VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 9 POSTED ON: 2/28/2010
Things to Know and Be Able to Do. Always know vocabulary definitions from reading list. Supplement 1-5 and pages 14-25 and pages 24-27: Be able to 1. Classify a sample as solid, liquid or gas based upon macroscopic properties. 2. Use circles for atoms (nb: not one circle = a molecule!) to represent samples that are solids, liquids and gases. Know that some sort of attraction holds molecules of a compound together in a solid compared to the molecules of a gas. 3. Discuss the size of a atom 4. Classify a sample as an element, compound or mixture based upon macroscopic properties. 5. Use circles for atoms (nb: not one circle = a molecule!) to represent samples that are elements, compounds or mixtures of a given number of elements and compounds. 6. Be able to draw example pictures, using circles for atoms, that represent: (a) solids or liquids or gases and (b) elements, compounds or mixtures of a given number of elements and compounds. 7. Use circles for atoms and draw pictures that represent what happens when: a solid melts, a liquid evaporates, a mixture is separated into its components, a compound is decomposed, a compound within a mixture is decomposed. 8. Tell what is between the submicroscopic particles of a gas (trick question!) 9. Explain the difference between a sample classified as an element and a sample that contains an element but is not classified as an element. 10. Explain the difference between an element that is in a pure sample or an element that is in a mixture and an element that is in a compound. 11. Classify a sample as homogeneous or heterogeneous; be able to explain why ―homogeneous‖ can apply to elements, to compounds and to mixtures. 12. Explain two differences between a molecule and a compound (hint: size and composition) 13. Explain two differences between an atom and an element. 14. Explain/give examples of three ways to repesent a chemical: macroscopic, symbolic, molecular. (hint: see figure 1.12) 15. Explain the difference between a chemical and physical change and be able to use circles for atoms to represent what happens during a chemical change and during a physical change. 16. Tell an item that has a mass of about a gram, an item that has a lenth of about a centimeter and an item that has a volume of about a milliliter. Supplement 0 and 8, pages 36-39: 1. Be able to list steps of the scientific method, discuss control of variables, explain the difference between the following terms: a scientific theory and a hypothesis, an observation and a hypothesis, a prediction and a hypothesis, a scientific theory and a scientific law, an observation and a scientific law. 2. Given several data sets, be able to rank them in order of precision; given the correct/accepted answer as well as the data sets, be able to rank them in order of accuracy. 3. Be able to express regular decimal notation numbers as scientific notation and vise versa. Be able to put scientific notation numbers in your calculator properly. 4. Be able to tell how many significant figures are in a number. Pages 39-44, Supplement 7 Be able to 1. Round numbers to a given number of significant figures 2. Express the results of calculations to the correct number of significant figures. 3. Work problems using the factor label (dimensional analysis) method, showing all work including unit cancellations. 4. Calculate one of the following from the other two: density, mass, volume. 5. Interconvert metric units that involve no prefix or have the prefixes listed in the reading list vocabulary. 6. Tell and explain whether two numbers can be written as a ratio or not. Supplement 9, pages 14-25 (2nd time) 1. Use length conversion factors to generate area and volume conversion factors. 2. Work problems using the factor label (dimensional analysis) method, showing all work including unit cancellations. Pages 58-70, Supplement 10 Be able to 1. Determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in a atom or ion from its isotopic symbol or name and vise versa. 2. Tell roughly how much more neutrons and protons weigh compared to electrons 3. Explain how a mass number is different than an atomic mass on the periodic table 4. Explain why atoms are mostly empty space 5. Explain what was done in the gold foil experiment and explain how the results imply that most of the mass of an atom is in a volume much smaller than the volume of an atom. Pages 71-76, 85-95, Supplement 13 Be able to 1. Locate the following on the periodic table: metals, nonmetals, metalloids, main-group elements, transitin metals, alkali metals, halogens, noble gases. 2. Tell which elements are diatomic 3. Predict the charge on ions formed from group 1, 2, 15, 16, 17, Al, Cd and Zn. Know that noble gases do not normally form ions and that most of the transition metals can form ions of various charges depending on the reaction conditions. 4. Tell how ionic and molecular compounds are different in terms of the ability of their aqueous solutions to conduct electricity, the sizesof their melting points, their ability to conduct electricity when melted and how hard/soft/brittle they are. 5. Use the theory of the structure of ionic compounds and of molecular compounds to explain these properties. 6. predict whether a given compound is ionic or molecular (based on the type of elements in it) 7. Name ions from their formulas and vise versa; this includes the polyatomic ions in Supplement 13 (both on the table and those modified by rules given in this supplement). Supplement 14, page 103 1. Be able to name ionic compounds if given their formulas and be able to write their formulas from their names. 2. Be able to explain what an –ic ending on a metal ion name means vs an –ous ending in the old style of naming metal ions discussed on page 103. You do NOT have to be able to use this system to name from formulas, but you should be aware of the meaning of the suffix. Pages 125-133 Be able to 1. Explain what a mole is 2. Calculate molar masses and put correct units on them 3. Interconvert mass and moles for elements and compounds 4. Interconvert moles and number of submicroscopic particles for an element or compound 5. Interconvert moles of a compound and moles of an element within the compound. 6. Do problems that combine more than one of the above. Pages 123-125, bottom of p. 141-mid p. 145 Be able to: 1. Find one of the following from the other two: mass of sample, mass of element, percent of element in sample. The sample could be a a mixture (including a solution) or a compound. 2. Calculate percent composition of a compound if given its formula or name. 3. Explain the difference between a dilute and a concentrated solution. Pages 107-110, Supplement 17 1. Know that if a polyatomic ion (such as those in supplement 13, other than hydroxide) has enough H+ added to it to become electrically neutral, that this is an acid. 2. Know that ionic compounds containing hydroxide are bases. Be able to 3. Write a reaction equation for what happens if a strong acid is put into water; be able to represent this using circles for atoms 4. Write a reaction equation for what happens if a weak acid is put into water; be able to represent this using circles for atoms 5. Write a reaction equation for what happens if a soluble ionic compound is put into water; be able to represent this using circles for atoms; particularly note how compounds with monoatomic ions behave compared to compounds with polyatomic ions 6. Name an acid if given its formula and vise versa 7. Name a binary molecular compound if given its formula and vise versa (know the prefixes mid p. 145-151; 159-162 Be able to 1. Calculate any one of the following from the other two: molarity, volume of solution, moles of solute 2. Calculate molarity of ions in a solution of an ionic compound from the molarity of the compound. 3. Calculate any one of the following from the other two: volume of concentrated solution, volume of diluted solution, molarity of concentrated solution, molarity of diluted solution. 4. List the types of evidence of a chemical reaction and use them to tell if a chemical reaction has occurred if you are given a description of a process done in lab. Pages 163-169, 173-174, 181-187, 543-544 Be able to 1. Balance a chemical reaction equation 2. Use circles for atoms to represent the same thing that a balanced reaction equation tells us about what occurs at an atomic level. 3. Use a given chemical reaction equation and classify the reaction as decomposition, precipitation, acid-base, oxidation-reduction, combustion. 4. Know that a combustion reaction is an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction and that burning anything that has carbon in it produces carbon dioxide provided there is a reasonable supply of oxygen. Know as well that corrosion of metal is a redox reaction. 5. Identify what is oxidized and what is reduced from the chemical reaction equation of a redox reaction. Pages 187-189, 201-205 1. Be able to use the solubility rules (which you would be given on an exam) to predict if an inorganic substance is soluble or insoluble and to predict whether a precipitate will form when two solutions are mixed. 2. Be able to write net ionic equations for precipitation and acid-base reactions. Be able to identify the spectator ions for these reactions. (Note: we will do net ionic of acid-base in lecture, it is not in the book here). 3. Be able to explain why coefficients can represent mole ratios or number of molecule ratios. 4. Given the number of moles of a reactant/product, be able to calculate the number of moles of any other reactant or product involved in the chemical reaction by using the balanced chemical reaction equation. Pages 206-217 1. Given the grams or moles of any reactant or product, be able to calculate the grams or moles of any other reactant or product (using the balanced chemical reaction equation) 2. Given the number of moles/molecules of several reactants, be able to identify which is the limiting reactant and which is the excess reactant. Pages 438-444 1. Be able to explain how a titration is done and what is occuring before and at the endpoint. Be able to explain how an acid-base indicator works. 2. Be able to calculate any one of the following from the others (in the context of a titration): volume of titrant, volume of other solution, molarity of titrant, molarity of other solution. Pages 221-229 1. Know the law of conservation of energy 2. Be able to explain what the efficiency of an energy conversion means and know that all conversions are less than 100% efficient. 3. Be able to draw the reaction profiles (such as Figure 6.15) for endothermic and exothermic reactions. Know that these may sometimes also be drawn with a ―hump‖ in the middle (for reasons that won’t be discussed until we do kinetics). Be able to explain whether heat is being converted to stored chemical energy or vise versa for endothermic and exothermic reactions. 4. Be able to explain the difference between a calorie and a Calorie. 5. Know that a Joule is about ¼ of a calorie. 6. Be able to calculate any one of the following from the others: specific heat, mass, change in temperature, amount of energy change. 7. Know that the specific heat of water is high compared to that of most substances and how that affects its use as a coolant. Pages 245-254, Supplement 12 1. Know that white light (such as sunlight) is composed of light of all colors. 2. Be able to explain the wave behavior of electromagnetic radiation (EMR); this should include wavelength, frequency and velocity of the EMR. 3. Be able to explain what a photon is. Know that different colors of light have different energies and that the energy per photon of infrared EMR is less than that of visible light which is less than that of ultraviolet (UV) light. 4. Be able to explain why the atoms that are heated or in a sample that have an electrical current run through it give off a colored light—where does the energy for the light come from? why is it colored instead of white? Also be able to explain why atoms of different elements give off light of different colors. To do this goal, you should use the Bohr model of the atom. 5. Be able to explain what the term quantized means and why the quantization of electron energies does not match what we think we see for the energies of objects we can see with our eyes. Pages 287-297 1. Be able to explain the difference between ionic and covalent bonding. 2. From a given formula, be able to choose whether a compound has ionic bonding only, covalent bonding only or both. 3. Be able to explain the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds. 4. Be able to rank atoms from the main group elements in terms of their electronegativity based on their position on the periodic table (this does not mean using the electronegativity numbers!) 5. Be able to classify bonds as polar or nonpolar based on the positions of the symbols of the atoms involved. Be able to rank bonds in terms of how polar they are. 6. Be able to draw Lewis symbols of main group atoms and be able to use these to illustrate the formation of ionic bonds. 7. Be able to discuss how the structures of ionic and molecular compounds are different and why we only use the lowest whole number subscripts in ionic compound formulas. Pages 297-307 1. Be able to draw Lewis structures of molecules. 2. Know which atoms normally have 4 pairs of valence electrons when in molecules and which has 1 pair. 3. Know the typical bonding patterns of H, C, N, O, and halogens. (will be discussed in class) 4. Know when it is appropriate to draw resonance structures as the Lewis structure of a molecule. Know that the real molecule is an average of these resonance structures and does not switch back and forth between them. 5. Know that there are some molecules that are exceptions to the four pair (―octet‖) rule. Pages 310-319 1. Be able to use the Lewis structure of a molecule or ion to predict the geometry of the electron groups around the central atom; be able to appropriately show this geometry in 3 dimensions. 2. Know that the term ―molecular shape‖ may mean something different than the shape of the electrons around a central atom if there are lone pairs on the central atom. 3. Be able to classify molecules as polar or nonpolar. 4. Be able to discuss two examples of when the shape of a molecule is important. Pages 373-382, 388-395 1. Know the difference between a phase and a state of matter. 2. Be able to use circles for atoms and draw pictures that represent what substances look like before and after the various phase changes discussed in these pages. 3. Know which phase changes absorb heat and which ones release heat. 4. Be able to explain what is meant by wind chill factor (from a molecular/phase change viewpoint). Know whether inanimate objects experience a wind chill factor. 5. Be able to discuss what is meant by dynamic equilibrium between liquid and gas phases and between solid and liquid phases and between gas and solid phases. 6. Be able to explain the difference between evaporation and boiling. 7. Be able to explain how the boiling point temperature and pressure are related and how this affects cooking rates at high altitudes or with pressure cookers. 8. Be able to explain how spraying water on citrus crops can keep them from freezing (NOT insulation alone!) 9. Be able to discuss what phase changes occur during the following processes: frost formation, rain formation, ―disappearance‖ of snow when temperatures do not go above the melting point of water, ―disappearance‖ of ice cubes after a time in a freezer. 10. Be able to identify the type of intermolecular attractions present between any two given molecules (which might be the same type of molecule or different types). 11. Be able to rank intermolecular attractions in terms of typical strengths, assuming similar sized molecules. Pages 397-400, 417-428 1. Be able to explain why solid water is less dense than liquid water and why this is important in keeping deep bodies of water from freezing solid. 2. Be able to explain how intermolecular attractions affect the following: viscosity, surface tension, solubility, capillary action. Know how surface tension is important in liquid spreading or droplet formation and how surfactants affect this. 3. Be able to draw pictures, using circles for atoms, and illustrate the presence of intermolecular attractions between given molecules. 4. Be able to use circles for atoms/monoatomic ions and illustrate what is present in solutions of ionic compounds and in solutions of molecular compounds. Pages 428-433, 434-mid436 (skipping % by volume) 1. Be able to discuss the difference between the following terms (a) concentrated and saturated and (b) dilute and unsaturated 2. Know that the solubility of solids in liquids generally increases with temperature increases while that of gases in liquids decreases as temperature increases; know how this applies to the availability of oxygen in water and why soft drinks go ―flat‖ when warm. 3. Know that the solubility of a gas in a liquid increases as the pressure of that type of gas on the liquid surface is increased and how this applies to bottling soft drinks and to the use of oxygen masks with people who have respiratory problems. 4. Be able to calculate any one of the following from the others: amount of solute, amount of solution, concentration in %, ppm or ppb. 5. Be able to do calculations involving the dilution of solutions. Pages 444-mid 446; 501-516 1. Be able to discuss what is occurring at a molecular level during osmosis and reverse osmosis. 2. Be able to write chemical reaction equations for what occurs when the following are placed in wter: strong acids, weak acids, strong bases, weak bases. Be able to represent what is occurring at a molecular level in these cases, using circles for atoms/monoatomic ions. 3. If given the formula of a base, be able to give the formula of its conjugate acid and vise versa. 4. Know how the size of the acid ionization constant, Ka, tells us about the strength of an acid. Pages 516-527 1. Know the numerical value of Kw and the temperature at which it applies. 2. Be able to calculate the hydronium molarity in an aqueous solution from its hydroxide molarity and vise versa. 3. Know how the molarities of the hydronium ion compare in acidic, basic and neutral solutions. Know the molarity of hydronium ion in neutral solutions. 4. Be able to calculate the molarity of hydronium and hydroxide ions in strong acid and strong base solutions. 5. Be able to calculate the pHs and pOHs of strong acid and strong base solutions from their molarities. Be able to calculate the molarities of hydronium and hydroxide ions from the pH. 6. Know by what multiple the hydronium ion concentration changes as the pH changes by 1 unit, by 2 units, by 3 units, etc. Know if it goes up or down. 7. Know what pH’s are considered acidic and which are basic. Pages 527-531 1. Be able to explain how a buffer works. 2. Be able to write the chemical reaction equation for what occurs when either of the following are added to a buffer: acid or base. (You would be given the buffer components). 3. Know that a buffer must contain a weak acid and a weak base. 4. Be able to explain how buffers are important in maintaining the pH of the blood and of surface waters. 5. Be able to explain what the term buffer capacity means. Pages 541-546, 574-575 1. Be able to identify redox reactions using (a) change in charge and (b) change in no. of oxygen and hydrogen atoms. 2. Given a redox reaction, be able to identify what is oxidized, what is reduced, what is the oxidizing agent and what is the reducing agent. Know all of these would be reactants, not products. 3. Be able to explain why galvanized iron does not rust and how cathodic protection works. Be able to explain why aluminum does not ―rust away‖ and iron does. Pages 459-472 1. Know how the following affect the rate of reaction: temperature, concentration of reactants, surface area (for solid reactants), catalysts. Be able to use molecular behavior to explain how the rates are affected. 2. Be able to explain how the size of the activation energy affects the rate of a reaction and what happens that causes there to even be an activation energy. 3. Be able to draw reaction profiles for catalyzed vs uncatalyzed reactions. 4. Be able to explain why the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions do not always increase as the temperature increases. Pages 473-475, 483-484 1. Be able to discuss what is occuring at a molecular level during a dynamic equilibrium of a chemical reaction. Be able to tell what the size of the equilibrium constant, K, tells us about how complete a reaction is. 2. Be able to tell what is meant by the term ―position of equilibrium‖. 3. Be able to tell how addition/removal of a reactant or product from a reaction mixture at equilibrium affects the concentrations of reactants and products present when equilibrium is re-established. 4. Be able to tell how increasing/decreaseing the temperature of a reaction mixture at equilibrium affects the concentrations of reactants and products present when equilibrium is re-established. 5. Know that adding a catalyst does not affect the amount of products formed. Pages 585-599 1. Be able to discuss the types of radioactivity and their penetrating ability (―ionization‖ ability). 2. Be able to finish writing a nuclear reaction equation for alpha decay and beta decay if all but one reactant or product is given. 3. Be able to describe how the ―Belt of Stability‖ graph (such as Figure 15.14) is used to determine if a particular isotope is stable or radioactive. 4. Be able to discuss what we mean by the term ―radioactive decay series‖. 5. Be able to tell three common ways people are exposed to radioactivity. Pages 599-603, 604-609 1. Be able to use a half-life to estimate how long it takes for a particular number of atoms to undergo radioactive decay. 2. Be able to describe the principle used in radioactive dating of objects. 3. Be able to describe the process that occurs during a PET scan and why positron emitters are used (instead of alpha or beta emitters). 4. Be able to describe how radioactive isotopes are used as tracers to investigate the function and/or structure of various organs. 5. Be able to discuss how exposure to high energy electromagnetic radiation or to radioactivity can change molecules and how this leads to harmful biological effects. This does not mean to memorize the list at the bottom of page 606. 6. Know why exposure to small amounts of radioactivity is not necessarily harmful and may even be beneficial. 7. Be able to explain why exposure to radon can be harmful, even it is an alpha emitter and usually exposure to alpha particles is no big concern. Pages 609-614 1. Know the difference between fusion and fission and which is used to generate electrical power now. 2. Be able to discuss the function of the following in a nuclear power plant: control rods, moderator. 3. Be able to explain why a nuclear power plant cannot undergo a nuclear explosion, but can undergo a normal chemical reaction explosion. 4. Be able to discuss why the nuclear waste disposal is such a problem.
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