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					A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE POTENTIAL BIODEGRADING ABILITY
    OF Xylaria sp. ON NATURAL RUBBER, CHICKEN FEATHER, AND
   POLYSTYRENE THROUGH SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY




                    Janine Erica Padilla Dayao
                  Mary Bernadette Vallesfin Egloso




                           Submitted to the
                       Department of Biology
                    College of Arts and Sciences
                 University of the Philippines Manila
                  Padre Faura St., Ermita, Manila




               In partial fulfillment of the requirements
                            For the degree of
                    Bachelor of Science in Biology
                               March 2009
                                                   A Preliminary Study on the Potential……..ii
                                                                      Dayao and Egloso, 2009



                               Department of Biology
                            College of Arts and Sciences
                         University of the Philippines Manila
                          Padre Faura St., Ermita, Manila

                                 Announcement of
                          Undergraduate Thesis Presentation


                      JANINE ERICA PADILLA DAYAO
                   MARY BERNADETTE VALLESFIN EGLOSO

                                       Entitled


 A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE POTENTIAL BIODEGRADING ABILITY OF
 Xylaria sp. ON NATURAL RUBBER, CHICKEN FEATHER, AND POLYSTYRENE
             THROUGH SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM)

                                  For the degree of
                            Bachelor of Science in Biology

                          10:00 – 11:00AM, 13 March 2009
                            Room 11-C, Rizal Hall (RH)
                                  CAS, U.P. Manila


       THESIS ADVISER                                      THESIS ADVISER
    Anna Theresa A. Santiago, M.P.H.                     Mary Ann T. Tavanlar, Ph.D.
          Assistant Professor                            BIOTECH, U.P. Los Baños
         Department of Biology
             U.P. Manila


        THESIS READER                                         THESIS READER
      Kimberly S. Beltran, M.S.                                Jay T. Dalet, M.S.
           Instructor                                         Assistant Professor


Endorsed by:                                               Authorized by:


Samuel M. Go, M.S.P.H.                                     Marilen M. Parungao, M.Sc.
Chair                                                      Chair
Thesis Committee                                           Department of Biology
CAS, U.P. Manila                                           CAS, U.P. Manila
                                                     A Preliminary Study on the Potential……..iii
                                                                         Dayao and Egloso, 2009

                                 Department of Biology
                              College of Arts and Sciences
                           University of the Philippines Manila
                            Padre Faura St., Ermita, Manila




                                   ENDORSEMENT




       The thesis attached hereto, entitled “A Preliminary Study on the Potential
Biodegrading Ability of Xylaria sp. on Natural Rubber, Chicken Feather, and Polystyrene
Through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)” prepared and submitted by Janine
Erica Padilla Dayao and Mary Bernadette Vallesfin Egloso, in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Biology was successfully
defended on March 2009.




ANNA THERESA A. SANTIAGO, M.P.H.                     MARY ANN T. TAVANLAR, Ph.D.
         Thesis Adviser                                     Thesis Adviser




   KIMBERLY S. BELTRAN, M.S.                                   JAY T. DALET, M.S.
        Thesis Reader                                              Thesis Reader



       This undergraduate thesis is hereby officially accepted as partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Biology.




MARILEN M. PARUNGAO, M.Sc.                           REYNALDO H. IMPERIAL, Ph.D.
Chair                                                 Dean
Department of Biology                                 College of Arts and Sciences
                                                 A Preliminary Study on the Potential……..iv
                                                                    Dayao and Egloso, 2009

                            BIOGRAPHICAL DATA


Name:               Mary Bernadette V. Egloso

Nickname:           Addie, Madette

Birthday:           June 20, 1988

Address:            135 Phase 4 Block 5 Lot 18, Our Lady of Lourdes Avenue., V&G
                    Subdivision, Tacloban City, Leyte

Telephone Number: (053) 327 – 3714

Mobile Number:      09153831788

E-mail Address:     adelaide17madette@yahoo.com

Parents:            Efren P. Egloso
                    Salve V. Egloso

Sibling:            Mary Jeane V. Egloso


Educational Background:
   Level                    School               Years Attended           Recognition
 Pre-School      United Church Family Life        1993 – 1996            Honor Student
               Program Pre-Elementary School
  Primary          Sto. Niño SPED Center            1996 – 2001           Salutatorian
   School
 Secondary     Philippine Science High School       2001 – 2005             Graduate
   School         – Eastern Visayas Campus
  College        University of the Philippines      2005 – 2009         Good Standing
                            Manila


Organizations/Affiliations:
      Member, UP Manila Chorale
      Member, Youth for Christ, UP Manila Chapter
      Member, UP Biological Sciences Society
      Member, UP Manila Quod Erat Demonstrandum
      Member, Biology Majors Association
                                                  A Preliminary Study on the Potential……..v
                                                                     Dayao and Egloso, 2009

                                BIOGRAPHICAL DATA


Name:                Janine Erica P. Dayao

Nickname:            Jana, Ja

Birthday:            October 4, 1988

Address:             1363 Dahlia St., Nichols Pasay City

Mobile Number:       09273943180

E-mail Address:      jana_erica99@yahoo.com

Parents:             Emeverto H. Dayao
                     Eva P. Dayao

Sibling:             Zoila Celestine P. Dayao
                     Kathleen Abegail P. Dayao
                     John Severino P. Dayao


Educational Background:
         Level               School           Years Attended          Recognition
       Pre-School        Kinder Capers         1993 – 1996           Gold Awardee
                      Preparatory School
    Primary School      St. Scholatica’s         1996 – 1999        Merit Awardee
                            College
                       Fatima College of         1999-2001             Class
                           Camiguin                                 Valedictorian
   Secondary School    Fatima College of         2001 – 2005           Class
                           Camiguin                                 Valedictorian
        College         University of the        2005 – 2009        Good Standing
                      Philippines-Manila


Organizations/Affiliations:

        Member, UP Biological Sciences Society
        Member, UP Manila Quod Erat Demonstrandum
        Member, Biology Majors Association
                              A Preliminary Study on the Potential……..vi
                                                 Dayao and Egloso, 2009

                 TABLE OF CONTENTS



TITLE PAGE…………….…………………………...……………...……………………i

BIOGRAPHICAL DATA……………………………………………..………………….ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………..……….………………….iv

LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………..………………………...……v

LIST OF TABLES…………………………………….…………………………….…...vii

LIST OF APPENDICES………………………………………………………………..viii

ABSTRACT……………………….……………………………………………………..ix

INTRODUCTION………………….………………….……………………………….....1

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE…………………………..…………………….9

MATERIALS AND METHODS……………………………………………………......39

RESULTS……………………………………………………………………………..…43

DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………………………64

CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………..78

RECOMMNEDATIONS………………………………………...………………………79

LITERATURE CITED…………………………………………………...……………...81

APPENDIX……………………………………………..…………………………….....87
                                             A Preliminary Study on the Potential……..vii
                                                                 Dayao and Egloso, 2009

                             LIST OF FIGURES



FIGURE                                                                         PAGE

 1. Scheme for Polymer Biodegradation……………………………………..………..10

 2. Natural rubber is a polymer called polyisoprene………………….…...………......23

 3. Gallus sp. is the source of feathers for the current study…………..…..…………..25

 4. Polystyrene………..………………………………………………………………..30

 5. Growth of Xylaria sp. in mineral medium with 0.5% glucose and natural
    rubber…………………………………………………………………………...….44

 6. SEM of the non-inoculated natural rubber control without the
    fungus……………………………………………………………….…………..….45

 7. SEM of natural rubber surface colonized by the SDM or wild type strain
     after 50 days of incubation…………….…………………………………………45

 8. SEM of natural rubber surface colonized by the PNL 114 mutant strain
     after 50 days of incubation……….………………………………………………46

 9. SEM of natural rubber surface colonized by the PNL 116 mutant strain
     after 50 days of incubation………….……………………………………………46

 10. SEM of natural rubber surface colonized by the PNL 118 mutant strain
      after 50 days of incubation………………………………….……………………47

 11. SEM of natural rubber surface colonized by the E26 mutant strain
      after 50 days of incubation…………………………….…………………………47

 12. SEM of natural rubber surface colonized by the E35 mutant strain
      after 50 days of incubation……………………….………………………………48

 13. Growth of Xylaria sp. in mineral medium with 0.5% glucose and chicken
     feather…………………………………………………………………………...…51

 14. SEM of non-inoculated chicken feather control without the fungus……………...52

 15. SEM of chicken feather colonized by the SDM wild type strain
      after 50 days of incubation……….………………………………………………52
                                              A Preliminary Study on the Potential……..viii
                                                                   Dayao and Egloso, 2009

16. SEM of chicken feather colonized by the PNL 114 mutant strain
     after 50 days of incubation………………………………………….……………53

17. SEM of chicken feather colonized by the PNL 116 mutant strain
     after 50 days of incubation………………….……………………………………53

18. SEM of chicken feather colonized by the PNL 118 mutant strain
     after 50 days of incubation………………………………….……………………54

19. SEM of chicken feather colonized by the E26 mutant strain
     after 50 days of incubation………………………...……….…………………….54

20. SEM of chicken feather colonized by the E35 mutant strain
     after 50 days of incubation……………………………………………………….55

21. Growth of Xylaria sp. in mineral medium with 0.5% glucose and polystyrene…...57

22. SEM of non-inoculated control sample……...……………….……………………58

23. SEM of polystyrene surface colonized by the SDM wild type strain
     after 50 days of incubation………………………………….……………………58

24. SEM of polystyrene surface colonized by the PNL 114 mutant strain
     after 50 days of incubation…………………………………….…………………59

25. SEM of polystyrene surface colonized by the PNL 116 mutant strain
     after 50 days of incubation………………………………….……………………59

26. SEM of polystyrene surface colonized by the PNL 118 mutant strain
     after 50 days of incubation………………………………….……………………60

27. SEM of polystyrene surface colonized by the E26 mutant strain
     after 50 days of incubation………………………………….……………………60

28. SEM of polystyrene surface colonized by the E35 mutant strain
     after 50 days of incubation………………………………….……………………61
                                           A Preliminary Study on the Potential……..ix
                                                              Dayao and Egloso, 2009

                            LIST OF TABLES



TABLE                                                                       PAGE

 1. Comparative growth of the PNL mutants and wildtype SDM on MMG
            and mineral medium with various supplements. ………...………….…19

 2. Growth of the four albino mutants on mineral medium with and without
            supplements as compared to the wildtype SDM………………...….…...20

 3. Growth of the two black mutants on mineral medium with supplements
            MDPE and PEG………………………………………………..…….…..20

 4. Table of the Macroscopic/Physical and Microscopic Observations
              of the Xylaria sp. Mutant Strains and Wild Type on Colonized
              Natural Rubber after 50 days of Incubation……….…………….………50

 5. Table of the Macroscopic/Physical and Microscopic Observations
              of the Xylaria sp. Mutant Strains and Wild Type on Colonized
              Chicken Feather after 50 days of Incubation………….………….……...56

 6. Table of the Macroscopic/Physical and Microscopic Observations
              of the Xylaria sp. Mutant Strains and Wild Type on Colonized
              Polystyrene after 50 days of Incubation………………………….……....63
                                                 A Preliminary Study on the Potential……..x
                                                                    Dayao and Egloso, 2009



                            LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX                                                                         PAGE

  A. Mineral Medium Formula……………………………….……………………….87

  B. Weight Loss/ Gain Measurements of the Set-ups……………………….…….....88

  C. Natural Rubber SEM plates on Various Magnifications…………...….………...90

  D. Polystyrene SEM plates on Various Magnifications……………........................91

  E. Chicken Feather SEM plates on Various Magnifications……………....………..92
                                                    A Preliminary Study on the Potential……..xi
                                                                       Dayao and Egloso, 2009




                                      ABSTRACT


        The potential biodegrading ability of the Xylaria sp. strains on three pollutants,
namely, natural rubber, chicken feather and polystyrene were determined in terms of
colonization. The fungal strains namely the wild type, SDM (sterile dark mycelia) and the
five mutant strains (PNL 114, PNL 116, PNL 118, E26 and E35) were cultured in a pH
5.0 mineral medium with 0.5% glucose as carbon source, while the 3 pollutant substrates
as co-carbon source, and stored at 250C. The initial weights of the pollutants were
measured before inoculation. After 50 days of incubation, the pollutants were removed
from the medium and weights were again measured to determine percent weight loss, a
method that would measure utilization of the pollutant samples. But instead of constant
weight loss, weight gains resulted, which could be attributed to the adherence and
penetration of mycelia of the Xylaria sp. strains in the three pollutant substrates.
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed colonization of Xylaria sp. strain on
natural rubber, chicken feather and polystyrene. Generally, the black strains, namely the
SDM wild type, E26 and E35, have been observed to possess a higher potential to
biodegrade natural rubber, chicken feather and polystyrene than the albino mutants PNL
114, 116 and 118. Among the black variant strains, E26 has shown the greatest
biodegrading potential for natural rubber, nonetheless the albino mutants also showed
potential to biodegrade this substrate. Polystyrene was effectively colonized by the three
black strains SDM wild type, E26 and E35, nonetheless the albino mutants also showed
potential ability to biodegrade this substrate. Chicken feathers were colonized by the
SDM and E35 but may require a longer incubation period for degradation.

				
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