SUMMARY & FINDINGS This study was of a unique nature, having no precedence of similarity and it was approached with the intention of framing some useful solutions to the identified problems, so that the state and the public are benefited out of it. Information Technology is the topic of this era and there existed no doubt that it should be implemented in all the government departments also, unless the whole system will become outdated and obsolete and the state will not be able to catch up with speed with which the centre and other states are moving ahead. But, the problem was that, in spite of spending large sums on it, the government had not bothered to have a feed back on whether the implementation has really succeeded in making qualitative and quantitative gain to the public and also to link the success of the implementation of the new technology with performance and efficiency of the departments. The summary, findings and recommendations of the study are given in brief, in the following sections. SUMMARY Along with other states and the central government, the Government of Kerala started its e-governance initiatives and are in full swing. As an integral part of the process, the government started implementing Information Technology, in all its departments. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the process of implementation of Information Technology in the departments of the Government of Kerala, so that the state government gets timely and comprehensive feed back on the implementation. Since, it was found not feasible to study different stages of implementation in all the 44 departments, the Treasury Department of Kerala was chosen by the researcher for a detailed study, so that the findings could be generalised and recommendations of the study could be made available to all the departments. Treasury Department is one department, which deals directly with the public and any small change in efficiency could be very easily noticed by the public. This was the reason for selecting this department for the detailed case study. The problem was approached from three view points, namely employees’, customers’ and the employer’s. Even in the absence of sufficient secondary data, being a totally different subject of study, desirable data could be gathered from observation, questionnaire surveys, time and motion Studies, process charts, decision analysis, Focus Group discussion, Key- Informant Interviews and by making use of effective statistical tools for data analysis. FINDINGS The findings of the study can be listed out as follows. 1. Even though, the employees expected that their workload will decrease after implementation of Information Technology, it increased in the initial months and then decreased after six months. This fact supports the concept of a stabilisation period, for any new system to settle down. It took four to six months for stabilisation in the treasury department. 2. In the case of working time also, it was found that it initially increased and then decreased, as expected by the employees, within a period of six months. This much time was found to be needed for any new process to get accustomed to the circumstances, before it gets in to the right track. 3. It was found in the study that the efficiency of the employees and hence the productivity suffered a set back in the initial months of implementation of Information Technology and it later recovered to a very high level. The initial set back was due to the confusions that prevailed under such circumstances of unprecedented changes. 4. It was observed that the job satisfaction level of the employees rose satisfactorily, after a period of six months of implementation of Information Technology. 5. It was established in the study that more customers could be served in the new system, thereby increasing the service efficiency. This result was also achieved after the setbacks in the initial months, which turned into a positive direction within a period of six months. 6. Almost all the employees were very much favourable towards computerised working environment and were satisfied with its performance. 7. Most of the employees were very much hesitant initially to approach the computer with positive feelings, before implementation. But, the things changed and all of them had only good words and positive feelings towards the computer, after a period of six months. 8. Employees were not given proper training before computerisation. 9. All the employees were in favour of computerisation and there was not even a sign of protest. 10. Proper care was not exercised to improve the working environment, like providing adequate space for office functioning, providing primary facilities, resting places etc and this had affected the office functioning adversely. 11. Proper care was not taken to make the data entry for master data creation free from errors, mistakes and omissions. 12. Computerisation in the treasury department was implemented with much haste and without adequate preparations or rehearsals. Necessary awareness was not created among the employees and their service organisations were not taken into confidence. 13. The hardware purchased had a lot of technical problems, frequent hangings, failures, faults, breakdowns etc. 14. Almost all the customers were in favour of the computerised system, after six months of its implementation. 15. The positive feelings of the customers towards computerised system had increased day by day and reached the maximum after six months. 16. There was an average savings of 3.17 hr per customer, in waiting time at treasuries. 17. The customers had delayed their arrival time to the treasuries considerably resulting in other savings of much productive time to the tune of 1.72 hours per customer. 18. The behaviour and approach of the employees towards customers underwent a welcome change after six months of implementation of the new technology, which was indicative of a much smoother working environment, reduced work load and increased job satisfaction of employees. 19. In a manual system, a customer had to wait at the treasury to get his things cleared, for at least three hours, even after the processing of his bill was completed. But, for the same case, in a computerised system, it took only 21.80 minutes. That much savings in productive time of customers were achieved in the computerised system. It is estimated that there is a monetary savings of Rs.25 lakhs/month in a sample unit treasury alone, due to the implementation of Information Technology. 20. On an analysis of the time study data, it was found beyond doubt that, the efficiency of the office was getting increased in a computerised s et up day- by-day and it almost stabilised after six months. 21. All the z-tests also suggested that the settling down of the newly introduced process, reached a stable and steady state during the period of 4-6 months. It attained normalcy and consistency during this period. 22. The improvement in the waiting time of customers and the improvement in the behaviour of employees and customers had been cross checked using the z-values and found that there was considerable improvement after six months of implementation, when compared to the pre-implementation situation. 23. An analysis of the implementation management showed that the unrealistic fixing of targets for completion of different stages of implementation resulted in so many postponement decisions. 24. The high level committee for the implementation set a good example for such activities in the future, with its committed and dedicated service. 25. Effective steps were taken by the committee to gather information from the grass root level and the junior level officers who were well versed with the activities and they were given the opportunity to be heard. 26. The government could not impart effective and adequate training for the employees concerned. 27. The budgetary accounting could be made more systematic and efficient through computerisation. 28. Budgetary control could be exercised in a better manner, in the computerised system. 29. The financial management of the government had become smoother, more transparent and efficient, since the government was now in a position to know the income and expenditure position at any time. 30. The computerisation helped to change the image of a conventional office, by providing dust free and feel good working environment to, at east a section of offices. 31. Some employees who were genuinely interested to work in the computerised environment and who had undergone training were not given posting there. Some employees who had not undergone training were posted in the computerised set up. Effective care was not given to rectify such mistakes. This hampered the efficiency of implementation of Information Technology initially. 32. The training was imparted to the employees by external consultants, who were totally unaware of the day-to-day functioning of the department and such training did not help much in functional training. 33. There were so many situations where hardware purchased were idled, due to reasons such as delay in procuring software, delay in site preparation, delay in creation of master data etc. 34. An analysis of the learning curve of the system implementation revealed a substantial improvement in efficiency in six months. The learning rate is found to be 98%.