Coulthard 19852. An Introduction to discourse analysis by gregorio11

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									    Relevant approaches to analysing casual conversation
                  Eggins/Slade (1997: 24)

Ethnomethodological        Conversation Analysis

                           Ethnography of Speaking                  Coulthard 19852. An Introduction
Sociolinguistic            Interactional Sociolinguistics
                           Variation Theory                              to discourse analysis
Logico-philosophic         Speach act Theory
                           Pragmatics                                         The Birmingham School
Social-semiotic            Critical Discourse Analysis
                           Critical Linguistics
Structural-functional      Birmingham School
                           Systemic-functional linguistics
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• The major contribution of the Birmingham                                   Rank of units (123)
  school which has relevance for analysing
  casual conversation is its work on
                                                                 • 1. lesson:
  specifying the structure of the
                                                                   corresponds to paragraph in grammar
  conversational exchange.
                                                                 • 2. transaction
• The exchange is the discourse unit which                         boundaries are typically marked by frames
  captures the sequencing of turns at talk in                      whose realization at the level of form is largely
  terms of functional ‚slots‘.                                     limited to five words: OK, well, right, now, good
• BS analysts have tried to develop a                              uttered with strong stress, high falling intonation
  general description, in functional-structural                    and followed by a short pause.
  terms, of the exchange as the basic unit of                    • Transactions have a structure in terms of
  conversational structure. (E/S 44)
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                  3. exchanges:                                                     4. moves:
• boundary exchange: frame and/or focus                          • Eliciting exchanges in class room typically
•    frame: well                                                   consist of three moves: T – P –T
          focus: today I thought we’d do three quizzes                – T: Those letters have special names. Do you
•   informing (stating)                                                 know what it is? What is one name, that we
                                                                        give to this letters.
•   directing (commanding)                                            – P: Vowels.
•   eliciting (questioning)                                           – T: They are vowels, aren’t they?
•   The structure of exchanges is expressed                           – T: Do you think you could say that sentence
    in:                                                                 without having the vowels in it?
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                                                                                                                             1
• The absence of the third move (noticeable
  absent) is often a covert clue that the answer is                                                                 5. acts:
  wrong.
•   T: (elicite) Can you think why I changed ‘mat’ to ‘rug’.                      • are defined principially by their interactive
•   P: (reply) Mat’s got two vowels in it.
                                                                                    function.
•   T: (feedback)
•   T: (elicite) Which are they? What are they?                                        – elicitation: ‘to request a linguistic response
•   P: (reply) ‘a’ and ‘t’.                                                            – informative ‘to provide information’
•   T: (feedback)
•   T: (elicite) Is ‘t’ a vowel?
•   P: (reply) No.
•   T: (feedback)         No.
• Moves typically consist of one or more

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Meta-interactive       Interactive                                Turn-
                        Initiation      Response      Follow-up   taking
Marker:the act which                                 accept       Cue             •    T: (elicit) Anyone think they know what it says?
realizes framing       Informative      Acknowledge( evaluate     Bid
moves                  Directive        acknowledge) comment      Nominate        •    P: (bid) HANDS RAISED
Metastatement: talks                    react
about the discourse
                       Elicitation
                                        reply
                                                                                  •    T: (nomination)Let’s see what you think, Martin.
                       Accept
loop: pardon, again,
what did you say.      Starter (?)                                                •    P: (reply) Heeroglyphs.
 puts the discourse                                                               •    T: (evaluation) Yes, you’re pronouncing it almost
back before the
preceding move                                                                         right.




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                                                                                  Turn Speak. Exchange
                                                                                              slot/Move
                                                                                  1    S1 Open                   This eh has been a long conversation. Dead space
                                                                                                                  in the conversation.
                                                                                  2         S2   Initiation      In France they say ‚An angel is passing‘
•   T: (cue)     Hands up.                                                        3         S3   Response        In English too.
•   (elicit)     What‘s that?                                                     4         S2   Re-initiation   Really?
                                                                                  5         S3   Response        Umm
•   (bid)        RAISED HANDS                                                     6         S2   Re-initiation   ==Oh I‘ve never heard that before.
                                                                                  7         S4   Re-initiation   ==I‘ve never heard of that.
•   (nomination) Janet.                                                           8         S3   Response        Well I think so. I think I‘ve heard it first in English
                                                                                                                 but maybe they were just translating. I don‘t know.
•   (reply)      A nail.                                                          9         S2   Re-initiation   I thought in English it was ‚Someone‘s walked over‘
                                                                                  10        S3   Response        Oh ‚over your grave‘
•   (evaluation) A nail, well done, a nail.                                       11        S3   Close           You‘re probably absolutely right, Maybe I‘ve heard it
                                                                                                                 only in French.                                  (E/S 46)



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                                                                                                                                                                             2
                                                                  • Functional: models conversation as
                                                                    purposeful behaviour
             Functional-semantic
                                                                  • Semantic: interprets conversation as a
          interpretation of discourse                               process of making meanings
          Eggins, Suzanne & Slade, Diana 1997
             Analysing casual conversation.
              London/Washington: Cassel


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              Types of meaning
• Ideational                                                      • The primary task of Casual Conversation
     – Meanings about the world, representation of reality          is the negotiation of social identity and
       e.g. topics, subject matters
                                                                    social relations.
• Interpersonal
     – Meanings about roles and relationships e.g. status,
                                                                  • Thus casual conversation is ‚driven‘ by
       intimacy, contact, sharedness between interactants           interpersonal, rather than ideational or
• Textual                                                           textual meanings.
     – Meanings about the message e.g.                            • Für den ‚Context‘ ist daher die
       forgrounding/salience; types of cohesion
                                                                    Rollenstruktur wesentlich:

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                                                                  There are four main types of linguistic patterns which
    Dimensions of social identity:                                represent and enact the social identities of participants in
                                                                  casual conversations:
• Status relations: bestimmt durch (i) force, (ii)
  authority [Eltern-Kind, Schüler-Lehrer,                         • Grammatical patterns: which operate within turns, and
  Angestellter-Vorgesetzter]                                        have to do with the mood of the clauses interactants use.
• Affective involvement: bekannt, verwandt,                       • Semantic patterns: is revealed by studying attitudinal
  Freund, Partner etc                                               and expressive meanings in talk
• Contact: regulär (Familie), gelegentlich,                       • Discourse structure patterns: operate across turns
  singulär; freiwillig – erzwungen (Arbeit, Studium,                and are thus overtly interactional and sequential
  Arbeitsgruppe)
                                                                  • Generic structure patterns: operate to build 'chunks' of
• Orientation to affiliation: refers to the extent to
                                                                    talk such as storytelling or gossiping segments within the
  which we seek to identify with the values and
  beliefs of those we interact with in … different                  flow of chat.
  social contexts
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                                                                                                                                      3
            I. Grammatical patterns: MOOD                                         Polarity: Yes and No
• Mood types
• Declarative: full           Initiate conversational
                              exchanges                               • YEAH as a textual continuity adjunct
•   Tagged Declarative        The grammatical ambiguity               • Is common at the beginning of clauses which
                              encodes its ambiguous function
•   Imperative: full          Encode advice
                                                                        challenge or dispute a prior contribution. YEAH
•   Wh-interrogative:full     Elicit additional circumstantial          is not stressed, nor does it occur in its own tone
                              information                               group.
•   Polar interrogative: full Initiating an exchange by               • Dave       ==(i) And what are your General Studies?
                              requesting information
•   Exclamative: full         Encode a judgement or                   • Brad       (i) Oh it’s … RUBBISH … (ii) One of them is
                              evaluation                                           alright, (iii) one of them is actually good.
•   Minor                     Preludes or closure                     • Dave       (i) Yeah but what is it?
                              Hi! Bye! Mmm. Yeah.

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                             Modality                                                 Modalization:
• refers to the range of different ways in                            •   Er spielt Tuba
  which speakers can temper or qualify their                          •   Wahrscheinlichkeit (Probability)
  messages. Two types:                                                •   Er spielt bestimmt Tuba.
• Modalization: a way of tempering the                                •   Ich bin sicher, er spielt Tuba
  categorical nature of the information we                            •   Es ist klar, dass er Tuba spielt
  exchange
                                                                      •   Usuality
• Modulation: a way of tempering the
                                                                      •   Er spielt dauernd/immer/öfter/manchmal/selten
  directness with which we seek to act upon
                                                                          Tuba.
  each other
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                        Modulation:                                             Interpreting mood choices
• Obligation (Verpflichtung)                                          • Imperatives: Although the number of
     – Du mußt dein Studium beenden.
     – Du solltest dein Studium beenden.                                imperatives is small, it is significant that
     – Es wäre schön, wenn du dein Studium beenden würdest.             Fran does not produce any imperatives,
• Inclination
     –    Ich bin (wild) entschlossen mein Studium zu beenden.
                                                                        while the two men do. Brad‘s imperatives
     –    Ich möchte .........                                          are addressed to both parents, while
     –    Ich versuche ......
     –    Ich bemühe mich .......
                                                                        Dave‘s are addressed only to Brad. This is
• Capability                                                            one way Dave enacts some authority.
     – Er kann ......
     – Er ist in der Lage .....

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                                                                                                                                       4
          Interpreting mood choices
• Minor clauses: Fran uses a strikingly high
  proportion of minor clauses, indicating her
  supportive, non-initiating role in the
                                                                    The semantics of casual
  interaction. She is often providing                                    conversation
  feedback, while Brad and Dave are far
  less frequently in that position. (E/S112)                         Encoding attitude and humour




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Three main areas of interpersonal semantics
                                                                              Appraisal
• Appraisal: refers to attitudinal colouring of           • analysis examines the attitudinal meanings of words
                                                            used in conversation. We recognize four main categories
  talk along a range of dimensions including:               of appraisal:
  certainty, emotional response, social                   • Appreciation: speaker's reactions to and evaluations of
                                                            reality
  evaluation, and intensity.                              • Affect: speaker's expression of emotional states, both
• Involvement: refers to how interpersonal                  positive and negative
  worlds are shared by interactants.                      • Judgment: speaker's judgments about the ethics,
                                                            morality, or social values of other people
• Humour:ties and solidarity … are created                • Amplification: the way speakers magnify or minimizes
                                                            the intensity and degree of the reality they are
  through teasing each other                                negotiating

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               Appreciation:                                                    Affect:
• kinds of evaluations of a thing or a                    • emotional states – how something makes
  happening                                                 them feel. Three main subtypes:
• Reaction      What did you think of it?                 • Happiness/unhappiness       How happy did you feel?
                                                          • In/security                 How secure did you feel?
• Composition How did it go together?                     • Dis/satisfaction            How satisfied did you feel?
• Valuation     How did you judge it?
• Dave       (i) If you’re doing an Arts degree
             (ii) you got a lot of other garbage to do


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                                                                                                                           5
 Judgment: speaker's judgments about the ethics,                                          Amplification
           morality, or social values of other people

• Brad         (i) in the orchestra. (ii) He‘s a funny       • Enrichment          fusing an evaluative lexical item with the process
               bastard (iii)and his wife‘s German (iv)                             adding a comparative element
               and she‘s insane.                                –                   yapping all the time
•   Dave       [coughs]                                         –                   to play like shit

•   Fran       (i) He‘s funny (ii) ==and she‘s in==sane      • Augmenting intensifying the evaluation
                                                                          quantifying the degree of
•   Brad       (i) ==ALL Germans are in==sane                                 amplification
•   Dave       (i) ==You know … (ii) You know a lot of          –                   Repetition: ran and ran; sweet sweet girl
               funny people don‘t you Brad?                     –                   Grading: very, really, incredibly
• Brad         (i) Yeah, (ii) everyone at Uni is.==             –                   Adverbial: totally; Pronominal: everyone

• Dave         ==(i) They‘re ALL mad ==                      • Mitigation          plaing down the force of an evaluation
                                                                –                   ‘vague talk', sort of, just, not much
• Brad         ==(i) They‘re all FREAKS
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                   Involvement                                                                Vocatives
                                                                           With epithet                           Positive affect (Sweetie Petie)
• Naming:      Targeting vocatives                                                                                negative affect (Dumbo Dave)
               Redundant Vocatives                                         Without epithet (Suzy, Dave)
                                                                           Real name (Elizabeth)
               Form of the vocative                                        Nickname (Lizzie, Loulou)
                                                                           On first name (Johnno, Liz)
• Technicality Using technical or                               Type       On Family name (Casher, Walsho)
                                                                           Based on cultural identity (Batboy, Speedy Gonzales)
               commonsense lexis                                           Not based on cultural identity         Negative affect (Dick Head, Smart Arse)
                                                                                                                  positive affect (Sweet Pie)
• Swearing                                                      Shape      Full form
                                                                           Modified     truncated (Liz, Bob)
• Slang                                                                                 Augmented                 suffixed (Lizzie, Johnno)
                                                                                                                  reduplicated (Loulou, Jojo)


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                                                                          Halliday‘s model of Dialogue:
                                                                               the four primary speech functions
    The discourse structure of casual
             conversation:                                      dialogue is a 'process of exchange' involving two variables:
                                                                •a commodity to be exchanged: either information or goods and services
        negotiating support and                                 •roles associated with exchange relations: either giving or demanding

             confrontation                                                       Goods & services                      Information
                                                                Giving           ‚offer‘                               ‚statement‘
                                                                                 Would you like this teapot?           He‘s giving her the teapot
                 Halliday, M.A.K. 1985.                         Demanding        ‚command‘                             ‚question‘
              An Introduction to Functional                                      Give me that teapot!                  What is he giving her?
                       Grammar.
                                                                These, in turn, are matched by a set of desired responses:
              London et al: Edward Arnold

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                                                                                                                                                            6
                                                                Major subcategories of speech function
                                                                              classes
Initiating        Responding speech function
speech function   supporting          Confronting
Offer             acceptance          rejection                        open
Command           compliance          Refusal
                                                             move
Statement         acknowledgement     contradiction
question          answer              disclaimer                                            continue

                                                                       sustain                         response

                                                                                            react

                                                                                                       rejoinder

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                                                                Major subcategories of speech function
                                                                              classes
• Responses: reactions which move the
  exhange towards completion                                           open

• Rejoinders: reactions which in some way                    move

  prolong the exchange                                                                      continue

                                                                       sustain                         response

                                                                                            react

                                                                                                       rejoinder

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