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					                              SUMMARY & FINDINGS




This study was of a unique nature, having no precedence of similarity and it was

approached with the intention of framing some useful solutions to the identified

problems, so that the state and the public are benefited out of it. Information

Technology is the topic of this era and there existed no doubt that it should be

implemented in all the government departments also, unless the whole system

will become outdated and obsolete and the state will not be able to catch up with

speed with which the centre and other states are moving ahead. But, the problem

was that, in spite of spending large sums on it, the government had not bothered

to have a feed back on whether the implementation has really succeeded in

making qualitative and quantitative gain to the public and also to link the success

of the implementation of the new technology with performance and efficiency of

the departments. The summary, findings and recommendations of the study are

given in brief, in the following sections.


  SUMMARY


Along with other states and the central government, the Government of Kerala

started its e-governance initiatives and are in full swing. As an integral part of the

process, the government started implementing Information Technology, in all its

departments. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the process of

implementation of Information Technology in the departments of the Government
of Kerala, so that the state government gets timely and comprehensive feed back

on the implementation. Since, it was found not feasible to study different stages

of implementation in all the 44 departments, the Treasury Department of Kerala

was chosen by the researcher for a detailed study, so that the findings could be

generalised and recommendations of the study could be made available to all the

departments. Treasury Department is one department, which deals directly with

the public and any small change in efficiency could be very easily noticed by the

public. This was the reason for selecting this department for the detailed case

study.


The problem was approached from three view points, namely employees’,

customers’ and the employer’s. Even in the absence of sufficient secondary data,

being a totally different subject of study, desirable data could be gathered from

observation, questionnaire surveys, time and motion Studies, process charts,

decision analysis, Focus Group discussion, Key- Informant Interviews and by

making use of effective statistical tools for data analysis.
 FINDINGS


The findings of the study can be listed out as follows.


1.     Even though, the employees expected that their workload will decrease

       after implementation of Information Technology, it increased in the initial

       months and then decreased after six months. This fact supports the

       concept of a stabilisation period, for any new system to settle down. It took

       four to six months for stabilisation in the treasury department.


2.     In the case of working time also, it was found that it initially increased and

       then decreased, as expected by the employees, within a period of six

       months. This much time was found to be needed for any new process to

       get accustomed to the circumstances, before it gets in to the right track.


3.     It was found in the study that the efficiency of the employees and hence

       the productivity suffered a set back in the initial months of implementation

       of Information Technology and it later recovered to a very high level. The

       initial set back was due to the confusions that prevailed under such

       circumstances of unprecedented changes.


4.     It was observed that the job satisfaction level of the employees rose

       satisfactorily, after a period of six months of implementation of Information

       Technology.
5.    It was established in the study that more customers could be served in the

      new system, thereby increasing the service efficiency. This result was also

      achieved after the setbacks in the initial months, which turned into a

      positive direction within a period of six months.


6.    Almost   all   the   employees    were   very    much      favourable towards

      computerised     working   environment     and      were    satisfied   with   its

      performance.


7.    Most of the employees were very much hesitant initially to approach the

      computer with positive feelings, before implementation. But, the things

      changed and all of them had only good words and positive feelings

      towards the computer, after a period of six months.


8.    Employees were not given proper training before computerisation.


9.    All the employees were in favour of computerisation and there was not

      even a sign of protest.


10.   Proper care was not exercised to improve the working environment, like

      providing adequate space for office functioning, providing primary

      facilities, resting places etc and this had affected the office functioning

      adversely.


11.   Proper care was not taken to make the data entry for master data creation

      free from errors, mistakes and omissions.
12.   Computerisation in the treasury department was implemented with much

      haste and without adequate preparations or rehearsals. Necessary

      awareness was not created among the employees and their service

      organisations were not taken into confidence.


13.   The hardware purchased had a lot of technical problems, frequent

      hangings, failures, faults, breakdowns etc.


14.   Almost all the customers were in favour of the computerised system, after

      six months of its implementation.


15.   The positive feelings of the customers towards computerised system had

      increased day by day and reached the maximum after six months.


16.   There was an average savings of 3.17 hr per customer, in waiting time at

      treasuries.


17.   The customers had delayed their arrival time to the treasuries

      considerably resulting in other savings of much productive time to the tune

      of 1.72 hours per customer.


18.   The behaviour and approach of the employees towards customers

      underwent a welcome change after six months of implementation of the

      new technology, which was indicative of a much smoother working

      environment, reduced work load and increased job satisfaction of

      employees.
19.   In a manual system, a customer had to wait at the treasury to get his

      things cleared, for at least three hours, even after the processing of his bill

      was completed. But, for the same case, in a computerised system, it took

      only 21.80 minutes. That much savings in productive time of customers

      were achieved in the computerised system. It is estimated that there is a

      monetary savings of Rs.25 lakhs/month in a sample unit treasury alone,

      due to the implementation of Information Technology.


20.   On an analysis of the time study data, it was found beyond doubt that, the

      efficiency of the office was getting increased in a computerised s et up day-

      by-day and it almost stabilised after six months.


21.   All the z-tests also suggested that the settling down of the newly

      introduced process, reached a stable and steady state during the period of

      4-6 months. It attained normalcy and consistency during this period.


22.   The improvement in the waiting time of customers and the improvement in

      the behaviour of employees and customers had been cross checked using

      the z-values and found that there was considerable improvement after six

      months of implementation, when compared to the pre-implementation

      situation.


23.   An analysis of the implementation management showed that the

      unrealistic fixing of targets for completion of different stages of

      implementation resulted in so many postponement decisions.
24.   The high level committee for the implementation set a good example for

      such activities in the future, with its committed and dedicated service.


25.   Effective steps were taken by the committee to gather information from the

      grass root level and the junior level officers who were well versed with the

      activities and they were given the opportunity to be heard.


26.   The government could not impart effective and adequate training for the

      employees concerned.


27.   The budgetary accounting could be made more systematic and efficient

      through computerisation.


28.   Budgetary control could be exercised in a better manner, in the

      computerised system.


29.   The financial management of the government had become smoother,

      more transparent and efficient, since the government was now in a

      position to know the income and expenditure position at any time.


30.   The computerisation helped to change the image of a conventional office,

      by providing dust free and feel good working environment to, at east a

      section of offices.


31.   Some employees who were genuinely interested to work in the

      computerised environment and who had undergone training were not

      given posting there. Some employees who had not undergone training
      were posted in the computerised set up. Effective care was not given to

      rectify such mistakes. This hampered the efficiency of implementation of

      Information Technology initially.


32.   The training was imparted to the employees by external consultants, who

      were totally unaware of the day-to-day functioning of the department and

      such training did not help much in functional training.


33.   There were so many situations where hardware purchased were idled,

      due to reasons such as delay in procuring software, delay in site

      preparation, delay in creation of master data etc.


34.   An analysis of the learning curve of the system implementation revealed a

      substantial improvement in efficiency in six months. The learning rate is

      found to be 98%.

				
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