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					United Nations Development Assistance Framework

         “For Kenya’s Future…”

                  March 2003

                                                                  Table of Contents
Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction and Overview .......................................................................................................................... 3
     UN reform                                                                                                                                                   3
     CCA/UNDAF and inter-agency coordination in Kenya                                                                                                            3
The Programme Framework ....................................................................................................................... 4
     The Kenyan context for UN programme choices                                                                                                                4
     National development priorities                                                                                                                            7
     Comparative advantage of the UN system in Kenya                                                                                                           11
     Value of a coordinated approach                                                                                                                           11
Rationale for UNDAF Choices ................................................................................................................... 12
     Promote good governance and the realization of rights                                                                                                     12
     Reduce the incidence and socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS, malaria and TB                                                                                13
     Strengthen national systems for emergency preparedness, prevention, response and
         mitigation.                                                                                                                                           13
     Promote sustainable livelihoods and protect the environment                                                                                               13
Analysis of the Areas of Cooperation ........................................................................................................ 13
     Area of Cooperation 1: Promote good governance and the realization of rights                                                                              13
     Area of Cooperation 2: Reduce the incidence & socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS,
        malaria and TB                                                                                                                                         16
     Area of Cooperation 3: Strengthen national & local systems for emergency preparedness,
        prevention, response & mitigation                                                                                                                      18
     Area of Cooperation 4: Promote sustainable livelihoods & protect the environment                                                                          19
Programme Resources Framework........................................................................................................... 20
     Estimated UNDAF programme resources (US$)                                                                                                                 21
     UNDAF Implementation                                                                                                                                      22
     Ensuring national ownership                                                                                                                               22
     Collaboration and partnerships                                                                                                                            22
     Capacity building                                                                                                                                         22
Monitoring And Evaluation ....................................................................................................................... 23
     Formal reviews and evaluation                                                                                                                             23
     Internal review and evaluation mechanisms                                                                                                                 24
     Overall UNDAF evaluation and impact Assessment                                                                                                            24
     Theme groups in the 2004-2008 UNDAF                                                                                                                       25
Annexes: ....................................................................................................................................................... 27
     Achievements of the UN system                                                                                                                             27
     Constraints experienced                                                                                                                                   27
     Factors that constrained the UNDAF                                                                                                                        27
     Conclusion on lessons learned                                                                                                                             28
     Human development indicators from the CCA (Kenya) 2001                                                                                                    28
     Table 1: Strategies and action — by area of cooperation                                                                                                   32
     Table 2: Programme resources framework — by agency and outcome (US$m)                                                                                     40
     Table 3: Monitoring and evaluation framework                                                                                                              41
     List of acronyms                                                                                                                                           1
     Signatories to the UN Development Assistance Framework in Kenya                                                                                            2

                                                  The UNDAF is also based on ongoing UN
                                                  Development Group and specialised agency
                                                  The UN system in Kenya
The United Nations Development Assistance
Framework (UNDAF) is the management               Members of the UN Development Group:
tool for coordinating UN system development       FAO       ILO       UNAIDS UNDCP
assistance to Kenya. The UNDAF enables            UNDP      UNESCO UNFPA        UN-HABITAT
                                                  UNICEF UNIFEM UNOPS           WFP
UN agencies to work together for enhanced         WHO
efficiency and impact, in a collective
response to Kenya's national development          As well as the following funds and specialised
priorities. The UN team works in pursuit of       agencies:
the world‘s Millennium Development Goals          ICAO       IFC         UNEP   UNHCR
(MDGs), and in compliance with other              UNIC       UNIDO       UNOCHA UNON
international conventions that Kenya is
signatory to.
                                                             directives, country strategies and
The second UNDAF for Kenya, “The UNDAF                       programs. The Framework is a
covering the period 2004-2008, is enables UN agencies        product of joint consultative
based on development challenges to work together for         processes between the UN, outside
identified in the second UN enhanced efficiency              based specialised agencies, the
Common Country Assessment and impact, in a                   government and bilateral and
(CCA) 2001, and on lessons collective response to multilateral agencies. It is a
learned      from      the    first Kenya's national         dynamic and operational planning
CCA/UNDAF experience 1999- development                       tool for enabling the UN to
2003. It takes into account the priorities”                  improve its services to Kenya by
concerns of the government as                                enhancing its collaboration with
reflected in the National Poverty Eradication    the government, development partners, and
Plan 1999-2015 (NPEP), the Poverty               NGOs.
Reduction Strategy Paper 2001-2004 (PRSP)
                                                 This UNDAF is formulated at a time of a new
and the National Development Plan 2002-
                                                 political dispensation in Kenya as from 2003
2008. It has also incorporated regional
                                                 and provides a strong basis for the UN‘s
initiatives such as the New Partnership for
                                                 support     to     the   new     government‘s
Africa's Development (NEPAD).
                                                 commitment in addressing the pressing
                                                 current development challenges including job
 In the 2004-2008 UNDAF, the UN will             creations, education, health and food security.
concentrate on four broad priority areas of
cooperation, to:                                  The UNDAF aims at coordinating strategies,
1) Promote good governance and the                consolidating information, facilitating a joint
    realization of rights                         programme approach, and harmonising
2) Reduce the incidence and socio-economic        administrative and operational structures. By
    impact of HIV/AIDS, malaria and TB            harmonizing the programme framework, and
3) Strengthen national and grassroots             integrating UN agencies' programme
    systems for emergency preparedness,           activities with those of the government, the
    prevention, response and mitigation           UN hopes to achieve greater strategic
4) Promote sustainable livelihoods and            consistency, efficiency, effectiveness — and
    protect the environment.                      more importantly — enhanced impact of its
                                                  assistance to Kenya.
There are also three crosscutting themes:
1) Gender                                         While each UN agency will implement its
2) Population and development                     own country programme according to its
3) Research and information.                      mandate, the UNDAF allows them to
                                                  streamline their development activities within

the priority areas of cooperation as specified        promoting joint, parallel, or collaborative
by the government.                                     programming
To ensure a properly coordinated approach             mainstreaming cross-cutting issues
under the UNDAF, the UN will continue to
make use of theme groups and inter-agency             targeting vulnerable groups and regions.
task forces. Opportunities for joint or              A mid-term review of UNDAF will be
collaborative response to development                carried out in 2006. Other individual and
challenges will be seized, and common and/or         joint reviews will analyse progress and
joint response strategies developed.                 lessons learned.
Theme groups are the avenues through which          Inter-agency committees will work towards
programme activities are linked with the            ever-greater coordination in administration
PRSP thematic groups, as well as other like-        and operations (UNDP/UNON), information
minded teams. The UN                                                and communication (UNIC),
Country Team or the            “The aim is to reduce poverty,       and security management
Kenya Country Committee         with a particular focus on the      (Office of the Resident
(KCC) will guide the                  most vulnerable”              Coordinator). There is a
UNDAF process. Progress                                             secretariat to assist the
towards realization of MDG targets is               Kenya Country Committee in monitoring and
monitored by common core indicators, which          evaluation, as well as reporting processes. It
measure the collective impact of government,        also backstops theme groups and operational
UN and other development partners‘                  committees, and facilitates reporting and
programs on national development priorities         information sharing.
in key sectors.
The four areas of cooperation set forth here
are in line with the UN‘s mission to support
government efforts to create an enabling
environment for the improvement of the
quality of life and well-being of Kenyans, to
reduce poverty, with a particular focus on the
most vulnerable groups and regions, and to
ensure the protection of the rights of women
and children.
The UNDAF identifies 13 outcomes in total,
using the following cooperation strategies:
 strengthening advocacy policy analysis in
  line with international commitments,
  including the MDGs
 supporting decentralised planning
 increasing efforts to build the capacity of
  national and local institutions
 strengthening partnerships with the
  government, the private sector and CSOs
 enhancing joint efforts at collection,
  analysis and dissemination of data and

                                                      UN a more effective instrument with a vision
                                                      for pursuing global development challenges.
                                                      A harmonised, integrated process of
UN REFORM                                             programming for the UN at the country level
                                                      was initiated, with four key elements:
In 1997, as part of his reform agenda to make          a) Analysis of the development situation
the UN a more effective and efficient                     through the CCAs
institution, the Secretary-General instituted a
comprehensive plan of action. The Common               b) Strategic planning for operational
Country Assessment (CCA) and the UNDAF                    activities through the UNDAF
were recommended as the primary tools to               c) Programming of assistance through
facilitate a common programming framework                 individual, parallel or joint programs
for all UN agencies at the country level.
                                                       d) Monitoring and evaluation, particularly
The UNDAF is prepared by all UN agencies,                 of the intended outcomes of the UNDAF.
in close collaboration with the government
and with the involvement of other                     Built into the Millennium Declaration was a
development partners. The UNDAF defines               set of priorities, including precise and time-
areas where the UN‘s collective interventions         bound development goals (MDGs) that have
are likely to make a significant and strategic        become the common policy framework for
contribution in tackling the country‘s                the UN. The MDGs, given a new impetus at
development challenges, bringing out its              the summit, are a product of a series of major
comparative advantage. The basis for the              international conferences of the 1990s
UN‘s choices is the collective diagnosis              convened to examine different aspects of
undertaken through the CCA, resulting in              development,        including     environment,
high-quality strategic analysis to identify the       children, human rights, women, population
causes of a country‘s development                     and social policy.
In September 2000 at the Millennium                   CCA/UNDAF AND INTER-AGENCY
Assembly, more than 189 member states                 COORDINATION IN KENYA
adopted the Millennium Declaration,
signifying a further commitment to make the           Kenya was a CCA/UNDAF pilot country and
                                                      prepared its first CCA in 1998, followed by
                                                      the first UNDAF a year later. These
   The Millennium Development Goals, to be
achieved worldwide, 1990-2015, include:               instruments allowed the UN to institute wide-
                                                      ranging measures to rationalise and improve
1 Halving extreme poverty and hunger                  coordination among UN activities. As a
                                                      result, a strong pattern of inter-agency
2 Achieving universal primary education
                                                      collaboration has emerged, characterised by:
3 Promoting gender equality                           regular UN country team meetings, sharing of
                                                      information and experiences, theme group
4 Reducing under-five mortality by 2/3
                                                      dialogue, development of common databases,
5 Reducing maternal mortality by 3/4                  use of common/shared services such as
                                                      security, telecommunication, conference
6 Reversing the       spread   of   HIV/AIDS,
                                                      services, and the planning and execution of
  malaria and TB
                                                      practical collaborative programs and projects.
7 Ensuring environmental sustainability8              The coordination has also enhanced a
      Developing a global partnership for             common approach to government, which has
  development, with targets for aid, trade            in turn responded by articulating various
  and debt relief.                                    strategies and frameworks that have further
                                                      streamlined the UN response.

The first CCA and the UNDAF reinforced the            THE PROGRAMME FRAMEWORK
priorities identified by the government
through     its   various     planning   and
programming frameworks, and to a large                THE KENYAN CONTEXT FOR UN
                                                      PROGRAMME CHOICES
extent enabled the UN to improve
collaboration starting in 2000. However, it           The key development challenge in Kenya
quickly became apparent that the UN family            today is the high incidence of poverty. This is
needed to re-examine its strategies vis-à-vis         aggravated by poor governance, weak
the     programming      environment.    The          internal control systems and lack of the
launching of a National Poverty Eradication           political will to carry out the commitments
Plan for the period 1999-2015, and the PRSP           made through legislative, policy, and
2002, obviated the need to re-align UN                institutional enactment. The problem of
programming to match emerging government              HIV/AIDS is a new threat to Kenya's
priorities.                                           economic recovery. The CCA also identified
The UN country team undertook a fresh                 other development challenges where UN
common analysis, and updated its database.            support is needed, including: slow economic
The result was a second CCA, completed in             growth, declining access to basic services,
2001, and involving widespread consultations          poor governance and the increasing
with the government and other development             frequency and severity of disasters. A more
partners. The CCA identified five areas               detailed overview of these challenges is
requiring particular attention — maternal and         outlined below.
child health disease patterns, access to basic        Poverty: Kenya has a high incidence of
education, HIV/AIDS, severity of disasters,           absolute poverty. It is estimated that 56% of
and degradation of the environment. In order          the population is poor. The number of poor
to address these problems, the CCA proposed           people increased from 3.7 million in 1972/73
action around four key fronts: expanding              to 11.5 million in 1994, 12.5 million in 1997,
opportunities,     securing     empowerment,          and an estimated 15 million today. According
guaranteeing      security     and   ensuring         to the 1997 Welfare Monitoring Survey,
sustainability.                                       poverty levels were at 53% among the rural
In June 2002, the UN began the preparation            population and 47% among urban dwellers.
of the second UNDAF. The new CCA‘s five               The quantitative approach to measuring
priority issues and the areas of action defined       poverty defines the poor as those who cannot
the scope and focus.                                  afford basic food and non-food items. In
A causality analysis was used to identify             1997, the Welfare Monitoring Survey
areas     for    collaborative   and    joint         estimated the absolute poverty line at
programming. Other areas where agencies are           Ksh 1,239 ($13) per month, and Ksh 2,648
likely to work individually or with partners          ($33) respectively for rural and urban areas.
were also specified, as were some of the              Kenya‘s poverty crisis must be appreciated
potential partners. This was matched with the         within the global context. Latest World Bank
spatial distribution of human development             figures indicate that of the world‘s six billion
challenges and national development                   people, 2.8 billion — nearly half — live on
priorities to align UN responses. The                 less than $1 a day, with 44% of them living in
following sections provide an outline of the          South East Asia and 24% in Sub-Saharan
development context.                                  Africa.
                                                      Qualitative dimensions of poverty include the
                                                      inability to meet basic needs, unemployment,
                                                      inability to feed oneself and family, lack of
                                                      proper housing, poor health, and inability to
                                                      educate children and pay medical bills. To be
                                                      poor is also to be exposed to ill treatment or

to be powerless in influencing key decisions           Enrolment in basic education has been
affecting one‘s life.                                  declining since 1990, both at the primary and
                                                       secondary levels. The proportion of boys and
Kenya‘s economic growth has been on the                girls progressing from Form One 1 to Form
decline, particularly in the past decade. While        Four declined from around 95% in 1996 to
economic growth (GDP) in real terms                    76% in 1999.
averaged 8% during 1963-72, the rate of
growth declined to                                                           HIV/AIDS:             The
4.8% during 1973-                                                            pandemic is having a
1982.        It then        The Crisis of Social Development in Kenya        catastrophic social and
declined further to  life expectancy down from 60 years in economic impact, with
3.5% between 1983             1989 to 55 in 1999                             a potential effect on
and 1994. It was                                                             political        stability.
2.3% in 1997, 1.8%  increase in under five mortality from 89 in Emphasis must also be
in 1998, 1.4% in              1990 to 105 in 1998                            put on social economic
1999, and only 0.4%  immunization for infants dropped from impact on related issues
in 2000. In 2001              92% in 1990-1994 to 56% in 1995-1996           such as AIDS orphans
there was a modest                                                           and overburdening of
recovery to a growth  primary school enrolment declined from the elderly population
rate of 1.2%. As              95% in 1989 to 79% in 1995                     segment who need to
economic       growth                                                        take care of orphans.
                            secondary school enrolment down from
declined,                                                                    Although       it     was
                              30% in 1999 to 23% in 1999
development partner                                                          declared a national
assistance also fell,  access to safe drinking water increased disaster in 1999, the
and of course the             from 47% in 1990 to 54% in 1998-2000           scourge continues to
worst hit by this                                                            spread.     With        an
double blow were            marginal increase in food security from estimated two million
Kenya‘s poor.                 1,897 calories per day per adult (1990) to people already infected,
                              1,971 calories (1997), still well below the and with more than 700
Basic           social        normative 2,250 calories                       AIDS-related        deaths
services: Poverty has                                                        per day, the pandemic
                           Source: Kenya Human Development Report
undermined          the 2002.                                                may already be the
provision of basic                                                           greatest            social
social services and                                                          catastrophe in Kenya‘s
mortality rates have deteriorated against             history. Malaria and TB contribute to higher
values recorded in the 1989 census. Though            mortality and morbidity rates. Combined with
national immunization coverage rose from              HIV/AIDS, the two diseases will further
73% in 1989 to 79% in 1993, it then dropped           exacerbate negative trends in other sectors
to 61% in 2000. Even the proportion of                unless corrective measures are urgently
children under one year immunised against             taken.
measles dropped from 84% in 1993 to 76% in
2000. Similarly, only 56% of Kenya's                  In human development terms, the effect of
population had access to safe drinking water          the scourge has been illustrated as follows:
in 2000.
                                                         HIV/AIDS = less income = less health &
Kenya has also performed poorly in the                   education = more poverty & HIV
provision of health services, and the                    vulnerability (Source: UNDP – Human
incidence of common diseases has increased,              Development Report, 2001 (Kenya) p.57).
with malaria being one of the worst killers.
The onset of HIV/AIDS has greatly worsened            Food insecurity: The global goal is to reduce
the situation. Current estimates show an adult        the number of chronically under-nourished by
prevalence of 10-15%, with 2.1 million adults         half by 2015. Kenya, however, is far from
and children being HIV-positive (70% aged             reaching its goal of food self-sufficiency.
14-25).                                               More than three million Kenyans are food

insecure and need relief supplies. It is              declining, and was 2.9% in 1999. It is
estimated that 17% of rural and 29% of urban          projected to decline further to 2.1% by 2010.
Kenyans were food poor in 1994.                       The high fertility experienced in the past has
                                                      resulted in a youthful structure of the
There are glaring regional disparities, often         population — about half the population is
                                                      below 15 years of age. This means that even
       Impact of HIV/AIDS on Kenyan                   if fertility rates continue to decline in the
           Human Development                          future, there will still be a strong increase in
     The impact of AIDS in Kenya is huge,             the population in the years to come, while a
   with social, psychological, demographic            large number of young people reach
   and economic costs to both individuals             reproductive age.
   and the entire population.                         This will lead to spiralling unemployment,
      HIV/AIDS is expected to:                        hence increased dependency, and also further
                                                      demand for basic and higher education. The
     lower life expectancy considerably              country‘s institutional and resource capacities
      (further)                                       may be outstripped, putting stress on
                                                      financial resources, health facilities, food
     further raise infant & maternal
                                                      supplies and housing. Environmental
      mortality rates
                                                      degradation will increase, through removal of
     lower per capita incomes by 10% in the          vegetation, cultivation of hillsides and
      next 10 years                                   riverbanks, and encroachment onto marginal
     lower overall enrolment as children are
      withdrawn from school to care for their         Gender inequity: Gender disparities
      parents                                         continue, despite some improvements. In
                                                      education, the gap between the enrolment of
     lower the Human Development Index               boys and girls at primary and secondary
      for Kenya from 0.339 to 0.508 by the            levels is gradually narrowing. The same is
      year 2010.                                      true in accessing basic services, as well as in
    Source: Kenya Human Development Report            representation in the political and economic
    2001.                                             arena. Nevertheless, gender disparities persist
                                                      in level of poverty among female-headed
due to varying rainfall, land access, or              households, in the legal provisions for
varying traditional or cultural beliefs, all of       women in areas such as inheritance, and in
which contribute to food insecurity. The              laws dealing with protection of women.
provinces with the highest levels of absolute
and food poverty (measured as a percentage
of population) are in the arid and semi-arid
areas of North Eastern, Rift Valley and
Nyanza provinces. The percentage of
children under five who were severely
‗malnourished‘ rose from 5% in 1993 to 7%
in 2000, and the percentage severely ‗stunted‘
has risen to 13% today. These trends indicate
that food security is still a major challenge.
Population: Kenya‘s population was
enumerated to be 29.5 million in 1999, and is
projected to increase by 30% to 36.5 million
in 2010. The annual growth rate reached an
all-time high of 4% in 1979, the highest in
the world at the time, but has since been

Availability of Information and data: One           gender, cannot be overemphasised, as this is
of the challenges for decision-makers is lack       vital for informed decision-making in all
of accurate, up-to-date and reliable data and       areas of the national economy. It helps in
information, which constrains effective             planning, monitoring and evaluation.
planning. The need for accurate data,
disaggregated by age and sex and analysed by
                                                    NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES
       Poverty Reduction Measures
                                                       Overall policy, politics and
  Strategies proposed by the government                programming
  to revive the economy and reduce
  poverty (initially under the IPRSP and            The new Constitution will entrench the basic
  re-confirmed in the full PRSP) include            rights of every citizen. It will also give
  the following:                                    impetus to issues central to the UN mandate,
                                                    by outlining a number of directive principles
    facilitating sustainable and rapid             of state policy.
     economic growth
                                                    Principle 5 of the draft states: "The Republic
    improving governance                           shall ensure open, transparent government
                                                    and accountability of state officials and
    raising income opportunities for the
                                                    public authorities."
                                                    Principle 12 states that "The state shall
    improving the quality of life                  implement the principle that one third of the
    improving equity and participation.            members of all elective and appointive bodies
                                                    shall be women."
   The government also lists a number of
  key policies and principles designed to           Principle 14 states: "The Republic shall be
  stimulate growth and reduce poverty.              committed to social justice and, through
  These principles, which are outlined in           appropriate policies and measures, to
  the final PRSP, include:                          providing for all Kenyans the basic needs of
                                                    food, shelter, clean water, sanitation,
    participation of the poor and                  education, health, a clean environment, and
     vulnerable groups in poverty                   security so that they live a life of dignity and
     reduction programs                             comfort and can fulfil their potential."
    transparency and accountability in
                                                    Principle 16 states: "The Republic shall
     planning and budgeting
                                                    recognise its responsibilities to future
    consensus building on policies for             generations of Kenyans by pursuing policies
     poverty reduction                              for the sustainable management of the
    enhanced ownership of poverty                  environment."
     reduction strategies                           As these and other principles reflected in the
    a proactive action plan for poverty            draft are adopted in the final constitution,
     reduction                                      they will form the basis for a development
                                                    vision that secures the option of all Kenyans
    support and assistance from                    to enjoy not only their basic rights, but also
     international development partners             good governance and sustainability. They
    transparent and collective solutions           will also facilitate the achievement of
     to identified problems                         international obligations. The UN will assist
                                                    the government to enhance access to basic
    a gender responsive poverty
                                                    social services, secure the capacities of key
     reduction strategy.
                                                    governance institutions, entrench a culture of
                                                    openness, transparency and accountability,
                                                    and ensure environmental sustainability.

These categories correspond with the four           improvement of livestock and fisheries
areas of cooperation identified by the UN in        husbandry, production and marketing, and
the UNDAF and encompass all the MDGs.               development     of  improved   marketing
The national authorities, well aware of the
critical nature of the development challenges       Education: Under the PRSP, the government
facing the country, have over the past five         has committed itself to making education
years launched major policy initiatives to          accessible to all. It has launched a review and
overcome poverty. Key among the policy              rationalization of the school curriculum,
documents are the National Poverty                  levies, and provision of textbooks. Emphasis
Eradication Plan (NPEP) 1999-2015, the              is given to inclusive special needs education,
National Development Plan 2002-2008, and            early childhood education and education of
the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)         the girl child. Measures such as sharing of
2001-2004, together with the action plan for        facilities like laboratories, playgrounds and
its implementation. The PRSP represents the         full utilization of teachers will be taken to
most explicit programme yet for poverty             enhance the use of existing institutional
reduction in Kenya. Its methodology included        capacity. Strategies to address emerging
extensive grassroots and private sector             issues such as HIV/AIDS in schools are
consultations countrywide, with sector              already being implemented with the help of
working groups, thematic groups, public             bilateral and multilateral development
hearings and national consultative forums.          partners, and NGOs. Policy support and
                                                    incentives to the private sector to supplement
The PRSP identifies measures to improve the         public sector efforts in increasing access have
economy, and priority actions to reduce             also been initiated. A new focus on technical
poverty. Specific measures are identified and       and vocational training, and on teaching of
set out in the Government Action Plan for           science and information technology, is aimed
Implementation of the PRSP, which shows a           at achieving industrialization by 2020.
costing of each policy measure, the
implementing       agencies,   a
specified time frame and The most visible post election shift in policy is the new
indicators for monitoring the government’s efforts to implement free primary
expected outcomes. Specific education. This is particularly important because, in
economic policies aimed at addition to declining quality over the last ten years,
achieving a robust economy are some parts of the country, particularly the arid areas,
outlined in a three-year macro- have enrolment rates that are very poor.
economic      framework.     The
PRSP is the short-term plan for the long–term
vision outlined in the NPEP, which has a time Health: A National Health Sector Strategic
span of 15 years, in tandem with the MDGs.    Plan has been drawn up as part of the
                                                    ongoing reforms in the sector and in response
   National priorities: key themes                  to deteriorating health indicators. Health
                                                    resources will be progressively shifted from
Agriculture and food security: In the PRSP,         curative to preventive and promotion
agriculture and rural development are               services. More attention will be given to
identified as the most important priority           areas that provide maximum benefits to the
issues. Improvement of production for               majority of vulnerable groups.
domestic consumption and export has been
identified as a key area of investment. Other       The government has
priority areas include: enhancement of rural        also    set    out    to    An estimated
social capital, community participation,            strengthen      curative    170 million
enhanced economic opportunities for the             health    services    to    working days
rural poor, improvement of crop development         manage the top 10           are lost every
for domestic consumption and export,                killer         diseases,    year due to

especially malaria, which accounts for 30%           Gender mainstreaming: The government
of all outpatient attendance and 19% of all          has approved the National Gender and
admissions to health facilities countrywide.         Development Policy, and a related Sessional
The objective of the government is to reduce         Paper is under discussion in Parliament. The
the level of malaria infection and death by          aim is to forge greater gender equity, in
30% by 2006, and to sustain that improved            which the country has performed dismally
level of control by 2010. This corresponds           thus far. Mainstreaming of gender issues in
well with the MDGs.                                  legislation, policies and programs has been
                                                     spelled out. This will be pursued through
In order to increase health care, the                education, training and affirmative action.
government, through the National Hospital            The finalization of the National Gender
Insurance Fund (NHIF), has initiated                 Policy will be instrumental to achieving these
measures to expand coverage and access to            commitments. Gender budgeting has also
health insurance initiatives and packages, in        been discussed recently as a priority in
collaboration with the private sector,               addressing gender equity and empowering
foundations and the civil society.                   women.
Water and environmental sanitation                   HIV/AIDS: The overall national goal is to
(WES): Based on experience from past                 slow the spread of the pandemic and
failures, the government has initiated a             eventually bring it to a halt, and to adequately
number of policy institutional reforms               respond to its socio-economic impact.
designed to facilitate poverty-focused WES
programmes. Key among these are:                     The government's priorities and strategies
(a) establishment of Water Supply and                articulated in the 2000-2005 National
Sewerage Boards (WSBBs) to take                      Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS — which aims
responsibility for water services provision          to reduce HIV/AIDS prevalence by 25% by
and training; (b) transfer of government WES         2005 — include:
schemes to WSSBs and communities;
(c) implementation      of     private  sector         prevention and advocacy
participation in financing and management of           treatment and the continuum of care and
WES; and; (d) development of models for                 support
distribution of WSS services to the poor in
both rural and urban areas.                            mitigation of social and economic
Population issues: The priorities with regard
to population issues include:                          monitoring and evaluation, as well as
 full integration of population and
  migration concerns into development                  management of programs.
  strategies and all aspects and levels of
                                                                            Disasters:       Kenya
  development planning;                               The most              continues     to     be
 increasing availability, accessibility,             serious man-          exposed to a variety of
  acceptability and affordability of quality          made disasters        natural and man-made
  health services (including reproductive             in Kenya are          disasters that pose a
  health and family planning)                         civil conflicts.      threat     to    human
                                                                            development. Among
 sustaining the collection, analysis and            the most significant natural disasters are
  timely dissemination and utilization of            droughts, wild fires, floods and landslides.
  demographic data, on a regular basis, for          The most serious man-made disasters in
  planning and other purposes, and                   Kenya are ethnic conflicts, followed by
 stabilization of Kenya‘s population                industrial and transport accidents.
  growth rate at 2.1% per annum by 2010.             Kenya is prone to recurring droughts, whose
                                                     effects on food security have become

pronounced in recent years. The 1997-2000         state and civil society in providing rural
drought affected the North-eastern, Eastern,      services and protecting the environment.
Rift Valley, Coast and Central provinces. In
pastoral and agro-pastoral areas, the                Continuing systemic constraints
communities suffered livestock losses of 40
to 60%, and in some cases, up to 80%.             Despite all the foregoing commitments, there
During 2000-2002, up to 4.4 million Kenyans       are gaps in the legal, policy and institutional
received relief assistance.                       domains that hinder fast, effective
                                                  performance. These include antiquated pieces
Floods are the second most frequent natural       of legislation and policy documents, stalled
disaster. Coastal settlements, river flood        or slow-moving legislative or policy reforms,
plains and areas around Lake Victoria are         and ineffective and inefficient institutional
vulnerable to floods. Although local              machinery. National policies, both central
communities have, to some extent, adapted to      and sectoral, experience uncertainties due to
the frequency and intensity of flooding, they     frequent turnover. National development
remain immensely vulnerable to such               plans, in particular, have suffered from high
disasters. Landslides — closely associated        civil service turnover, as subsequent policy
with flooding — also occur with alarming          frameworks have tended to override and
frequency in some areas.                          supersede earlier ones. No effective follow-
The burden of hosting                             up mechanisms such as monitoring,
large     numbers    of During 2000-02,           assessment, and evaluation are entrenched in
refugees, for over a up to 4.4 million            policy formulations. Consequently, it is
decade, has led to the Kenyans                    difficult to measure progress in critical areas
proliferation of small received relief            such as basic services, food security,
arms, crime, drug- assistance.                    environmental protection and governance.
trafficking,   conflict                          A combination of these factors has resulted in
among the refugees, and environmental            unsustainable land-use practices, corruption
damage. As a result there have been regional     and frequent natural disasters, such as floods
efforts to combat arms and drug trafficking.     and droughts. There is no apparent logical
The problems persist.                            nexus between poverty reduction and
Environmental management: Kenya has              sustainable development in current policy
enacted important enabling legislation, the      formulations. This calls for policy
National Environmental Management and            integration. The role of major groups,
Coordination Act (NEMA) 1999, to signify         industry, the business communities, NGOs,
its     commitment     to    environmental       women, youth and local communities, is
conservation and sustainable development.        inadequately mainstreamed in leading policy
As part of these efforts, the National           and institutional formulations, resulting in
Environment                                                           widespread under- or
Management              National development plans, in                non-achievement.
Authority has been      particular, seem to have suffered from
established and is high civil service turnover, as
currently               subsequent policy frameworks have
consolidating      all tended to override and supersede earlier
relevant management ones.
functions     on the
environment. NEMA will work with
decentralised committees at provincial and
district level.
The PRSP also spells out the need for
effective decentralization,   community
empowerment and partnerships between the

                                                      Building common databases and
COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF THE UN                        knowledge networks through support to
SYSTEM IN KENYA                                        data collection, analysis and monitoring
                                                       and evaluation
The UN has been actively involved in
responding      to    Kenya‘s     development         fostering joint advocacy and upstream
challenges since independence. Its work,               policy advice on the implementation of
which involves 27 different organizations,             global conventions, including the MDGs,
covers a wide range of functions and agency            with a focus on mobilization of — and
mandates, ranging from social and economic             provision of — financial and technical
development to governance, human rights,               resources for national and mandated goals
health provision, gender mainstreaming,
management of natural or humanitarian                 capacity building and creation of
disasters, and technical support. These are the        expertise among national and local
areas in which the UN has established a                institutions to deliver development
special or comparative expertise, capabilities         programmes
and advantages. In 1998, the combined direct          support      Key to the UN’s strategy in Kenya will
and indirect benefits of the UN agencies               to           be the desire to see improved
(excluding the World Bank) to Kenya                    decentr      accountability, transparency and
amounted to more than $350 million, second             alizatio     responsiveness in all sectors.
only to tea as a source of foreign exchange            n and
and equivalent to 19% of exports or 3% of              local level participation, including
gross national product. The amount,                    partnerships with local level CBOs and
according to an article carried in London‘s            grassroots groups
Financial     Times,         ―exceeded      the
government‘s combined budget allocations to           design, implementation and monitoring of
roads, health and social welfare‖.                     practical projects and programmes
                                                       intended to test, pilot or showcase
The UN has been at the                                                          emerging policies
forefront of the battle to   In 1998, the combined direct and                   and strategies (e.g.
eradicate poverty and the    indirect benefits of the UN agencies               the PRSP or
fight against HIV/AIDS,      (excluding the World Bank) to Kenya                decentralised
as well as the alleviation   amounted to more than $350 million,                planning).
of food insecurity and the   second only to tea as a source of
prevention, mitigation or    foreign exchange and equivalent to
response to disasters in                                                   VALUE OF A
                             19% of exports or 3% of gross                 COORDINATED
Kenya.        It       has   national product.                             APPROACH
accomplished           this
because of its neutrality and trusted                Operating under the UN Resident
relationship with the government, which              Coordinator mechanism, the UN country
places the organization in a position of             team has made substantial progress in
unique advantage. Over the years, the various        working more closely together, strengthening
UN agencies, funds and programs have                 opportunities for joint or common
pooled     their    resources  to     provide        management       of     UN        operations.
development assistance to Kenya in the               Consequently, an integrated system-wide
following strategic areas:                           approach to development cooperation has
                                                     been achieved. Through its various structures
 cooperating with national authorities and
  relevant civil society actors in tackling          and mechanisms, the UN country team
  national priorities and challenges, as well        provides collective leadership to the
  as other goals applicable to Kenya in line         organization's operations, approves and
  with relevant UN or other international            monitors annual Resident Coordinator system
  frameworks, including the MDGs, to                 work plans, oversees the work of Theme
                                                     Groups and operations committees, including
  achieve targeted outcomes

the approval of their respective work plans,        government in its efforts to create an enabling
and seeks and acts on ways to strengthen            environment for the improvement of the
collaborative planning and operations of the        quality of life and the well-being of Kenyans
UN in Kenya.                                        — by reducing poverty — with a particular
                                                    focus on the most disadvantaged groups and
With the realization of harmonised                  regions.
programme cycles for UNDP, UNFPA,
UNICEF and WFP starting in 2004, the                In response to this goal, and taking into
operational activities of the UN are set to         account the full range of human rights, the
achieve even greater gains in programme             CCA, the priorities identified by the
coherence and complementarity. This will            government for reducing poverty under the
also more effectively define the focus of the       PRSP, as well as the Millennium
UN and thus add further value to its                Development Goals, the UN country team
comparative advantage in support of the             has identified four strategic areas of
people and the government, particularly as an       cooperation to be the pillars of the new
honest broker and trusted partner. The UN           UNDAF:
will be able to support the government in
addressing the key challenges, focusing on
                                                    GOOD GOVERNANCE AND THE REALIZATION
the following key thrusts:                          OF RIGHTS
 building stronger inter-sectoral                  Key to the UN‘s strategy in Kenya will be the
  coordination and integration, and regional        desire to see improved accountability,
  and global networks                               transparency and responsiveness in all
 effective poverty monitoring, assessment          sectors, strengthening the capacity for good
  and evaluation mechanisms at the                  governance, assisting in the development of
  national and district levels in line with         partnerships between the public sector, civil
  international commitments                         society and the private sector in policy
                                                    formulation and implementation, boosting the
 supporting the convergence of                     capacity and competence of state institutions
  development and poverty reduction                 responsible      for    drafting   bills, law
  themes in central and sectoral policy and         enforcement and administration. The Narc
  institutional formulations                        Manifesto calls for elimination of corruption,
                                                    slimming of civil services, devolution of
 validation of political will at all levels and
                                                    power to the regions, all in the context of a
  strengthening of other governance
                                                    new constitution. The UN will support new
  imperatives at the national and
                                                    initiatives to support this new resolve.
  decentralised levels
                                                    With regard to basic social services, the UN
 strengthening action to confront                  will support the Narc Government‘s
  HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB and poverty, and            commitment to free basic education,
  environmental degradation in all its              improved access to health care delivery to all
  dimensions.                                       Kenyans so as to create an educated a healthy
These issues will be further elaborated in the      workforce to take advantage of opportunities
next section, which outlines the UN‘s               that present themselves in an ―open
response to the national priorities identified      economy‖ (Narc‘s Post Election Action
in this section.                                    Programme 2003).
                                                    The strategy will seek to contribute to the
                                                    fulfilment and respect of human rights
RATIONALE FOR UNDAF CHOICES                         through the elimination of human and income
Based on the PRSP, the CCA and the                  poverty, increased human security, and more
Millennium    Development      Goals,    the        equal opportunity for all segments of the
overarching goal of the UN is to support the        population. There will be a particular focus
                                                    on children, women and other vulnerable

groups, including the elimination of               PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS AND
discrimination against women, access to            PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT
education and health care, including
                                              The priority will be to reinforce emerging
reproductive health, and the right to life,
                                              positive trends relating to community-
liberty and security of the person. These
                                              empowered and demand-driven adoption of
prerequisites are tied to the various human
                                              pro-poor technology for food security and
rights instruments and human rights
                                              environmental protection. An example is the
programming approaches.
                                              ‗replicability‘ of the experience gained in
                                              ‗Farmer Field Schools‘, which have broken
REDUCED INCIDENCE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC          new ground in strengthening extension work.
IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND TB            The UN will also work with other partners to
                                              confront the institutional challenges implied
There is no simple solution to these complex  by the PRSP, focusing on ways of creating
diseases. People themselves must be part of   institutional capacities at the district level to
the solutions to the problems. As most        respond to demands (for services and funds)
Kenyans        live    in                                            emerging             from
community settings, a 80% of Kenyans derive their livelihood community                   based
strategy for community from land and natural resources.              organizations. In this
capacity building to                                                 regard, integrated pilot
address these problems is essential. Such a   projects will be initiated in Bondo District,
strategy will focus on prevention, care,      Western Kenya.
treatment, and mitigation, and will be
supported by advocacy, social mobilization    80% of Kenyans derive their livelihood from
and the monitoring of ongoing programs at     land and natural resources. Therefore, the UN
all levels of society. Kenya, with support    will promote and support initiatives aimed at
from the UN and other partners, has achieved  conservation, sustainable utilization and
positive results in adopting this combination management of the environment and natural
of strategies in the past 5 years. These      resources, especially land, water and forests,
programming experiences have become           which together constitute an integral part of
useful elements in demonstrating the value of national planning and poverty reduction
coordinated work.                             efforts.
                                                   The UN will also explore measures to create
Strengthen national systems for emergency          employment and raise incomes for Kenyans,
preparedness, prevention, response and             through interventions in such areas as credit
mitigation.                                        and finance, infrastructure provision, or
The focus will be on strengthening national        marketing.
and local emergency coordination structures
and mechanisms aimed at responding to
natural calamities, such as droughts and           ANALYSIS OF THE AREAS OF
floods, and enhancing resilience. A related        COOPERATION
aspect will be to improve the delivery
systems for relief provision to ensure the         AREA OF COOPERATION 1: PROMOTE GOOD
most vulnerable members of communities             GOVERNANCE AND THE REALIZATION OF
benefit. In addition, a strategic framework for    RIGHTS
disaster preparedness and management, as
well as the search for lasting solutions for       Under this area of cooperation, the UN will
refugee and IDPs problems, is necessary.           achieve two key outcomes:
This will constitute a key issue for attention
under this UNDAF.

Outcome 1: Increased access to basic social            disparities, and meeting the learning
services                                               needs of vulnerable groups
Situation analyses undertaken by UN                  support improvement of the
agencies and data collected by the Central            teaching/learning environment to make it
Bureau of Statistics show that many Kenyans,          conducive to quality education, and
especially the poor, have no access to basic          provide improved teaching-learning
social services, either because their incomes         materials and methodologies
are too low or because basic social facilities
are unavailable in their areas. The                  support the development of gender
government accepts that the charter on social         responsive and quality instructional
integration sets out a series of basic rights.        materials incorporating life skills and
These rights include access to literacy and           HIV/AIDS prevention
numeracy for all men and women, access to            support the expansion of quality services
health, including reproductive health,                for early childhood care, development
freedom from preventable diseases, sufficient         and education, especially in
food and clean water to maintain life and well        disadvantaged areas; strengthen school-
   Many Kenyans, especially the poor,                   In family planning, the Kenyan
   have no access to basic social services,             Government’s target is to increase the
   either because their incomes are too                 contraceptive prevalence rate from the
   low or because basic social facilities               1998 figure of 39% to 62% in 2010.
   are unavailable in their areas.                     feeding programs in disadvantaged areas
being, among other rights.                             to support children's participation in
Education: The national goal is Education
For All (EFA) by 2015, which will be                 support training and orientation of
achieved through enhancing primary school             teachers and other educational personnel,
enrolment and completion rates, and through           as well as school communities, to
sector-enabling policies regarding teachers'          improve the management and provision
deployment.      This goal is similar to              of quality education
Millennium Development Goal number 2 —
achieving universal primary education. The           advocate for the review of policies and
UN will assist the government to achieve this         provision of education and information on
through the following actions:                        prevention and control of malaria and
                                                      other environment-related problems.
 support access to, and completion of, free
  and compulsory primary education of               Health: The government is committed to the
  good quality                                      goal of providing health for all. The targets
                                                    set for the period 1998-2010 include
 support girls' full and equal access to           reduction of infant mortality rate from 71 to
  quality basic education, improved early           63 per 1000 live births, under-five mortality
  childhood care and development, and               from 112 to 98 per 1000 live births, and
  continuing education for youths and               maternal mortality rate from 590 to 170 per
  adults                                            100,000 live births.       In addition, the
                                                    government is committed to reducing
 strengthen capacity development in                morbidity of low income and disadvantaged
  education planning and implementation             groups from malaria and acute respiratory
  for the provision of quality basic                infection by 15% by 2010 and by 25% by
  education for all                                 2015. It is also committed to increasing
 support implementation of the Education           professionally attended deliveries from 45%
  Sector Strategic Plan, with a special             to 90%, and full immunization coverage from
  emphasis on elimination of gender                 65% to 98% over the same period. The
                                                    government intends to enhance the provision

of a comprehensive and integrated system of              education and information on prevention
reproductive health that offers a full range of          and control of malaria and other
services, including family planning, safe                environment-related problems.
motherhood and child survival, prevention
and management of sexually transmitted                Water and Sanitation: The government is
diseases, including HIV/AIDS, promotion of            committed to reducing the lack of access to
adolescent and youth health and management            safe drinking water by poor households by
of infertility.                                       8% in 2004, to create by 2010 universal
                                                      access to safe water. The goal is also to
In     family    planning,     the    Kenyan          eliminate, by 2010, the current shortfall in
Government‘s target is to increase the                basic sanitation arrangements in poorest
contraceptive prevalence rate from the 1998           households, through an average increase of
figure of 39% to 62% in 2010. Using a                 6% per annum. Millennium Development
strategy that embraces dialogue and analysis          Goal targets call upon nations to halve by
as the basis for achieving sustainable                2015 the proportion of people without
improvements in the access to quality health,         sustainable access to safe drinking water.
including reproductive health, safe water and         This commitment was reiterated in the World
environmental sanitation, the UN will:                Summit on Sustainable Development in
                                                      Johannesburg in 2002. The Millennium
 identify and strengthen partnerships with           Development      Goals    also    call   for
  training institutions, civil society and            improvement of the proportion of people with
  NGOs on health, including rural health              access to improved sanitation by 2020. The
  information and services                            UN will:
 support and play a catalytic role in                       support government efforts to:
  capacity building at national level for                     develop better policy on sanitation
  policy formulation through advocacy for                     and safe water, especially among
  the development of supportive legal and                     the poor, in a participatory process,
  regulatory frameworks; advocate                             and to refine and implement safe
  dedication of human and financial                           water and sanitation practices.
  resources to reproductive health, as well
  as child and adolescent health care                 Outcome 2: Capacities of key national
  services. A special emphasis will be given          governance institutions enhanced
  to provision of reproductive health
                                                      Consultative processes during the preparation
  information and services to adolescent
                                                      of the Poverty Reduction Policy Paper
  and disadvantaged populations at the
                                                      identified poor governance as the root cause
  district level
                                                      of poverty. Poverty reduction will require the
 assist the government to reduce malaria             institutionalization of good governance to
  infection and deaths by 30% by 2006, and            facilitate entrenchment of a culture of
  sustain improved control by 2010.                   accountability, transparency and openness at
  National efforts to eradicate polio, control        all levels of society. The new government is
  measles and eliminate neonatal tetanus              taking a particularly vibrant approach to
  will also be supported                              addressing         Kenya‘s      long-standing
                                                      transparency and accountability problems.
 reduce morbidity and mortality from
  childhood immunisable diseases, through        Specific actions in support of this outcome
  effective and sustainable
  immunization services, by       The smooth and peaceful transition witnessed in 2002,
  ensuring that coverage for      together with the enthusiasm demonstrated by the new
  under-one-year-olds is at       government to institute reforms, is occasioning a major
  least 90%                       evaluation by the donor community of the wisdom of
                                  withholding aid. We are likely to witness not only a
 advocate the review of
                                  resumption of aid in 2003 but also private investments in
  policies and provision of
                                  the medium term.
will be tied to good governance,                      support processes aimed at enhancing the
constitutionalism and judicial reform.                 administration of justice and the rule of
On good governance, the UN will:
                                                      provide support for the generation of
 support development of governance
                                                       information on national poverty
  institutions that encourage accountability,
                                                       eradication, education and
  transparency and participation in
                                                       communication, and capacity building for
  decision-making processes
                                                       investigative journalism
 assist the government to build capacity in
                                                      support the evolution and implementation
  government and civil society for
                                                       of a national framework for monitoring of
  implementation of the poverty reduction
                                                       progress toward achieving international
                                                       commitments, including the MDGs
 initiate alliances among the poor so that
                                                      support the evolution and
  they can pool their own resources towards
                                                       institutionalization of a national policy on
  poverty reduction
                                                       popular participation within the context of
 promote entrenchment of a culture of
  transparency, openness and accountability               Over 90% of Kenyans are aware of the
  of governance institutions to promote                   nature and transmission of HIV/AIDS.
  popular participation, improved justice                 The challenge for the UN is to assist in
  and human rights, including free access to              ensuring that this awareness is
  information.                                            translated into preventive behaviour.
On constitutionalism and administration of
                                                        a decentralised governance system;
justice, the UN will:
                                                        support capacity development functions
 support popularization of the new                     within the system
                                                      support policy dialogue and capacity
 support review of other subsidiary laws,             building to promote and strengthen
  especially those with an immediate                   national and decentralised governance
  impact on poverty alleviation                        institutions, and entrench good
                                                       governance and gender mainstreaming in
 provide continuous civic education to all            governance.
  segments of society with regard to such
  issues as elections and human rights, in           The detailed lines of action for Area of
  line with the new constitution                     Cooperation 1 are in the annexed tables.

 support strengthening of the National
  Assembly's research and investigative              AREA OF COOPERATION 2: REDUCE THE
                                                     INCIDENCE & SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF
  capacity, its oversight function, and its          HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND TB
  interface with the East African
  Legislative Assembly                               The national goal is to stop the spread of
                                                     HIV/AIDS and reduce its impact on Kenyans
 support enactment and institutionalization         through reduction of HIV prevalence by
  of a comprehensive framework for                   between 20 and 30% among 15-24 year-olds,
  resource mobilization and utilization of           by 2005. Over 90% of Kenyans are aware of
  public financial resources through the             the nature and transmission of HIV/AIDS.
  Government‘s medium term expenditure               The challenge for the UN is to assist in
  framework, as well as monitoring and               ensuring that this awareness is translated into
  evaluating the application of those                preventive behaviour. Cooperation strategies
  resources                                          to be adopted include:

Supporting HIV/AIDS and TB prevention                 accelerated access to HIV/AIDS care,
programmes — prevention interventions and             including procurement of generic anti-
strategies will seek, inter alia, to:                 retroviral drugs [for the most affected and
                                                      vulnerable groups]
 ensure the infected do not infect others
                                                    intensify fundraising through mobilizing
 prevent and treat sexually transmitted             national and global resources
  infections and promote abstinence and the
  use of condoms                                    support the development and
                                                     implementation of a comprehensive
 support advocacy, communication and                package on voluntary counselling and
  resource mobilization by creating                  testing according to the developed
  awareness, as well as advocacy on the use          guidelines, including prevention of
  of barrier methods such as condoms and             mother-to-child transmission of the
  maintaining faithfulness                           disease
 advocate and lobby for change of socio-           support programmes and interventions
  cultural practices and beliefs that                that provide care and nutritional support
  facilitate the spread of HIV/AIDS                  to AIDS patients.
 promote         behaviour       change           Outcome4: Capacity to design, implement,
  communication, especially among the              monitor and evaluate programmes
  youth,     particularly   using     the
  groundbreaking "Heart and Soul" project          Under the National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan,
  (a TV soap on AIDS).                             2002-05, sentinel surveillance is the primary
                                                   mechanism for monitoring and evaluating
 Contribute to improving the nutrition of         interventions. The UN‘s strategy will be
  people affected by HIV/AIDS and TB by            aimed at further strengthening this
  — inter alia — strengthening community           mechanism to increase the reliability and
  initiatives and home-based care, with a          ‗representativeness‘ of data, and to estimate
  special focus on widows and AIDS                 prevalence for all regions. It will ensure that
  orphans.                                         monitoring and evaluation become a core part
The UN will seek to achieve three key              of the fiduciary architecture of financial
outcomes.                                          management, providing information on
                                                   performance for all concerned. In order to
 Outcome 3: Overall HIV/AIDS and                   attain this outcome, the UN will:
 TB prevalence reduced
                                                    support nationally identified capacity
                                                     building needs — particularly the
The UN will:                                         National AIDS Control Council (NACC)
                                                     and its structures — to develop and
 intensify dissemination of generic                 implement a monitoring and evaluation
  information on RH, such as safe sexual             plan, including financial utilization
  behaviour and drug abuse prevention
  among youth out of school, including              support national HIV/AIDS and TB
  street children                                    surveillance and operations research,
                                                     including yearly dissemination of data
 intensify advocacy for gender                      and mapping and training for cadres for
  mainstreaming in programming and                   different sectors involved in the national
  implement the developed communication              response to HIV/AIDS and drug
  strategies on HIV/AIDS, including                  prevention
  production and distribution of school
  learning materials                                support extension of Directly Observed
                                                     Treatment (DOT) to communities and
 support the Ministry of Health to                  provide food assistance to HIV/AIDS and
  implement a comprehensive package for              TB patients and their families

 strengthen surveillance, data                      support training in the principles and
  management, analysis and utilization for            methodologies of emergency and
  HIV/AIDS, and TB control.                           contingency planning.
Outcome 5: Morbidity and mortality                  Outcome      7:   Strengthened      disaster
resulting from malaria reduced.                     management, including increased capacity
                                                    for peace building, conflict resolution and
The UN will:
                                                    reduction of small arms proliferation
 support implementation of the malaria             Some of the strategies to be used to achieve
  control strategy developed by the                 this outcome include:
  Ministry of Health
                                                     deepening cooperation in national and
 strengthen managerial capacity within the           regional peace building projects and small
  Ministry of Health Malaria Control Unit             arms proliferation prevention
 support monitoring, evaluation and                 supporting the government to identify
  research in order to constantly update and          early warning indicators and in installing
  upgrade control strategies                          networks for information communication
 strengthen epidemic preparedness and                technology.
  response.                                         Some of the specific activities include:
The detailed lines of action for Area of             strengthen existing food security and
Cooperation 2 are in the annexed tables.              disaster coordination structures
                                                     develop guidelines for disaster
                                                      prevention, preparedness, and
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS, PREVENTION,                   management.
                                                    Outcome 8: Enhanced capacity of national
The UN will seek to design and implement            and district authorities to collect,
programmatic interventions to address               disseminate, and utilise early warning,
disaster management, conflict management,           vulnerability assessment and needs
as well as the needs of refugees and internally     assessment data.
displaced persons (IDPs). It will contribute to
                                                    The UN will strengthen national and local
the achievement of five key outcomes as
                                                    authorities' capacity for disaster preparedness
outlined below:
                                                    and prevention. Specific actions envisaged
Outcome 6: National Disaster                        include:
Management Policy institutionalised at all
                                                     enhanc early warning capacities of
                                                      national and district authorities through
The UN will draw up strategies to support             training, improved data collection, and
legal reform, institutional capacity building,        improved reporting techniques
advocacy and policy dialogue, and
development of strategies for resource               support joint mechanisms for Early
mobilization and gender mainstreaming.                Warning and Vulnerability Assessment
Some of the specific actions envisaged                reporting for the government and partners.
include:                                            Outcome 9: Strengthened response to and
                                                    management of refugees’ and IDPs needs
 support the government to finalise and
                                                    and rights
  implement institutional structures for a
  National Disaster Management Policy               Some $70 million have been earmarked for
                                                    refugee protection in Kenya for the next five
 developa UN-integrated support to
                                                    years. This will focus on protection, care and
  National Disaster Management Authority

maintenance, social and community services,          Outcome 10: Increased availability, access
and resettlement and repatriation. However,          and    utilization   of   quality    data
over this period it is predicted that there          disaggregated by age and sex, and
could be major — possibly fundamental —              information analysed by gender, for
changes. Key among possible changes would            planning, monitoring and evaluation.
be the attainment of peace, security and
sustainable livelihoods in Somalia and               Under this outcome, the UN will assist the
Southern Sudan. Under these conditions, the          government to develop a solid base of
programme       would     be    fundamentally        qualitative and quantitative information to
reoriented from its current asylum focus to          measure progress towards the MDGs on
supporting the safe return of refugees to their      halving hunger and extreme poverty.
countries of origin.                                 Specifically, the UN will:

Whatever the case, the UN will support the            support in-depth analysis of the 1999
achievement of the above objectives, working           census, to make available statistics for
under the internationally defined legal                planning and monitoring purposes
framework and policies. The UN will also              support implementation of the Integrated
support the government to formulate a                  Multi-sectoral Information System (IMIS)
national policy and ensure that relevant UN            and the Kenya Demographic Health
agencies and partners are made aware of                Survey (KDHS) with data disaggregated
IDPs' presence and their needs. The UN will            by age and sex and the analysis done by
build synergy with the government and all              gender
actors for more effective management, and
for resolution of problems affecting refugees        assist with the preparation of natural
and IDPs.                                            resources inventories, maps and trend
                                                     analyses produced by national and local
Some of the major lines of action to                 authorities.
operationalise this outcome include:
                                                     Outcome 11: Effective community-based
 assist in defining the essential protection        management of natural resources
  and care principles of refugees, in
  accordance with international standards            The UN will support the government in
                                                     developing and implementing policies and
 mitigate the impact of refugee presence,           practices that contribute to sustainable
  and strengthening environmental                    management of natural resources in national,
  restoration programmes                             local and rural development. It will also assist
                                                     in the preparation and implementation of
 promote public awareness on refugee
                                                     Sustainable Natural Resource Management
                                                     Plans at the local level by communities and
 facilitate the safe return of displaced            other stakeholders. Some of the specific
  persons to their habitual residence                actions include:

 promot public awareness on IDP issues,              support to identify natural resource
  including access to basic services and               management and biodiversity knowledge
  rights in their temporary settlements.               gaps
The detailed lines of action for Area of              contribute to coordination of
Cooperation 3 are in the annexed tables.               community-level training on the most
                                                       appropriate technologies or approaches,
                                                       such as integrated nutrient management,
AREA OF COOPERATION 4: PROMOTE                         water harvesting, or energy-efficiency
ENVIRONMENT                                            optimization.

The UN will contribute to the achievement of         Outcome 12: Improved food security at
four key outcomes:                                   household and community level

The UN‘s strategy will include supporting           strengthen production capacities in
local and district authorities to make               sectors with high export potential.
appropriate resource allocation choices,
taking into consideration women's economic         The detailed lines of action for Area of
security and HIV/AIDS. Assistance will be          Cooperation 4 are in the annexed tables.
extended to women's and other community
groups, empowering them to identify priority
problems, implement solutions and articulate       PROGRAMME RESOURCES
demand for relevant services.                      FRAMEWORK

The UN will also assist the government in the      The UN is committed to realizing 13
implementation       of       gender-balanced      outcomes during the 2004-2008 UNDAF
legislation governing private and communal         cycle, working in close collaboration with
land and water rights. It will also work with      government and other development partners.
the government and NGOs to reverse                 The estimated resource mobilization towards
declining trends in natural resource               these outcomes is indicated in the table
productivity, including forestry and other         below. These figures are indicative as the UN
valuable ecosystems. Examples of specific          agencies are still consulting with their
actions include:                                   headquarters on levels of resources expected
                                                   for the next cycle of country programming.
 intensify capacity building for                  (UNFPA pointed out that this is a UNDP
  participatory priority setting, planning         term)
  and implementation of integrated
  projects, for example on HIV/AIDS                The greatest resources are earmarked for
                                                   strengthening management and resolution of
 support participatory learning activities        refugees‘ and IDPs‘ problems ($148.4m),
  for women and other groups, for example          followed by reducing HIV/AIDS, malaria and
  through Farmer Field Schools.                    TB prevalence (US$74.24m), and increasing
                                                   access to basic social services ($57.3m).
Outcome 13: Expanded opportunities for
                                                   Expected resources mobilization by areas of
sustainable production and income
                                                   cooperation and by agencies is indicated at
                                                   the end of the document.
The UN will also support development and
implementation of policies and programs to
eradicate poverty in rural areas as the key to
ensuring food security for all, and sustaining
broad-based national economic growth. In
addition, it will support the training of local
authorities and communities in natural
resource inventory preparation, land use
evaluation,     suitability   and     planning
techniques. It will support initiatives that
ensure that women have access to — and
control over — use of natural resources for
food production. It will advocate ownership,
access and control of land by women, and
strengthen income diversification and coping
mechanisms. Some of the specific actions
envisaged include:
 support small agro-based industries to
  create employment opportunities and
  improve livelihoods


Area 1              Outcome 1                 Outcome 2
                    Increased access to basic Capacities of key
Governance & rights social services           governance institutions

                                           56.8m                    13.8m

Area 2                 Outcome 3                    Outcome 4               Outcome 5
                       Overall HIV/AIDS &           Capacity to design,     Morbidity & mortality
To contribute to the   TB prevalence reduced        implement, monitor      of malaria reduced
reduction of the
                                                    & evaluate programs
incidences of &                                     strengthened
mitigation of the
social & economic
impact of
HIV/AIDS, malaria
& TB
                                           74.2m                     9.5m                   16.2m

Area 3                 Outcome 6                    Outcome 7               Outcome 8                 Outcome 9
                       National Disaster            Strengthened            Enhanced capacity of      Strengthened
To contribute to the   Management Policy            disaster                national & district       response to and
strengthening of
                       institutionalised at all     management,             authorities to collect,   management of
national & local
                       level                        including increased     disseminate & utilise     refugees’ and IDPs
systems for
                                                    capacity for peace      Early Warning,            needs and rights
emergency                                           building, conflict      Vulnerability
                                                    resolution and          Assessment & Needs
prevention, response
                                                    reduction of small      Assessment Data
& mitigation                                        arms proliferation

                                           6.3m                     4.2m                    3.5m                68.9m

Area 4                 Outcome 10
                       Increased availability,
                                                    Outcome 11
                                                    Effective community
                                                                            Outcome 12
                                                                            Improved food
                                                                                                   Outcome 13
To contribute to       access & utilization of      based management of     security at house-hold opportunities for
sustainable            quality data                 natural resources       & community levels     sustainable
livelihoods &          disaggregated by age and                                                    production &
environment            sex and information                                                         income
                       analysed by gender for                                                      diversification
                       planning, monitoring &

                                             4.5m                     10m                     7.7m                5.0m

                                            sustainability because, as Kenyans have
UNDAF IMPLEMENTATION                        learnt in the ‘harambee’1 spirit, in unity
                                            there is strength. The UN will support
                                            the development of partnerships between
ENSURING NATIONAL OWNERSHIP                 the       public     sector,       NGOs,
                                            community-based        and     grassroots
The UN System will promote advocacy
                                            organizations and the private sector. The
and policy dialogue with bilateral and
                                            UN‘s track record in this regard should
multilateral development partners, the
                                            enhance its comparative advantage.
private sector, civil society and NGOs,
to build a common vision critical for the   Partnership building can facilitate
successful implementation of the            capacity-building for conflict resolution,
UNDAF. The UN will support                  as different actors in the development
government initiatives to empower key       arena learn to accommodate the views
governance institutions to facilitate       and interests of others. Many community
accountable, transparent and open           projects have failed in Kenya because
decision-making        on     programme     protagonists had not learnt the art of
implementation.       This will reduce      conflict resolution. Implementation of
transaction costs and foster a sense of     UNDAF programs will create an
national    ownership      of    UNDAF      opportunity for the UN to apply its
programme activities. ‗Owners‘ go more      wealth of experience in peace building
out of their way to ensure a                and conflict resolution.
programme‘s success, so that they can
continue enjoying the benefits.             The UNDAF will advance multi-sector
                                            approaches to development in order to
                                            draw upon the comparative advantages
COLLABORATION AND PARTNERSHIPS              of the UN. Currently, a number of
                                            agencies are jointly providing services in
The UNDAF offers a unique opportunity
                                            Kenya. The UN will strengthen this
for working together through the design
                                            trend towards more integrated and
and      implementation     of     joint
                                            collaborative service provision.
programming,       formulation      and
implementation of individual programs
— developed within the UNDAF                CAPACITY BUILDING
framework — and parallel programs. In
addition,    the  emerging     political    Programme       implementation     and
dispensation in Kenya offers new            monitoring will focus on capacity
opportunities for partners to work          building at national and local levels,
together in such areas as promoting         advocacy and policy dialogue, social
MDGs, joint advocacy and analytical         mobilization,    policy    development,
work that feeds into processes such as      strategic partnership building among
the PRSP.                                   actors     and     stakeholders,   and
                                            decentralised planning.      Each UN
Partnership building is critical for        agency will prepare a country
successful programme implementation.        programme on the basis of the UNDAF,
Strong partnerships not only bring
additional resources to programs but also   1
                                                Harambee is a Kenyan spirit of pooling
create    a    base    for    programme
                                                resources together for the common good.
globally applying these principles. The           indicators. Mid-term programme and
UNCT has also put in place monitoring             project reviews will be incorporated into
and evaluation structures for the                 the annual review and will feed into the
UNDAF.                                            Resident Coordinator (RC) Annual
                                                  Report process.

MONITORING AND EVALUATION                            Mid-term UNDAF review
A clear monitoring and evaluation plan            A joint mid-term evaluation involving
is essential for effective implementation         the government, UN and other
of the UNDAF as this will allow UN                development partners will be conducted
agencies — individually and collectively          at the mid-point of the UNDAF (2006).
— to assess their strengths and                   This review will be synchronised with
weaknesses and make the necessary                 the respective agencies' mid-term
adjustments in terms of delivery, impact          country programme reviews. This will
and results.                                      particularly be the case for UNDP,
A set of indicators has been formulated           UNFPA, UNICEF and WFP. The mid-
for each of the 13 expected UNDAF                 term evaluation will provide the
outcomes under each of the four areas of          opportunity    for    any   mid-course
cooperation. For each indicator, baseline         adjustment to ensure that UN efforts
data is either already provided or will be        remain focused on national priorities. It
required, representing the situation as of        will also provide the opportunity for
2002/2003. Against the baseline,                  other programme refinement needed to
expected outcomes for the end of the              keep the UNDAF on track.
UNDAF cycle (2008) are provided (or
will be required). An annual update will             UNDAF end-of-cycle review
be prepared through the Resident
Coordinator system, as well as two                A joint evaluation of the UN system in
reports, the first midway through the             Kenya will be undertaken with a view to
UNDAF cycle (2006) and the second at              obtaining substantive feedback on the
the end of the UNDAF cycle.                       progress made towards achieving stated
Programme reviews will be expanded to             UNDAF outcomes in each of the four
include all partners in UN programs and           areas of cooperation. The end of the
joint activities, including beneficiaries.        UNDAF review will ensure that
This will allow for periodic dialogue,            achievements and lessons learnt are
learning and feedback.                            recognised and recorded. Constraints
                                                  experienced and ways and means of
                                                  addressing such constraints in the future
FORMAL REVIEWS AND EVALUATION                     will also be determined. Any best
                                                  practices emerging from the UNDAF
Three formal reviews and evaluations              process will be acknowledged and
are envisaged:                                    disseminated.

   Annual thematic reviews                        An important aspect of this review and
                                                  evaluation will be to establish the extent
These will allow for inter-agency                 to which crosscutting issues have been
feedback and refinement of UNDAF                  integrated and addressed, and the

resultant gains. This will start in the           particular, they will check to ensure that
annual reviews and through the mid-               country programme documents reflect
term evaluation, so that the final review         the UNDAF goals and outcomes. The
will be to assess the overall impact.             team will also act to ensure the effective
                                                  functioning of theme groups, through
                                                  regular reporting to the KCC. Monthly
                                                  KCC meetings will continue to provide
                                                  high-level policy direction, facilitate
                                                  information exchange, and strengthen
   The three UN theme groups                      partnerships amongst agencies. Agency
                                                  work plans and reviews will also be
The three UN theme groups —
                                                  expected to focus on inter-agency
1) Governance and rights, 2) HIV/AIDS,
and     3) Disaster   and     sustainable         collaboration.
livelihoods — will meet regularly and
serve as the primary mechanisms for                  The UNDAF Steering Committee
implementing and monitoring the
                                                  This committee will continue to act as
UNDAF (see details below in 7.4.) They
                                                  the technical arm of the KCC. It will
will do so through annual work plan
                                                  meet monthly, convened by the head of
reviews, with clear goals and objectives
                                                  the Resident Coordinator Secretariat, to
to be incorporated into the RC Annual
                                                  review progress on collaboration and
Report. Joint field assessments and
                                                  make recommendations to the KCC.
monitoring will be promoted. The RC's
report and work plans will act as the key
mechanisms for annual reporting on                   The RC Secretariat
UNDAF progress to the Kenya Country
                                                  The RC Secretariat will compile periodic
Committee (KCC). Through the theme
                                                  reports on the work of theme groups or
groups, the UN will derive the key
                                                  task forces, prepare the RC annual
indicators for monitoring and tracking
                                                  report, and assist the various structures
progress in their area of focus, taking
                                                  to coordinate internal reviews, other
into account the MDGs. The latter will
                                                  analyses, and review or evaluate
ensure that implementation of the
UNDAF complements national efforts to
monitor the MDGs. Theme groups will
thus be expected to establish a clear and         OVERALL UNDAF EVALUATION AND
verifiable    linkage   between      their        IMPACT ASSESSMENT
indicators and the expected outcomes of
                                                  The UNDAF evaluation will be an
the UNDAF, and how they contribute to
                                                  assessment of the progress made towards
the achievement of the MDGs.
                                                  achievement of the outcomes identified
                                                  in the programme framework. It will —
   The UN Country Team                            to a large extent — be a cumulative
The KCC will be responsible for review            assessment of the monitoring data
and validation of the collaborative               available from annual reviews, outcome
framework under the UNDAF, and for                evaluations, thematic, and programme
ensuring that individual agency country           reviews.
programs derive from the UNDAF. In

This is distinct from the review of               The key consideration in creating these
progress against targets for all outcomes         groups is to ensure that they are broad
and impact. It will be an in-depth                enough to cover the four areas of
evaluation of the outcomes, in two                cooperation agreed under the UNDAF,
principal regards: 1) The contribution of         as well as to provide for more active
the agencies towards achieving the                involvement of many agencies. Three
outcome, specifically focusing on how             groups are therefore proposed, according
collaborative and joint programming by            to the four areas of cooperation. The
the      agencies     have       enhanced         groups will be at liberty to create sub-
effectiveness of the UN system, and               groups (task forces, etc.) to advance any
2) an analysis of how much the outcome            specialised tasks, so long as this is
and other associated outcomes together            clearly defined and tied to a specific
have (or have not) contributed to                 time frame for completion.
achieving the desired impact. This aspect
of the evaluation is a mainly qualitative            Governance and rights theme
analysis, seeking to trace causality and             group
attribution. The evaluation should draw
out lessons that will — in addition to the        This group addresses the UNDAF area
next CCA — inform design of the next              of cooperation "promote and contribue
UNDAF.                                            to good governance and realization of
                                                  rights." The theme group will combine
Finally, fundamental to the UNDAF                 the work previously addressed by the
evaluation will be an evaluation of the           Basic Social Services and Governance,
UNDAF as a framework, asking three                Livelihoods and Poverty Reduction
key questions:                                    theme groups. Sub-groups on health and
 has the UNDAF contributed to more               nutrition, education, and water and
  complementary and collaborative                 sanitation may continue to operate in
  programming by agencies?                        support of the theme group. Focus areas
                                                  are drawn from the relevant UNDAF
 have agency programmes taken a                  lines of action. The group will be chaired
  different shape because of the                  by UNDP, with UNICEF as the
  UNDAF, and has there been added                 alternate.
  value resulting from synergy?
 has effectiveness been enhanced?                   HIV/AIDS theme group
                                                  This group will continue operating as
THEME GROUPS IN THE 2004-2008                     before, but will now be informed by the
UNDAF                                             UNDAF lines of action in the relevant
                                                  area of cooperation (HIV/AIDS, malaria
Three broad theme groups are proposed             and TB.) This group will be chaired by
under this UNDAF to spearhead                     UNFPA with UNESCO as the alternate.
collaboration. These groups are:
1) Governance and rights
3) Disaster and sustainable livelihoods.

   Disaster Management and                      operate on the basis of chair and
   Sustainable Livelihoods theme                 alternate chair
                                               The group may invite non-UN
This group will combine the activities         representatives — such as the
hitherto addressed by the Disaster             Government of Kenya, CSO or other
Management and Rural Development               development partner representatives —
and Natural Resources Management               to participate.
theme groups. It will cover the two
relevant UNDAF areas of cooperation:           The UNDAF           requires    enhanced
a) "contribute to the strengthening of         accountability and performance of the
national and local systems for                 UN System in Kenya. It will use the
emergency preparedness, prevention,            Millennium Development Goals in
response and mitigation" and b)                tracking       Human        Development
"contribute to sustainable livelihoods         Indicators. The UNCT will use the
and environment".                              indicators developed by different theme
                                               groups. The list of indicators to be used
It will be chaired by WFP, with FAO as         for    measuring     progress     towards
the alternate.                                 realization of each of the expected
                                               outcomes of the UNDAF is shown at the
   Broad terms of reference (TOR)              end of this document.
   for the theme groups
 provide guidance on policy, strategy
  and substance relating to their areas
  of focus
 ensure coherence of their work with
  the PRSP, UNDAF itself, MDGs and
  other theme groups
 monitor coherence of specific
  indicators with agency country
  programs, MDGs, PRSP and
 provide representation vis-à-vis
  like-minded groups within the
  development community (bilateral
  and     multilateral  development
  partners, CSOs, etc.)
 meet frequently, with an agreed
  annual work plan
 carry out regular briefings to the
  KCC on progress and constraints

                                                There was no uniform conception of
                                                UNDAF among the UN technical staff.
ANNEXES:                                        Only UNDP and WFP were trained on
                                                UNDAF, which failed to become an
ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE UN SYSTEM                   organizing tool for agencies' country
                                                programs. In a number of programs, the
During the 1999-2003 UNDAF cycle,               UNDAF was mentioned only in passing.
there was good exchange of information          The search for common ground among
between agencies. There were regular            UN agencies is still elusive. The
Thematic Group consultations. It was            UNDAF work plan was very ambitious.
also during this period that the second         Very few UNDAF programme activities
Common Country Assessment for Kenya             have been implemented so far. Resource
was developed. The groups were                  mobilization strategies were unclear.
rationalised and restructured. There was        Field offices have not been able to
collaborative    programming      among         mobilise large amounts of resources.
agencies particularly in the area of            Changing       National      Development
disaster response.     The UN system            Strategies have made it difficult for the
responded jointly in offering assistance        UN to keep pace with what was
to Bondo District in Western Kenya.             happening in government. While the
There was a joint UN response to                Office of the President manages part of
government requests for assistance in           the coordination, other activities fell
responding to the HIV/AIDS.                     under the former Ministry of Finance
                                                and Planning. Poor governance and
There was a joint UN response in the            weak political institutions made it
development of the sanitation policy for        difficult to follow through programme
the Ministry of Health by theme groups.         implementation. Lack of analysis of
The Disaster policy was developed out           roles of the collaborating partners within
of UNDMT meetings. At the same time,            the UN and with other participants has
structures    and      mechanism     for        made it difficult to eliminate duplication.
consultation on UNDAF have helped               Aid conditionality has constrained the
agencies to have regular and structured         flow of funds into the country. This has
dialogue, a sense of working together           made it difficult for the government to
alongside thematic groups has been              provide program-matching funds.
developed. The Resident Coordinators'
secretariat was created.
                                                FACTORS THAT CONSTRAINED THE
There were no clear linkages between               Immediate causes
the   UN     system     and    National
programming frameworks, such as                 Lack of preparedness at the country
involvement of the UN in the                    level: UNDAF was introduced before
development of the current National             technical personnel at the country level
Development Plan. The linkage between           were prepared for new roles and
PRSP and UNDAF theme groups was                 responsibilities. This led to internal
undefined. Close collaboration between          resistance at agency level. In some
agencies is still not fully operational.        agencies, UNDAF was perceived as a

foreign idea. Headquarters provided no            country. There is a need to focus on UN
budget for it. Agency priorities tended to        assistance to areas where the impact will
override UNDAF priorities in resource             be greatest. Consultations among UN
allocation.                                       agencies in programme development
                                                  ought to take place. To increase
   Underlying causes                              programmatic synergy, the UN ought to
                                                  interact more closely with bilateral
Limited dialogue/consensus building               agencies. Wide divergences still remain
prior to and during the UNDAF                     in the degree of decentralization and
preparatory process: UN agencies often            delegation accorded by different UN
assumed that the position stated in               agencies. Specialised agencies are
government documents, such as                     required to take up and make decisions
Development Plans, was the official               on minor policy and financial issues.
government position. However, other               Differences in administrative regulations
policy papers that often did not build on         and practices among agencies limit
earlier commitments were prepared.                cooperation within the UN system.
Partners were often not at par at the             Systematic inter-agency cooperation and
negotiating table, yet UN agency                  team building mechanisms such as
mandates often require them to develop            retreats should be provided, not only at
their programs independently. Poor                the level of heads of agencies, but across
governance was also an issue. PRSP                the board. Improved information sharing
structures (theme groups) are not                 mechanisms and exchange of best
institutionalised within the government           practices will contribute to greater
and are therefore difficult to link with          efficiency and increased impact of UN
UNDAF theme groups. There are no                  system activities. A good policy
theme groups corresponding to the                 framework is an area of great consensus.
sector working groups of the PRSP.                However, consensus often collapses
Historically, programme cycles are                when organizations and perspectives
different. This history still constraints         over issues change. The main lesson is
efforts to harmonise them. There is               that continuous dialogue between
inadequate/lack of political will/support         partners will help to reduce resistance to
for collaboration — a lack of                     policy changes and prepare all partners
partnership.                                      to accept the changes suggested in the
                                                  UNDAF. The UN should identify a
The government's sense of ownership of
                                                  limited number of action areas, where
programs is weak. Shifts in policy at
                                                  the greatest impact can be realised so
national level limits programming and
                                                  that its programs remain focused.
continuity. The complexity of UN
bureaucracy is also an issue. It is often
not easy to change/vary directives from           HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS
headquarters.                                     FROM THE CCA (KENYA) 2001

CONCLUSION ON LESSONS LEARNED                         Income poverty
                                                  1   Poverty headcount - % population
UN programs are still relevant in helping
                                                      <$1/day) adult equivalent (AE)
the government to address the
development challenges facing the

2    Poverty headcount - % of population <         15   HIV prevalence in women under 25
     national poverty line                              who receive antenatal care in
3    Population in absolute poverty: rural              cities/major urban areas

3a   Hardcore poverty: rural                       I6   Infant mortality per 1000 live births
                                                           - rural
4    Population in absolute poverty: urban                 - urban
     (%) (AE)                                              - male
5    Poverty gap ratio (%) (AE)                            - female
       Rural (AE)                                  17   Under 5 mortality per 1000 live births
       Urban (AE)                                         - rural
6    Poorest fifth's share of national                    - urban
     consumption                                          - male
        - income share lowest 40%                         - female
        - highest 20%
6a   Gini coefficient (%)                          Reproductive health
                                                   18   Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000)
     Food security and nutrition                   19   % births attended by skilled health
7    % of children under 5 mildly                       personnel
     underweight                                           - rural
     % of children under 5 severely                        - urban
     underweight                                   20   Contraception prevalence rate
                                                          - modern methods use — %
8    % of children under 5 mildly stunted
       - rural (%)                                      Child health and welfare
       - urban (%)
                                                   21   % of 1-year-old children immunised
     % of children under 5 severely stunted             against measles
9    % of children under 5 suffering from                  - urban
     mild wasting                                          - rural
     % of children under 5 suffering from               % national complete immunization
     severe wasting                                     coverage
10   % of urban household income spent on                  - urban
     food for the poorest quintile                         - rural

11   % of undernourished in total                  22    % of children <15 who are working
12   Food poverty:                                      Education
       - rural (%)                                 23a Attendance ratio in primary schools
       - urban (%)                                        - boys/girls
                                                        Net enrolment in primary schools
     Health and mortality                                 - urban
13   % of population with access to primary               - rural
     health care services                               Net enrolment in primary schools
14   Estimated HIV adult prevalence rate                  - urban
        - rural                                           - male
        - urban                                           - female
                                                          - rural

        - male                                      35   % population relying on traditional
        - female                                         energy
24a % of pupils starting std 1 who reach std                - firewood and charcoal
    5                                                       - rural
      - male                                                - urban
      - female
24b % Form 1students reaching Form I                     Employment and sustainable
      - male                                             livelihood
      - female                                      36   Employment of population of working
25   Adult (reading) literacy rate (%)                   age (%)
       - total                                      37   Urban employment rate (one week
       - male                                            reference period)
       - female                                             - male
26   Literacy rate of 15-25 year olds (%)                   - female
                                                    38   Informal sector employment as % of
     Gender equality and women's                         total employment
     empowerment                                    39   Income share of poorest 40% of
27   Ratio of girls to boys in secondary                 population (%)
     education                                      40   Average urban formal wage (K$
28   Female share (%) of paid employment                 annually per head)
       - non agricultural                           41   % urban labour force in informal sector
29   % of seats by women in national                       - male
     government                                            - female
        - parliament
        - national Assembly                              Housing and basic household
        - local authorities                              amenities
        - diplomatic/Administrative services
        - Senior Assistant. Secretary and           42   No. persons per room
     above                                          43   % of population with (sustainable)
          including Ambassador                           access to drinking water (dry season)
        - judicial services                                 - rural
                                                            - urban
     Environment                                    44   % of population with access to
                                                         adequate sanitation
30   Carbon dioxide emissions (mt per
                                                            - rural
                                                            - urban
31   Biodiversity: Land area protected (%)
32   GDP per unit of formal sector energy                Drug control and crime prevention
        - US$/kg)                                   45   No. Crimes
                                                            - Penal code cases per 100,000
33   Arable land per capita (Ha)                         persons
34   % change in square kilometres of                       - Criminal cases filed in Resident
     forestland in past 10 years                              Magistrate's Court
     - forest plantation area ('000 Ha)                     - Criminal cases filed in High Court

46   Area under illegal cultivation                       Security of Persons
       - coca
       - opium                                       60   Recognition in law of the prohibition of
       - poppy                                            gross violations of human rights
       - cannabis                                         affecting the security of person

47   Seizures of illicit drugs
        - cannabis ('000 kg)                              Economy
        - heroin (kg)                                61   GNP per capita (US$)
        - cocaine (kg)
        - mandrax ('000 tablets)                     62   Decadal growth rate of GNP per capita
48   Prevalence of drug abuse
                                                     63   Share of exports in GNP (%)

     International commitments on                    64   Share of FDI Inflows in GDP
     Human Rights                                    65   External debt as % of GNP
49   Status of ratifications of, reservations        66   Domestic debt as % of GNP
     to and reporting obligations under              67   Gross domestic savings as % of GDP
     international human rights instruments
                                                     68   % of public expenditure on social
50   Status of follow-up to concluding                    services
     observations of UN human rights treaty
                                                     69   Share of direct poverty reduction,
                                                          government spending

     Democracy and participation
                                                          Total Public Spending
51   Periodicity of free and fair elections
                                                     70   Incidence of benefits of public
52   No. political parties in elections                   expenditure by income group, gender
53   % registered voters who vote                         and region
54   Recognition in law of the right to
     freedom of expression, association and               Demographics
     assembly                                        71   Total fertility rate
55   No. civil society organizations (per                   - rural
     100,000)                                               - urban
     - no. women‘s groups (per 100,000               72   Annual population growth (estimate %)
                                                     73   Estimated population size (in million)
56   No. newspapers per 1,000 people
                                                     74   Life expectancy (years)
57   No. radios per 1,000                                    - male
     - no. new licensed radios sold per 1,000                - female

     Administration of Justice
58   Recognition in law guarantees for
     independence and impartial judiciary
     and fair trial
59   Recognition in law of the right to seek
     judicial remedies against state

        KENYA                                                United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

National Development Goals: To promote and contribute to good governance and the realization of rights.
Target: Promotion of an entrenched culture of transparency, openness and accountability of governance institutions to promote popular
        participation, improved justice systems and human rights, including free access to information
Expected outcomes        Brief description of cooperation                                       Major lines of action                                    Contributing      Programme
                                    strategies                                                                                                             agencies         modality

    Outcome 1           Support access to and completion of       Support the implementation of Education Sector Strategic Plan and the realization
                        free and compulsory primary                 of free and compulsory primary education, and Education for All (EFA) with
Increased access to     education of good quality, girls' full      special emphasis on elimination of gender disparities and meeting learning needs        UNDP        Collaborative and
basic social services   and equal access to basic education         of vulnerable groups.                                                                               joint programming
                        of good quality, improved early           Support for improving teaching-learning environments to make them conducive to
                        childhood care and development,             quality education, including improved teaching-learning materials and                  UNICEF
                        and continuing education for youth          methodologies.                                                                         UNFPA
                        and adults.                               Support the development of gender-responsive and relevant quality instructional
                        Strengthen capacity development in          materials incorporating life skills and HIV/AIDS prevention.
                        education planning and                    Support the expansion of quality services for early childhood care, development and   UN-HABITAT
                        implementation for the provision of         education, especially in disadvantaged areas.                                         UNESCO
                        quality basic education for all.
                                                                  Strengthen school feeding programmes in disadvantaged areas to support children's
                        Through a participatory process             participation in school and learning.
                        encompassing dialogue and analysis        Support for equivalence between formal and non-formal                    education        WB
                        at all levels of society, the UN will       (alternative/complementary quality basic education programmes).
                        make a targeted contribution to the                                                                                                 WFP
                        achievement of sustainable                Support training and orientation of teachers and other educational personnel
                                                                    including school communities to improve the management and provision of                 WHO
                        improvements in the access to
                        quality health services including           quality education services.
                        reproductive health services, safe        Identify and promote strategies that will expand and strengthen partnerships with
                        water and environmental sanitation,         training institutions, civil society, and NGOs on health, including RH information
                        especially in areas populated by the        and service issues. Advocate control of malaria and other environment-related
                        poor.                                       health problems.
                                                                  Support and play a catalytic role in capacity building at national level for policy
                                                                    formulation through advocacy and the development of supportive legal and
                                                                    regulatory frameworks; advocate dedication of human and financial resources to
                                                                    reproductive health as well as child and adolescent health care services.

       KENYA                                                  United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

                                                                   Support national efforts to eradicate polio, control measles and eliminate neo-natal
                                                                   Support national efforts to implement the water policy, refine approaches to safe
                                                                     water practices and facilitate the participatory development of a sound sanitation
                                                                   Support RH information and services at the national and district levels

    Outcome 2          Provide support for ongoing                 Support the popularization of the new Constitution.                                        UNDP       Collaborative and
                       comprehensive and other piecemeal           Support review of other subsidiary laws, especially those with a direct and                           Joint programming
 Capacities of key     constitutional reforms as                                                                                                               UNIDO
                                                                     immediate impact on poverty alleviation, to ensure consistency with the new
national governance    appropriate, and promote a move               constitutional provision.                                                                 UNFPA
     institutions      towards a national culture of
      enhanced                                                     Continue to provide on an ongoing basis, civic education to all segments of society       UNIFEM
                       constitutionalism.                            in regard to issues, elections and human rights.
                       Support strengthening of national           Support the strengthening of National Assembly‘s research and investigative                UNEP
                       capacity for enhanced                         capacity, as well as its oversight functions                                            UN-HABITAT
                                                                   Support the enactment and institutionalization of a set of policies and laws that aim     UNESCO
                       Provide support for processes and             to deter economic crimes and ensure transparency and accountability.
                       mechanisms that would ensure                In the context of the PRSP and other national poverty reduction plans, support the         UNDCP
                       popular participation at all levels.          evolution and institutionalization of a comprehensive framework for resource               IOM
                       Utilise the resources of the Kenyan           mobilization and utilization of public financial resources through the MTEF, as
                                                                     well as monitoring and evaluating the application of those resources                       WB
                       Diaspora to build public, private and
                       civil sector capacities.                    Support processes aimed at enhancing the administration of justice and the rule of          IMF
                                                                   Provide support for the formulation of a national poverty-focused information,
                                                                     education and communication (IEC) strategy, and capacity building for                      WHO
                                                                     investigative journalism                                                                  UNICEF
                                                                   Support the evolution and implementation of a national framework for monitoring
                                                                     of progress towards achieving international commitments, including the MDGs.
                                                                   Support the evolution and institutionalization of a national policy on popular
                                                                     participation within the context of a decentralised governance system
                                                                   Support capacity development functions in this (effecting a decentralised system)
                                                                   Provide financial and other support for the matching and utilization of the skills and
                                                                     experience of Kenyans living abroad in organizations contributing to national
Crosscutting cooperation strategies: Operational strategies will include the mainstreaming of gender and population issues into programming.

       KENYA                                                  United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

  National Development Goals: To stop the spread of HIV/AIDS and reduce the impact on Kenyans through reduction of HIV prevalence by 20 to
Expected outcomes       Brief description of cooperation                                         Major lines of action                                     Contributing      Programme
                                   strategies                                                                                                                agencies         modality

    Outcome 3          Supporting HIV/AIDS and TB                  Support NACC to advocate gender mainstreaming in programming and implement              UNAIDS        UN integrated
                       prevention programs.                          the developed communication strategy on HIV/AIDS, including production and              WHO          work plan on
Overall HIV/AIDS                                                     distribution of school learning materials.                                                           HIV/AIDS
and TB prevalence      Supporting activities on advocacy,                                                                                                    UNFPA
                                                                   Support the establishment and strengthening of integrated youth friendly sexual and                   prevention.
     reduced           communication and resources
                                                                     RH services, and drug abuse counselling within existing health facilities and youth      WFP
                       Supporting sub-regional initiatives.                                                                                                   UNDP
                                                                   Develop mechanisms/structures for targeting HIV/AIDS/STD/drug abuse                                   DOT strategy.
                       Contributing to the improvement of            prevention activities to the refugees and other special populations (IDP, military,    UNESCO
                       the nutrition and care of the people          police, CSW, OVCs, truckers and other uniformed personnel).                            UNHCR
                       affected and infected by HIV/AIDS,          Support the development and implementation of a comprehensive package on VCT              IOM
                       TB.                                           services according to the developed guidelines, including PMTCT.                       UNIFEM
                                                                   Support Ministry of Health to implement a comprehensive package for accelerated        UNDCPUNIC
                                                                     access to HIV/AIDS care including procurement of generic ARVs.                            EF
                                                                   Disseminate generic information on RH and safe sexual behaviour and drug abuse             ILO
                                                                     prevention to youth in and out of school, including street children.
                                                                   Support the expansion of the DOT to the community.
                                                                   Support the procurement and distribution and use of both male and female condoms.
                                                                   Provide food assistance to HIV/AIDS and TB patients and their families.

    Outcome 4          Supporting the nationally identified        Conduct training for cadres from different sectors involved in the national response    UNAIDS
                       capacity building needs.                      to HIV/AIDS and drug abuse prevention.
 Capacity to design,                                                                                                                                          WHO
                                                                   Gender training and capacity enhancement in integrating gender in HIV/AIDS
implement, monitor     Strengthening and supporting the
                                                                     programming and policy development.                                                     UNFPA
   and evaluate        monitoring and evaluation of
     programs          HIV/AIDS, TB programs.                      Support the training of peer educators for HIV/AIDS/STD and drug outreach                 WFP
   strengthened                                                      prevention programs and TB-DOT programs.
                       Supporting the National HIV/AIDS                                                                                                       UNDP
                       surveillance and operational                Support NACC and its structures to implement the developed M & E plan,
                       research.                                     including the financial utilization.                                                   UNESCO
                                                                   Support the operations of the existing sentinel and behavioural surveillance system,     UNHCR

       KENYA                                               United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

                                                                   including yearly dissemination of data and mapping.
                                                                Support the identification and implementation of priority operational research on
                                                                  different aspects of HIV/AIDS.                                                      UNIFEM
                                                                Support the development of systems for monitoring anti TB drug resistance within     UNDCP
                                                                  the context of DOT.
    Outcome 5          Strengthening managerial capacity        Support the implementation of malaria control strategy.                               WHO      National malaria
                       within the MOH malaria control           Provide technical assistance for proposal formulation for resource mobilization.               control strategy.
  Morbidity and        Unit.                                                                                                                         UNDP/UNV
mortality of malaria                                            Support operations research on the control of the vector.
                       Supporting resources mobilization                                                                                              UNICEF
     reduced                                                    Support the monitoring for drug resistance
                       Support social mobilization.             (UNICEF to provide one to two lines of action
Crosscutting cooperation strategies: Operational strategies will include the mainstreaming of gender and population issues into programming.

       KENYA                                                 United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

National Development Goal(s) and Targets: Fulfilment of state responsibilities with respect to protecting citizens during disasters and helping local
institutions to cope with sudden and longer duration disasters caused by floods, droughts and ethnic conflicts etc.
Expected outcomes       Brief description of cooperation                                         Major lines of action                                  Contributing      Programme
                                   strategies                                                                                                             agencies         modality

    Outcome 6          Support the development of a legal         Assist GoK to finalise and implement institutional structures for NDMP.                 FAO         Collaboration or
                       framework; institutional capacity          Develop UN-integrated support to NDM Authority                                                      joint programming
 National Disaster     building; advocacy and policy                                                                                                       UNDP        and
Management policy                                                 Support training in the principles and methodologies of emergency and contingency
                       dialogue for a national disaster             planning.                                                                             UNICEF       implementation
institutionalised at   management policy, and the
      all levels       development of strategies for                                                                                                     UNIFEM
                       resource mobilization and gender                                                                                                    WFP

    Outcome 7          Further inter-agency collaboration in      Strengthen existing food security and disaster coordination structures;                 FAO         Collaboration or
                       prevention and mitigation of natural       Develop guidelines for disaster prevention, preparedness, and management;                           joint programming
   Strengthened        and man-made disasters and                                                                                                          UNDP        and
       disaster                                                   Assist GoK in prevention of and response to disasters and coordinate appeals for
                       conflicts.                                   international support in time of emergency.                                           UNICEF       implementation
including increased    Collaborate in national and regional       Support specific programmes to prevent and respond to inter-ethnic violence,            WFP
 capacity for peace    peace-building projects and small            including human rights restrictions, conflict resolution and attendant population
  building, conflict   arms proliferation prevention.               displacements.                                                                        UNHCR
   resolution and
                       Assist with identification of early        Pay due attention to vulnerable groups, including local communities in                UNIFEM
 reduction of small
                       warning indicators.                          programming and provide access to services.                                          SRSG/GL
 arms proliferation
                       Support installation of EWS
    Outcome 8          Strengthen national and local              Enhance early warning capacities of national and district authorities through           FAO         Collaboration or
                       authorities‘ capacity for disaster           training, improved data collection; and improved reporting techniques;                             joint programming
Enhanced capacity                                                                                                                                          UNDP
                       preparedness, prevention, response         Joint mechanisms for early warning and vulnerability assessment reporting for GoK                   and
  of national and      and mitigation.                              and partners                                                                                       implementation
district authorities
     to collect,                                                                                                                                           WFP
 disseminate, and
    utilise early                                                                                                                                          WHO

       KENYA                                               United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

  assessment and                                                                                                                                          UNIFEM
 needs assessment
    Outcome 9          Support the establishment of refugee     Continue support to refugee operations in Kenya in collaboration with the GoK and        UNDP     Collaboration or
                       specific policies and legal                relevant agencies.                                                                               joint programming
   Strengthened                                                                                                                                           UNFPA
                       framework.                               Cooperate with the GoK in the fields of protection, legislation, and refugee status               and
  response to and                                                 determination. Increase awareness of HIV/AIDS.                                                   implementation
                       Ensure that essential protection                                                                                                   UNHCR
  management of
refugees’ and IDPs     standards of refugee care are met in     Strengthen environment restoration programmes and mitigate impact of refugee             UNICEF
 needs and rights      accordance with international              presence.
                       standards and lasting solutions are      Promote public awareness of refugee issues                                                WFP
                                                                Support efforts to mitigate internal forced displacement of Kenyans as IDPs;              WHO
                       Continued support for GoK to             Facilitate the return to place of habitual residence in safety and with full rights of   UNEP
                       enhance emergency preparedness.            those displaced.
                       Attention for needs of vulnerable        Promote public awareness of IDP issues, including access to basic services and
                       groups, host communities,                  rights in their temporary settlements
                       HIV/AIDS and the environment.
                       Support for GoK to build IDP
                       matters into national policy and
                       ensure that relevant UN agencies
                       and partners are made aware of IDP
                       presence and needs.
Crosscutting cooperation strategies: Operational strategies will include the mainstreaming of gender and population issues into programming.

       KENYA                                                United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

National development goals: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into development programs, halt and reverse environmental
degradation. Increase and sustain the capacity of the national economy to create opportunities for sustainable livelihood.
Target: Reduce the percentage of households living in absolute poverty by 20 per cent by 2004, and by a further 30 per cent by 2010. Reduce hunger
by 50% by 2015

Expected outcomes       Brief description of cooperation                                      Major lines of action                                    Contributing      Programme
                                   strategies                                                                                                            agencies         modality

   Outcome 10          Over five year period to develop a        Targeted support to critical GoK bodies (OP, CBS, and MoARD) in developing              UNDP        Collaborative and
                       solid base of quantitative                  food insecurity vulnerability information management systems and undertaking                       joint programming
     Increased         information for measuring progress          another Welfare Monitoring Survey                                                      FAO
availability, access   against the MDGs of halving hunger        Support research on monitoring and tracking status of key natural resources (e.g.,    UNESCO
and the utilization    and extreme poverty                         forestry, water resources, coastal ecosystems and national parks)
  of quality data                                                                                                                                         WFP
 disaggregated by      Natural resource inventories, maps        Support for in-depth analysis of the 1999 census, and implementation of IMIS and
 age and sex and       and trend analyses produced by              KDHS.                                                                                 UNFPA
    information        national and local authorities                                                                                                     UNEP
analysed by gender
   for planning,                                                                                                                                         UNHCR
  monitoring and
   Outcome 11          Sustainable natural resource              Support identification of NRM and biodiversity knowledge gaps; introduction of          UNDP        Collaborative and
                       management plans on local level             suitable alternative technologies for adaptation on local level                                    joint programming
     Effective                                                                                                                                            WFP
                       developed and implemented by              Contribute to the coordination of community-level training on most appropriate
 community based       communities and other stakeholders.         technologies/approaches, e.g. integrated nutrient management, water harvesting,       UNHCR
  management of                                                    energy-efficiency optimization
 natural resources                                                                                                                                        FAO

       KENYA                                                 United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

    Outcome 12         Provide support to local and district      Support capacity building for participatory priority setting, planning and              FAO       Collaborative and
                       authorities to make appropriate              implementation of integrated projects (e.g. HIV/AIDS and Bondo Farmer Field                      joint programming
   Improved food       resource allocation choices, taking          Schools))                                                                             UNDP
     security at       into consideration household and           Support participatory learning activities for women and other groups (e.g. FFS).      UNIFEM
   household and       community food security needs,
  community level                                                 Support promotion of the use of indigenous knowledge and community innovations          WFP
                       women's economic security and                in addressing identified problems.
                       HIV/AIDS.                                                                                                                           WHO
                       Assist women's and other                                                                                                           UNICEF
                       community groups by empowering
                       them to identify priority problems,
                       implement solutions and articulate
                       demands for relevant services
    Outcome 13           Undertake high level advocacy;        Implementation of fair and gender-balanced legislation governing accessibility to         UNDP
                         Providetechnical assistance           means of livelihood especially for women, accessibility to private and communal land
     Expanded                                                   and water rights with recourse mechanisms.                                                UNHCR      Collaborative and
 opportunities for       Support for community training                                                                                                             joint programming
                           and empowerment on land and          Reversal in declining trends in natural resource productivity, including forestry and      ILO
  production and           water rights                         other valuable ecosystems                                                                  FAO
      income             Support       for        resource     Increase productivity for income generation and poverty reduction
  diversification          conservation to projects.                                                                                                      UNIFEM

                         Support the strengthening of          Support government increase d productivity of sectors with high export potential          UNIDO
                           policing   of      protected         Support development of agro-industry
                                                                Support strengthening of the investment and export promotion infrastructure.
                         Develop production capacities in
                           sectors with high export             Assist industries to acquire new technology
                           potential                              Support promotion of small-scale agro-based industries.

Crosscutting cooperation strategies: Operational strategies will include the mainstreaming of gender and population issues into programming.

      KENYA                              United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008


       Outcome 1          2          3          4         5      6         7         8         9          10        11     12     13     TOTAL
Estimated total
                              15.0                                                                  80
FAO                                                  .2                                                        .8           3.0    1.0             5.0
UNAIDS                                     .2        .3                                                                                            0.5
UNDP                           6.5        1.5       1.5                                                              2.0                          11.5
UNESCO               1                                                                                                                             1.0
UNFPA               2.5        3.3        2.5        .5                                             1.0       2.2                                 12.0
UNHCR                                                                                               60                                            60.0
UNICEF             25.3        4.0       70.0        7    16.2       2.5       1.0       3.5        7.9       1.5    8.0    4.7    2.5           154.1
UNIDO                                                                                                                              1.5             1.5
WFP                28.0                                              3.8       3.2                                                                35.0
Estimated total    56.8       13.8       74.2       9.5   16.2       6.3       4.2       3.5       68.9       4.5   10.0    7.7    5.0      280.6
 Resource Gap

 KENYA                                          United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008


            Expected             Indicators                                                                                                  Sources
             Outcome 1            Net enrolment ratio at primary level by province, district and sex                                        Education Management and
                                  Repetition rates by province, district and sex                                                            Information Systems (EMIS)
         Increased access to
         basic social services    Drop-out rates by province, district and sex                                                              Surveys Reports
                                  Primary completion rates for boys and girls
                                  Net intake ratio into first grade for girls
                                  Transition rate from ECD to primary level by province, district and sex
                                  Average pupil-teacher ratio by level of education

                                  Government spending on education
                                  Share of education budget for primary education (pro-rated for length of cycle)                           GoK Financial Printed Estimates

                                 Institutional capability
                                  Composite indicator (on a scale of 1-5) to assess the benchmarks achieved in building the capacities of
                                    key GoK ministries to tackle specific basic social service issues (Baseline: TBD 2003)
                                 Adequate financing
                                  Proportion of public expenditure on primary health care
                                  Per capita public expenditure on social services
                                                                                                                                             Project Reports
                                  Numbers of sectors with separate budget lines on population, gender and environmental issues
                                  Composite indicator (on a scale of 1-5) to assess the capacities of target communities to articulate
                                    and/or basic social service issues
                                 Demonstrated effectiveness of Interventions
                                  Progressive and sustained achievement of national targets in the following areas:
                                  Basic education
                                  Vaccine preventable and other childhood diseases
                                  Access to clean, safe drinking water and adequate sanitation
                                  Contraceptive prevalence rate
                                  % women attending antenatal care at least 4 times during pregnancy
                                  % births taking place in health facilities

KENYA                                         United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

             Outcome 2           Existence of popular version(s) of the new Constitution (Baseline: None exist)                             Reports
                                 Number of constitutional reviews effected (Baseline: Drafts Bills of various reviews exist, most of
          Capacities of key                                                                                                                  Surveys
                                   which will need to be revised.
         national governance
        institutions enhanced    National voter education strategy. No. of institutions using the strategy. No. of community based voter    Records - Laws enacted by
                                   educators (Baseline: No national voter education strategy, each institution using own strategy,           Parliament
                                   community based voter educators, % of eligible population registered as voters)                           Special surveys
                                 No. of appropriate training given to research assistants
                                                                                                                                             Spot checks
                                 No. of committees being supported (Baseline: No research assistants in place, no training, work only
                                   with two committees on ad-hoc basis)                                                                      Training reports/records
                                 National IEC strategy (Baseline: No strategy in place)                                                     House committee reports
                                 National Human Rights Plan of Action (Baseline: No plan exists)                                            Strategy report
                                 Policy on popular participation (Baseline: No Policy in place)
                                                                                                                                             Published plan of action
                                 Established decentralization secretariat. Curriculum for management of local authorities. No. of courses
                                   given to local authorities (Baseline: No secretariat in place, no need–based curriculum and training      Special surveys/spot checks
                                   conducted on ad hoc basis)                                                                                Records – Policy document
             Outcome 3           HIV prevalence in young men and women in the age group 15 to 24 years reduced by 20- 30%.                  Sentinel surveillance and special
                                   (Baseline 13%.)                                                                                           studies with a drug abuse
    Overall HIV/AIDS and         Number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS                                                                    component included in both.
    TB prevalence reduced
                                 Drug abuse prevalence rate decreased.                                                                      Programme and project reports
                                                                                                                                             The KDHS survey 2003
                                                                                                                                             Health facility based data.
             Outcome 4           Number and categories of people and geographic distribution                                                Special manpower surveys
      Capacity to design,                                                                                                                    Programme and project reports
    implement, monitor and
                                                                                                                                             Health based data
      evaluate programs
             Outcome 5           Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria                                                         Health facility and community
                                 Proportion of population at risk using effective malaria prevention and treatment                          based data
          Morbidity and
        mortality of malaria

KENYA                                             United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

             Outcome 6              Establishment of NDMP institutional structure (Baseline: not yet in place or active)                      Responsible GoK Department
                                    Standard operating procedures for DM, with clear assignment of roles responsibilities and resources.
          National Disaster                                                                                                                    Authority established by GoK
                                      (Baseline: Do not yet exist)
         Management policy
        institutionalised at all    Number of public sector and civil society staff trained nationally and per district                       Institution providing training
                 levels             Regionally established gender-disaggregated data (Baseline: gender disaggregated data do not exist)       National & district departments

             Outcome 7              Policy changes made to improve UNDMTG performance and cooperation methods (Baseline:
                                      ineffective UNDMTG system)
     Strengthened disaster                                                                                                                     UNDMTG and involved
                                    Guidelines for disaster prevention, preparedness, and management (Baseline: No guidelines)
    management, including                                                                                                                      agencies
     increased capacity for         Increased disaster response efficiency along clear guidelines (Baseline: slow and inadequate response)
    peace building, conflict        Increased conflict awareness
         resolution and
    reduction of small arms
             Outcome 8              Specific hazards and vulnerabilities identified and mapped geographically (Baseline: Few maps of areas    National and district
                                      at risk of disaster or conflict)                                                                         departments
     Enhanced capacity of           Types, models and processes for emergency planning and response created (Baseline: Unavailability of
      national and district           these types, models and processes for planning divisions)
     authorities to collect,
    disseminate, and utilise        Monthly early warning situational report releases (Baseline: Do not exist)
         early warning,
     assessment and needs
        assessment data
             Outcome 9              Legislation on refugees promulgated providing for predictable and effective management of refugee         Relevant GoK Department
                                      problems (Baseline: No legislation)
        Strengthened response                                                                                                                  UNHCR
                                    Signing and implementation of Refugee Bill (Baseline: No bill)
        to and management of
          refugees’ and IDPs        Improvement of female safety; placement of unaccompanied minors in foster care; attend to needs of        Other relevant UN agencies
           needs and rights           vulnerable people                                                                                        Rapid assessment surveys of
                                    Reduction in sexual and gender based violence statistics                                                  IDPs
                                    Number of unaccompanied minors placed with families                                                       Refugee camps’ health statistics
                                    Number of individuals from vulnerable groups receiving extra care
                                                                                                                                               Project reports
                                    Increased awareness of HIV and AIDS; environment; refugee issues.
                                    Predictable effective management of IDP problems
                                    Mitigation of internal displacement, reclamation of property and other legal rights by IDPs, and return
                                      to their original place of residence (Baseline: Number of IDPs not returned to their original place of
                                    Reduced teenage birth rate among IDPs and refugees

KENYA                                         United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

                                 Contraceptive use increases among IDPs and in refugee camps

            Outcome 10           Number of GoK institutions/staff trained and using data/information (EW, drought, population, disease)   Training manuals
                                 Number of inventories, analyses and maps produced by national and local authorities
     Increased availability,                                                                                                               Project reports
    access and utilization of    Number of GoK, private sector and NGO institutions using data and information
                                                                                                                                           KDHS report
          quality data
      disaggregated by age                                                                                                                 IMIS maps & guidelines
          and sex and
    information analysed by                                                                                                                GoK, UN and other
      gender for planning,                                                                                                                 development partners’ sectoral
         monitoring and                                                                                                                    and strategic plans
            Outcome 11           Number of NRM plans developed and implemented by communities                                             NRM plans; implementation
                                 Number of groups trained and implementing appropriate technologies and approaches (water                 reports
        Effective community        harvesting, integrated nutrient management)
        based management of                                                                                                                Records/lists of people trained
          natural resources
                                                                                                                                           Project reports
            Outcome 12           Number of local multi-sectoral groups trained in participatory planning and implementation of            Project plans and reports
                                   integrated projects (HIV/AIDS etc)
    Improved food security                                                                                                                 Manuals
                                 Number of people, particularly women, involved in learning (new technologies etc)
      at household and
                                                                                                                                           Attendants’ records
      community level
            Outcome 13           Number and type of workshops held and number of women, men and youth participating (land and             Workshop reports
                                   water rights, cleaner industrial production)
    Expanded opportunities                                                                                                                 Attendants’ lists
                                 Number of conservation projects and ecosystems protected
        for sustainable
                                                                                                                                           Project reports
    production and income

 KENYA                                       United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

AIDS     Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome               TOR               Terms of Reference
BWIs     Bretton Woods Institutions                        UN                United Nations
CBS      Central Bureau of Statistics                      UNCT              United Nations Country Team
CCA      Common Country Assessment                         UNCED             United Nations Conference on
                                                                             Environment and Development
CEDAW    Convention on Eradication of All Forms
         of Discrimination against Women                   UNDAF             United Nations Development
                                                                             Assistance Framework
DOT      Directly Observed Treatment
                                                           UNDCP             United Nations International Drug
EFA      Education for All                                                   Control Program
FAO      Food and Agricultural Organization of             UNEP              United Nations Environment
         the United Nations                                                  Program
GoK      Government of Kenya                               UNESCO            United Nations Educational,
HIV      Human Immuno-deficiency Virus                                       Scientific and Cultural Organization

HOA      Heads of Agencies                                 UNDGO             United Nations Development Group
ICAO     International Civil Aviation Organization
                                                           UNDP              United Nations Development
IFC      International Finance Corporation                                   Program

ILO      International Labor Organization                  UNICEF            United Nations Children Fund

IMF      International Monetary Fund                       UNIDO             United Nations Industrial
                                                                             Development Organization
IOM      International Organization for Migration
                                                           UNFPA             United Nations Population Fund
IPRSP    Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
                                                           UN-HABITAT United Nations Centre for Human
IUCN     International Union for Conservation of                      Settlements
         Nature and Natural Resources
                                                           UNHCR             United Nations High Commissioner
KACA     Kenya Anti-Corruption Authority                                     for Refugees
KCC      Kenya Country Committee                           UNIC              United Nations Information Centre
KEPI     Kenya Expanded Programme on                       UNIFEM            United Nations Fund for Women
                                                           UNON              United Nations Office at Nairobi
MDG      Millennium Development Goals
                                                           UNOPS             United Nations Office for Project
NACC     National AIDS Control Council                                       Services
NASCOP   National AIDS/STD Control Program                 UNSO              United Nations Development Office
                                                                             to Combat Desertification and
NGOs     Non-Governmental Organizations
OCHA     Office for Coordination of Humanitarian
                                                           UPE               Universal Primary Education
                                                           WB                World Bank
PRA      Participatory Rural Appraisal
                                                           WFP               World Food Programme
PRSP     Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
                                                           WHO               World Health Organization
RC       Resident Coordinator
STD      Sexually Transmitted Diseases

 KENYA              United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

We, the United Nations Country Committee, while respecting each organization’s
mandates, competence and decision-making process, pledge our commitment to
collaborative programming as a means to foster co-operation and coordination among all of
our agencies and so as to enhance the performance and impact of our joint response to
development assistance in Kenya.

       __________________________                    ________________________
Abdirazak Awale                                      George Okoth-Obbo
UNOPS Project Management Officer                     UNHCR Representative

        __________________________                   ________________________
Alexander Barabanov                                  George Tabah
Chief, Division of Adm. Services                     UNIDO Representative

       __________________________                    ________________________
B.E. Oduor-Otieno                                    George Hanek
National Programme Coordinator                       FAO Representative a.i

        __________________________                   ________________________
Carsten Hyttel                                       Lot Mollel
UNDCP Regional Representative                        ICAO Regional Representative

___________________________                          ________________________
David Kithakye                                       Makhtar Diop
Senior Human Settlement Advisor                      Country Director, Kenya
UH-HABITAT                                           World Bank Group

_________________________                            ________________________
Edwin Mcclain                                        Nicholas Alipui
IOM Regional Representative                          UNICEF Representative

________________________                             ________________________
Eric Falt                                            Nyaradzai Gumbonzvanda
UNIC Director                                        UNIFEM Regional Director

 KENYA             United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

________________________                             _______________________
Paul Andre de la Porte                              Sam Itam
UNDP Resident Representative                        IMF Country Director

________________________                            ________________________
Paul Vitta                                          Sekou Toure
UNESCO Director and Representative                  UNEP Director Regional Office for Africa

________________________                            ________________________
Peter Eriki                                         Sidiki Coulibaly
WHO Representative                                  UNFPA Representative

________________________                            ________________________
Philip Dobie                                        Tesema Negash
Director DDC/UNDP                                   WFP Director

Saleem Karimjee
IFC Regional Representative

                                  Paul Andre de la Porte
                                 UN Resident Coordinator

KENYA   United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008

KENYA          United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), 2004-2008



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