# A Comparative Introduction to XDG Semantics by gregoria

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```									A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics
Ralph Debusmann
and
Denys Duchier

¨
Programming Systems Lab, Saarland University, Saarbrucken, Germany
and
´
Equipe Calligramme, LORIA, Nancy, France

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.1
Representing semantics

• Von jedem Mann wird eine Frau geliebt.
∀x.man(x) → ∃y.woman(y) ∧ love(x, y)
• two dimensions:
◦ predicate-argument structure
◦ scope structure (derivation tree)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.2
Predicate-argument dimension

∀ x man(x)   ⇒   ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.3
Predicate-argument dimension

∀ x man(x)    ⇒   ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)

∀x    man(x)         ∃y    woman(y) love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.3
Predicate-argument dimension

∀ x man(x)    ⇒   ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)

∀x    man(x)         ∃y    woman(y) love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.3
Predicate-argument dimension

∀ x man(x)    ⇒   ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)

∀x    man(x)         ∃y    woman(y) love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.3
Predicate-argument dimension

∀ x man(x)    ⇒   ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)

∀x    man(x)         ∃y    woman(y) love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.3
Predicate-argument dimension

∀ x man(x)    ⇒   ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)

∀x    man(x)         ∃y    woman(y) love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.3
Predicate-argument dimension

∀ x man(x)            ⇒      ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)
.

1                   arg1             1   arg2
arg                                  arg

von   jedem          Mann     wird          eine          Frau   geliebt

∀x             man(x)             ∃y         woman(y) love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.3
Scope dimension

∀ x man(x)   ⇒   ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.4
Scope dimension

∀ x man(x)   ⇒    ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)

∀x • ⇒ •   man(x)   ∃ y • ∧ • woman(y)    love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.4
Scope dimension

∀ x man(x)   ⇒    ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)

∀x • ⇒ •   man(x)   ∃ y • ∧ • woman(y)    love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.4
Scope dimension

∀ x man(x)   ⇒    ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)

∀x • ⇒ •   man(x)   ∃ y • ∧ • woman(y)    love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.4
Scope dimension

∀ x man(x)   ⇒    ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)

∀x • ⇒ •   man(x)   ∃ y • ∧ • woman(y)    love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.4
Scope dimension

∀ x man(x)   ⇒    ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)

∀x • ⇒ •   man(x)   ∃ y • ∧ • woman(y)    love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.4
Scope dimension

∀ x man(x)        ⇒       ∃ y woman(y) ∧ love(x,y)
.

r           s

r    s

von     jedem        Mann        wird   eine       Frau   geliebt

∀x • ⇒ •          man(x)      ∃ y • ∧ • woman(y)        love(x,y)

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.4
XDG analysis (ds, pa, sc)

.

jd                  objd
sub
d                                                 d
det                                               det

every             politician        hates          a            vegetable

.

r                                arg              r
arg         arg1                       2          arg

every             politician        hates          a            vegetable

.
s
r                                   s             r

every             politician        hates           a            vegetable

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.5

.

s                   r

r       s

every       politician   hates       a       vegetable

.

r            s

s       r

every       politician   hates       a       vegetable

A Comparative Introduction to XDG: Semantics – p.6

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