for various reasons. Members of an ethnic group generally claim a strong cultural continuity over time, although historians and anthropologists have documented that many of the cultural practices on which ethnic groups are based are of recent invention (Friedlander 1975, Hobsbawm and Ranger 1983, Sider 1993). On the political front, an ethnic group is distinguished from a nation-state by the former's lack of sovereignty. While ethnicity and race are related concepts (Abizadeh 2001), the concept of ethnicity is rooted in the idea of social groups, marked especially by shared nationality, tribal affiliation, religious faith, shared language, or cultural and dup dup dup dup The History of religions refers to the Religiongeschichteschule, a Nineteenth century German school of thought which was the first to systematically study religion as a socio-cultural phenomenon. The nineteenth century saw a dramatic increase in knowledge about other cultures and religions, and also the establishment of economic and social histories of progress. The "history of religions" school sought to account for this religious diversity by connecting it with the social and economic situation of a particular group. Typically religions are divided into stages of progression from more simple to more complex societies, especially from polytheistic to monotheistic and from extempore to organised. Thus, the starting point is the tribal band whose religion is animistic and involves shamans and totems. Since the group is tribal, there is no permanent sanctuary. Cultic rites centre on identification with wild animals and appeasing spirits, often of the hunted. As society developed into Chiefdoms and small kingdoms, religious rites began to serve different functions. Agriculture became important and so fertility gods were introduced (often female, as it is the woman who has the power to produce life). The status of the "Big man" (or chief) was supported with mythic tales of heroes and demigods, whom he may be descended from. When these small kingdoms merged into larger groups (often through conquest), different cults merged. The conquest of one group by another is therefore recorded in an epic tale of the conquest of the conquered group's Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ), also known as Noël, is a traditional holiday celebrating the birth of Jesus with both religious and secular aspects, commonly observed on 25 December. In most Eastern Orthodox Churches, even where the civil calendar used is the Gregorian, the event is observed according to the Julian calendar, which coincides with the predominant reckoning of 7 January. Celebrated mostly by Christians, the holiday is based on the traditional —though not accurate— birth of Jesus, as 25 December 1 BC. Recent data has concluded that Jesus was likely born earlier, circa 8 BC – 2 BC. Christ's birth, or nativity, was said by his followers to fulfill the prophecies of Judaism that a messiah would come, from the house of David, to redeem the world from sin. Efforts to decide upon a date on which to celebrate his birth began some centuries later. The word Christmas is a contraction of Christ's Mass, derived from the Old English Cristes mæsse. It is often abbreviated Xmas, probably because X resembles the Greek letter Χ (chi) which has often historically been used as an abbreviation for Christ (Χπιστόρ in Greek). Christmas has acquired many secular aspects, which are sometimes celebrated as often—or more—than the birth of Jesus. Many Christmas traditions originated with pre-Christian observances that were syncretised into Christianity. Examples of this process are the northern European Yule, and the Winter Solstice celebration found in many older as well as recent pagan celebrations. In Western countries, Christmas has become the most economically significant holiday of the year. It is largely characterized by gifts being exchanged between friends and family members, and the appearance of Santa Claus. Various local and regional Christmas traditions are still practised, despite the widespread influence of American and British Christmas motifs disseminated by globalization, popular literature, television, and other media. dup Christian holidays See also: liturgical year Advent All Saints' Day All Souls' Day Ascension Day (Ascension of Jesus into Heaven) Ash Wednesday Assumption of Mary (Assumption of the Virgin Mary) Candlemas Childermas Christmas (Birth of Jesus) Corpus Christi (Sacrifice of Jesus) Easter (Resurrection of Jesus) Easter Triduum Easter Vigil Good Friday (Death of Jesus) Holy Saturday Holy Thursday (Celebration of The Last Supper) Epiphany Lent Pentecost or Whitsun (Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples of Jesus) Shrove Tuesday or Mardi Gras (last day of Carnival) Winter Lent Watch Night The Catholic fiestas patronales are celebrated in each place's patron saint's day, according to the Calendar of saints. Easter is the most important religious holiday of the Christian liturgical year, observed in March, April, or May to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus, which Christians believe occurred after his death by crucifixion in AD 27-33 (see Good Friday). Easter can also refer to the season of the church year, lasting for fifty days, which follows this holiday and ends at Pentecost. Western Christianity The Easter festival is kept in many different ways among Western Christians. The traditional, liturgical observation of Easter, as practised among Roman Catholics and some Lutherans and Anglicans begins on the night of Holy Saturday with the Easter Vigil. This, the most important liturgy of the year, begins in total darkness with the blessing of the Easter fire, the lighting of the large Paschal candle (symbolic of the Risen Christ) and the chanting of the Exsultet or Easter Proclamation attributed to Saint Ambrose of Milan. After this service of light, a number of readings from the Old Testament are read; these tell the stories of creation, the sacrifice of Isaac, the crossing of the Red Sea, and the foretold coming of the Messiah. This part of the service climaxes with the singing of the Alleluia and the proclamation of the gospel of the resurrection. A sermon may be preached after the gospel. Then the focus moves from the lectern to the font. Anciently, Easter was considered the most perfect time to receive baptism, and this practice is alive in Roman Catholicism, as it is the time when new members are initiated into the Church, and it is being revived in some other circles. Whether there are baptisms at this point or not, it is traditional for the congregation to renew the vows of their baptismal faith. This act is often sealed by the sprinkling of the congregation with holy water from the font. The Catholic sacrament of Confirmation is also celebrated at the Vigil. The Easter Vigil concludes with the celebration of the Eucharist and Holy Communion. Additional celebrations are usually offered on Easter Sunday itself. Some churches prefer to keep this vigil very early on the Sunday morning instead of the Saturday night to reflect the gospel account of the women coming to the tomb at dawn on the first day of the week. Some churches read the Old Testament lessons before the procession of the Paschal candle, and then read the gospel immediately after the Exsultet. In predominantly Roman Catholic Philippines, the morning of Easter (known in dup dup dup Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). Philosophy of religion as a part of metaphysics Philosophy of religion has classically been regarded as a part of metaphysics. In Aristotle's, Metaphysics, he described first causes as one of the subjects of his investigation. For Aristotle, God was the first cause: the unmoved mover. This later came to be called natural theology by rationalist philosophers of the 17th and 18th centuries. Today, philosophers have adopted the term 'philosophy of religion' for the subject, and typically it is regarded as a separate field of specialization, though it is also still treated by some, particularly Catholic philosophers, as a part of metaphysics. It should be clear why considerations of the divine have been regarded as metaphysical. God is usually conceived to be in a distinct category of being; a being different from those of the rest of the universe. For example, God in some traditions is conceived as not having a body. Metaphysics, and in particular ontology, is concerned with the most basic categories of existence, those things that cannot be explained with reference to any other type of existence. Thus one might argue that the very notion of God (or gods, or the divine) cannot be reduced to human concepts of mind or body; God is a sui generis entity. However, the philosophy of religion has concerned itself with more than just metaphysical questions. In fact the subject has long involved important questions in areas such as epistemology, philosophy of language, philosophical logic, and moral philosophy. Questions asked in philosophy of religion One might think that philosophy of religion would be an inquiry into the foundations of religions (as Philosophy X is typically an inquiry into the foundations of X). However, philosophy of religion is predominantly an inquiry into the nature of God and religious belief (not religions per se). Thus, two of the main questions in the field are: 1. What is God? 2. Are there any good reasons to think that God does or does not exist? The relationship between science and religion takes many forms. Generally speaking, religion and science use different methods in their effort to ascertain truth. The scientific method relies on an objective approach to measure, calculate and describe the natural/physical/material universe. Religious methods are typically more subjective (or intersubjective in community), relying on varying notions of authority, through any combination of: revelation, intuition, belief in the supernatural, individual experience, or a combination of these to understand the universe. Science attempts to answer the "how" and "what" questions of observable and verifiable phenomena; religion attempts to answer the "why" questions of value and morals. However, some science also attempts to explain such "why" questions, and some religious authority also extends to "how" and "what" questions regarding the natural world, creating the potential for conflict. Historically, science has had a close and complex relationship with religion; religious doctrines and motivations have often been central to scientific development, while scientific knowledge has had profound effects on religious beliefs. A common modern view, described by Stephen Jay Gould as "non- overlapping magisteria" (NOMA), is that science and religion deal with fundamentally separate aspects of human experience and so, when each stays within its own domain, they co-exist peacefully. Another view known as the conflict thesis—popularized in the 19th century by John William Draper and Andrew Dickson White, but now largely rejected by historians of science—holds that science and religion inevitably compete for authority over the nature of reality, so that religion has been gradually losing a war with science as scientific explanations become more powerful and widespread. However, neither of these views adequately accounts for the variety of interactions between science and religion (both historically and today), ranging from antagonism to separation to close collaboration. The attitudes of religion towards science Science, and particularly geometry and astronomy, was linked directly to the divine for most medieval scholars. The compass in this 13th century manuscript is a symbol of creation. Religious interpretations of politics • How theologians interpret the political domain, and how they suggest that people should act within that domain (for example "Render unto Caesar what is Caesar's and unto God what is God's). This can include withdrawing from the world, quietism and political activity per se (for example moves to impose Sharia Law), see also Liberation theology Believers in the political domain • The activity of believers in politics can be varied - see Christian Right, Christian Socialism, and a number of faith based parties. Some political activity can be directed towards causes rather than party politics - for example the Anti-slavery movement. Political perceptions of religions • The interaction of various religions within the political domain, including sectarianism. In many states the church and the state are formally separate, in theory or in practice, even if one particular faith is given particular support. Orthodox and Catholic believers describe Christian worship in terms of the seven sacraments or "mysteries." These include baptism, the Eucharist (communion), matrimony, Holy Orders, confirmation or Chrismation, penance and reconciliation, and the Anointing of the Sick. Many Protestant groups, following Martin Luther, recognize the sacramental nature of baptism and communion, but not usually the other five in the same way. Anabaptist and Brethren groups would add feet washing. Pentecostal, Charismatic, and Holiness Churches emphasize "gifts of the Spirit" such as spiritual healing, prophecy, exorcism, and speaking in tongues. These emphases are used not as "sacraments" but as means of worship and ministry. The Quakers deny the entire concept of sacraments. Nevertheless, their "testimonies" affirming peace, integrity, equality, and simplicity are affirmed as integral parts of the Quaker belief structure. In general, Protestants tend to view Christian rituals in terms of commemoration apart from mystery. Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Old-Catholic and many Anglican and Lutheran Christians hold the commemoration and mystery of rituals together, seeing no contradiction between them. Virtually all Christian traditions affirm that Christian practice should include acts of personal piety such as prayer, Bible reading, and attempting to live a moral lifestyle. This lifestyle includes not only obedience to the Ten Commandments, as interpreted by Christ (as in the Sermon on the Mount), but also love for one's neighbor in both attitude and action — whether friend or enemy, Christian or non-Christian. This love is commanded by Christ and, according to him, is next only in importance to love toward God; which includes obedience to such injunctions as "feed the hungry" and "shelter the homeless", both informally and formally. Christianity teaches that it is impossible for people to completely reform themselves, but that moral and spiritual progress can only occur with God's help through the gift of the Holy Spirit, who dwells within all faithful believers. Christians believe that by sharing in Christ's life, death, and resurrection, they die with Him to sin and can be resurrected with Him to new life. Weekly worship services Justin Martyr (First Apology, chapter LXVII) describes a second-century s author and context information and is arranged in the order of the Bible books. A handbook can also be called a companion. an expression. It is most often a written or oral fragment and in such cases it is also called a quote. A typical, and perhaps ideal, quotation is st, or simply to express one's thoughts and emotions. Books on the theory and practice of prayer prayers are included here. Book rol and immediate social environment. They usually concern more then a single individual and affect many individuals in a society. Social iss e called a companion. ical, and perhaps ideal, quotation is usually short, concise and commonly only one sentence long. There are two broad categories which mo r prayers are included here. Books of prayers will be found in REL052010 RELIGION / Prayerbooks / Christian. ny individuals in a society. Social issues, as contrasted with personal troubles of a given individual, can be explained in terms of individual sh e are two broad categories which most quotations fall into, beauty and truth, although some quotations fit equally well into both these groups. books / Christian. be explained in terms of individual shortcomings related to motivation, attitude, ability, character, or judgment. t equally well into both these groups. 'Beautiful' quotations are words remembered for their aesthetically pleasing use of language, whereas m pleasing use of language, whereas many other quotations are remembered because they are thought to express some universal truth. Thes o express some universal truth. These latter quotations are often called maxims or aphorisms and they are highly regarded for being pithy re are highly regarded for being pithy renderings of ideas that most people have but most have not been able to express so clearly. A third type ble to express so clearly. A third type of quotation may be any line which merely reminds the person who quotes it of a particularly memorable quotes it of a particularly memorable work, sometimes making a subtle comparison to the situation or topic a
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