Microsoft PowerPoint - Introduction to Discourse Analysis.ppt by gregorio11

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									                                                                                   Lecture overview:

                                                                                      What is “discourse”? “Narrow” and
      Introduction to Discourse                                                       “wide” definitions of discourse &
             Analysis (1)                                                             examples of discourse.
                                                                                      Three levels of DA.
                           LING1003 Language, Thought & Culture                       Examples of applications of DA.
                                                 18 March 2008
                                        Lecturer: Dr. Olga Zayts                      Conducting a microanalysis: cohesion.
                                           zayts@hkucc.hku.hk




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First use of the term “discourse”                                                  What is “discourse”?

 • Zelling Harris. (1952).                                                            Discourse is:
 Discourse Analysis.
                                                                                      language above the sentence or above the clause
 Language 28:1. 1 - 30
                                                                                      a continuous stretch of spoken language larger than a
                                                                                      sentence, often constituting a coherent unit

 “Discourse” has become                                                               a stretch of language perceived to be meaningful unified,
 one of the critical key                                                              and purposive; language in use
 concepts in the vocabulary
 of humanities and social                                                             (viewed) as social practice determined by social structures
 sciences

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What is “discourse”?                                                               Examples of discourse
                                                                                      Language above the sentence or above the clause:
      2 approaches to understanding
                discourse                                                             One day her mother said to her, "Come, Little Red Cap, take
                                                                                      this piece of cake and bottle of wine and bring them to your
                                                                                      grandmother. She's sick and weak, and this will strengthen
                                                                                      her. Get an early start, before it becomes hot, and when
                                                                                      you're out in the woods, be nice and good and don't stray
 “narrow”                                                                             from the path, otherwise you'll fall and break the glass, and
                                                       “wide”
 Discourse as
                                                                                      your grandmother will get nothing. And when you enter her
                                                       Discourse as a social          room, don't forget to say good morning, and don't go peeping
 opposite to text:                                                                    in all the corners.“ (Little Red Riding Hood. By J. and W.
                                                       practice
 Written, spoken,                                                                     Grimm).
 mediated discourse
 (e.g. Internet), visual                                                           (written discourse)
 discourse


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                                                                                                                                                        1
                                                                 Examples of discourse
Examples of discourse
                                                                     Written, spoken, marginal?
  Discourse as a social practice:                                    hi all,
  Discourses of peace                                                first let me thx Line, or i would hv forgotten 2 do
                                                                     this…
  Discourses of food                                                 well, wot m i gonna say...? oh yea! there's gonna
                                                                     b a cultural            education programme
  Medical discourse, etc.                                            organised by members of Intensified Learning
                                                                     Opportunity Programme (ILOP) n da xchange
                                                                     Office fr feb 23 - 27.

                                                                     There're gonna b a greaaaaat deal going on
                                                                     during the week […]
                                                                     nite nite
                                                                     Toni
                   LING1003 Language, Thought and Culture   7                      LING1003 Language, Thought and Culture   8




Examples of discourse                                            Examples of discourse
Visual Discourse                                                  Mediated




                   LING1003 Language, Thought and Culture   9




Recent approach to DA                                            Three levels of DA
  Discourse is no longer studied for its own
  sake. Emphasis on the applications of                            Microanalysis: analysis of linguistic
  discourse analysis.                                              features of discourse
  Three levels of DA:                                              Meso level analysis: (Greek prefix mesos,
                                                                   middle): components of social events and
  Micro
                                                                   the rules of discourse production within a
  Meso                                                             particular institution.
  Macro                                                            Macro analysis focuses on social
                                                                   conditions (constraints) of production of
                                                                   discourse and on social implications of DA.

                   LING1003 Language, Thought and Culture   11                     LING1003 Language, Thought and Culture   12




                                                                                                                                 2
                                                             State symbol               New reality
Examples of applications of DA
                                                                                                      Religious
 Various social problems;                                                                             values
                                                                                                                       New economic
                                                                                                                       conditions
 Law: the study of how to ask questions in
 court, example from the last lesson: When
 did you last see the murdered woman?
 Medicine and Therapy: the study of
 communication problems in medical setting;
 the study of how treatment decisions are
 negotiated in doctor-patient communication;
 Business and Workplace: Advertising
 (example of Russian billboards);

              LING1003 Language, Thought and Culture   13




Examples of applications of DA                              Conducting a microanalysis

 Issues of gender, race and culture                           “Discourse Analysis” by Gillian Brown
 (“Prohibition of mixed marriages”)                           and George Yule (1983): micro
 Education: the study of teacher talk,                        analysis.
 black English in the classroom; etc.                         Topics considered include: context
                                                              and co-text, discourse topic,
                                                              discourse structure, information
                                                              structure, reference, coherence,
                                                              cohesion.

              LING1003 Language, Thought and Culture   15                     LING1003 Language, Thought and Culture         16




                                                            Cohesion
                                                            Example A
                                                              One day her mother said to her, "Come, Little Red
                                                              Cap, take this piece of cake and bottle of wine and
                                                              bring them to your grandmother. She's sick and
                                                              weak, and this will strengthen her. Get an early
                                                              start […]

                                                            Example B
                                                              And this will strengthen her. Take this piece of
                                                              cake. One day her mother said to her. She's sick.


              LING1003 Language, Thought and Culture   17                     LING1003 Language, Thought and Culture         18




                                                                                                                                      3
Cohesion                                                       Cohesion
  Both examples A and B - a number of simple                     Cohesion distinguishes a text from
  sentences;
                                                                 something, which is not a text.
  BUT we can intuitively interpret only example A as
  a text;                                                        Two ways to establish cohesion in a text:
  Example B was compiled by me by randomly                       Grammatical: cohesive effect is achieved
  picking up lines from “Little Red Riding Hood”.
                                                                 by the usage of grammatical means: e.g.
  Example A can be described in terms of cohesion.
                                                                 sequence of tenses;
  Cohesion is a type of relationship within a text
  when one element of discourse depends on                       Lexical cohesion: the cohesive effect,
  another.                                                       achieved by the selection of vocabulary.


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Interesting examples of cohesion                               Interesting examples of cohesion

Woman talk, Helen Kidds                                        Jabberwocky, L. Carrol
as a dance mightso the speaking or as                          ‘Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
circling   to and fro you     maybe me                         Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
                              a movement                       All mimsy were the borogoves,
an about around                                                And the mome raths outgrabe.
heel light football    toe light taps it                       He took his vorpal sword in hand:
is womantalk     and wonderthrough                             Long time the manxome foe he sought –
                       laughter and friends                    So rested he by the Tumtum tree,
the choreographies                                             And stood awhile in thought.
                 LING1003 Language, Thought and Culture   21                 LING1003 Language, Thought and Culture   22




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