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					                     FIRST AID MEASURES AND ANTIDOTES RECOMMENDED
                                FOR REGISTERED PESTICIDES
ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

S.No       Name of the pesticide   Symptoms of poisoning      First aid measures                Treatment/antidote
  1.       Acephate                Mild     –   anorexia,     Remove the person from the        1.   Airway protection
  2.       Anilophos               headache, dizziness,       contaminated environment.         -    Ensure clear airway
  3.       Chlorfenvinphos         weakness,     anxiety,                                       -    Intubate the patient & aspirate the
  4.       Chlorpyriphos           tremors of tongue and      In case of (a) skin contact –          secretion
                                                                                                -    Administer oxygen by mechanically
  5.       Diazinon                eyelids,       miosis,     Remove all contaminated                assisted pulmonary ventilation, if
  6.       Diclorovos (DDVP)       impairment of visual       clothings and immediately              respiration is depressed.
  7.       Dimethoate              acuity.                    wash with lot of water and        -    Improve tissue oxygenation before
  8.       Edifenphos                                         soap; (b) Eye contamination            atropine to minimise risk of
  9.       Ethion                  Moderate – Nausea,         – Wash the eyes with plenty            ventricular fibrillation
  10.      Fenitrothion            salivation, lacrimation,   of cool and clean water; (c)      2. Atropine
  11.      Fenthion                abdominal        cramp,    Inhalation – Carry the person     Adult & Children above 12 yrs.:
  12.      Formothion              vomiting,      sweating,   to the open fresh air, loosen      2-4 mg repeated every 15 minutes until
  13.      Kitazin                 slow pulse, muscular       the clothings around neck         pulmonary secretion controlled and
                                                                                                atropinisation
  14.      Malathion               tremors, miosis.           and chest, and (d) Ingestion –    Children below 12 years:
  15.      Methyl Parathion                                   If the victim is fully            0.05 – 0.1 mg/kg, repeat every 15
  16.      Monocrotophos           Severe – Diarrhoea,        conscious, induce vomiting        minutes. Minimum dose 0.1 mg in
  17.      Oxydemeton-Methyl       pinpoint and non-          by tickling back of the throat.   children.     Maintain atropinisation by
  18.      Phenthoate              reactive        pupils,    Do not administer milk,           repeated dosing.
  19.      Phorate                 respiratory difficulty,    alcohol and fatty substances.     Severely poisoned exhibit remarkable
  20.      Phosalone               pulmonary       edema,     In case the person is             tolerance to atropine. Dose may be
  21.      Phosphamidon            cyanosis,    loss    of    unconscious make sure the         increased.     Dosing interval may be
  22.      Primiphos methyl        sphincter      control,    breathing passages is kept        increased. Continuous infusion may be
                                                                                                needed. Nebulised atropine has been
  23.      Profenophos             convulsions, coma and      clear without any obstruction.    reported beneficial in respiratory distress.
  24.      Propetamphos            heart block.               Victim’s head should be           3. Glycopyrolate
  25.      Quinalphos                                         turned to one side in the lying   Alternative to atropine. Ampules of 7.5
  26.      Temephos                                           down position. In case of         mg added to 200 ml of saline and
  27.      Thiometon                                          breathing difficulty, give        infused. This is very good in case of
  28.      Triazophos                                         mouth to mouth or mouth to        respiratory infection.
  29.      Trichlorofon                                       nose breathing.                   4. Pralixodime (2PAM)
                                                                                                To be used within 48 hour. Relieves
                                                              Medical aid: Take the patient     nicotinic as well as muscarinic effect.
                                                                                                Adult – 1.2 g i.v.infusion not more than
                                                              to the doctor/Primary Health      0.2 g/min. Children below 12 years – 20-
                                                              Centre immediately along          50 mg/kg b.w. i.v.mixed with 100 ml and
                                                              with the original container,      infused over 30 minutes
                                                              leaflet and label.                5. Seizure control
                                                                                                - Diazepam
                                                                                                Adult – 5-10 mg i.v. Repeat every 5-10
                                                                                                minutes, Maximum 30 m g.
                                                                                                Children – 0.2-0.5 mg/kg i.v. Repeat
                                                                                                every 5-10 minutes; Maximum 10 mg –
                                                                                                above 5 years
                                                                                                mg – below 5 years.
                                                                                                - Lorazepam
                                                                                                Adult: 2-4 mg i.v over 2-5 minutes.
                                                                                                Repeat if necessary. Maximum 8 mg – in
                                                                                                12 hours period.
                                                                                                Adolescent: Same as adult – Maximum –
                                                                                                4 mg.
                                                                                                Children under 12 years- 0.05 – 0.10
                                                                                                mg/kg i.v over 2-5 minutes. Repeat if
                                                                                                necessary 0.05 mg/kg 10-15 minutes after
                                                                                                dose. Max. 4 mg.
                                                                                                Contra-indicators
                                                                                                Morphine,          succinyl        choline,
                                                                                                theophyllline,       phenothiazines       &
                                                                                                reserpine.

14/08/03
ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES

S.No       Name of the pesticide   Symptoms of poisoning       First aid measures                  Treatment/antidote
  1.       Alachlor                Nausea,        vomiting,    Remove the person from the          - Gastric lavage with 2-4 L
  2.       Chlorbenzilate          restlessness,     tremor,   contaminated environment.               tap water – Catharsis with
  3.       Dichloro     Diphenyl   apprehension,                                                       30 gm (10 oz) sodium
           Trichloroethane         convulsions,        coma,   In case of (a) skin contact –           sulphate in one cup of
           (DDT)                   respiratory failure and     Remove       all   contaminated         water
  4.       Dicofol                 death                       clothings and immediately           - Barbiturates/Diazepam in
  5.       Endosulfan                                          wash with lot of water and              appropirate          dosages
  6.       Lindane                                             soap; (b) Eye contamination –           repeated as necessary for
                                                               Wash the eyes with plenty of            restlessness or convulsions.
                                                               cool and clean water; (c)           - Watch breathing closely,
                                                               Inhalation – Carry the person to        aspirate, oxygen and/or
                                                               the open fresh air, loosen the          artificial respiration, if
                                                               clothings around neck and               needed.
                                                               chest, and (d) Ingestion – If the   - Avoid oils, oil laxatives
                                                               victim is fully conscious,              and              epinephrine
                                                               induce vomiting by tickling             (Adnrenalin) Do not give
                                                               back of the throat. Do not              stimulants.
                                                               administer milk, alcohol and        - Give calcium gluconate
                                                               fatty substances. In case the           (10% in 10 ml. Ampules)
                                                               person is unconscious make              intra-venously every four
                                                               sure the breathing passage is           hours.
                                                               kept    clear    without     any
                                                               obstruction.     Victim’s head
                                                               should be turned to one side in
                                                               the lying down position. In
                                                               case of breathing difficulty,
                                                               give mouth to mouth or mouth
                                                               to nose breathing.

                                                               Medical aid: Take the patient to
                                                               the doctor/Primary Health
                                                               Centre immediately along with
                                                               the original container, leaflet
                                                               and label.

14/08/03
CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

S.No       Name of the pesticide   Symptoms of poisoning         First aid measures                  Treatment/antidote
  1.       Aldicarb                Constriction of pupils,       Remove the person from the          1. Airway protection
  2.       Benthiocarb             salivation,        profuse    contaminated environment.           - Ensure clear airway
  3.       Carbaryl                sweating,        lassitude,                                       - Intubate the patient &
  4.       Carbofuron              muscle incoordination,        In case of (a) skin contact –             aspirate the secretion
  5.       Carbosulfan             nausea,          vomiting,    Remove       all   contaminated     - Administer oxygen by
  6.       Fenubucarb (BPMC)       diarrhoea,       epigastric   clothings and immediately                 mechanically          assisted
  7.       Methomyl                pain, tightness in chest      wash with lot of water and                pulmonary ventilation, if
  8.       Propoxur                                              soap; (b) Eye contamination –             respiration is depressed.
  9.       Thiodicarb                                            Wash the eyes with plenty of        - Improve                      tissue
                                                                 cool and clean water; (c)                 oxygenation             before
                                                                 Inhalation – Carry the person to          atropine to minimise risk
                                                                 the open fresh air, loosen the            of ventricular fibrillation
                                                                 clothings around neck and           2. Atropine
                                                                 chest, and (d) Ingestion – If the   Adult & Children above 12
                                                                 victim is fully conscious,          yrs.:
                                                                 induce vomiting by tickling          2-4 mg repeated every 15
                                                                 back of the throat. Do not          minutes       until     pulmonary
                                                                 administer milk, alcohol and        secretion       controlled        and
                                                                 fatty substances. In case the       atropinisation
                                                                 person is unconscious make          Children below 12 years:
                                                                 sure the breathing passages is      0.05 – 0.1 mg/kg, repeat every
                                                                 kept    clear    without     any    15 minutes. Minimum dose 0.1
                                                                 obstruction.     Victim’s head      mg in children.           Maintain
                                                                 should be turned to one side in     atropinisation by repeated
                                                                 the lying down position. In         dosing.
                                                                 case of breathing difficulty,       Severely poisoned exhibit
                                                                 give mouth to mouth or mouth        remarkable        tolerance        to
                                                                 to nose breathing.                  atropine.        Dose may be
                                                                                                     increased. Dosing interval may
                                                                 Medical aid: Take the patient to    be      increased.     Continuous
                                                                 the doctor/Primary Health           infusion may be needed.
                                                                 Centre immediately along with       Nebulised atropine has been
                                                                 the original container, leaflet     reported         beneficial        in
                                                                 and label.                          respiratory distress.
                                                                                                     3. Glycopyrolate
                                                                                                     Alternative        to      atropine.
                                                                                                     Ampules of 7.5 mg added to
                                                                                                     200 ml of saline and infused.
                                                                                                     This is very good in case of
                                                                                                     respiratory infection.

                                                                                                     Avoid       theophyllin      and
                                                                                                     aminophyllin or barbiturates.
                                                                                                     2-PAM and other oximes are
                                                                                                     harmful and in fact contra
                                                                                                     indicated for routine usage.

                                                                                                     Do not give atropine to a
                                                                                                     cyanotic patient. Give artificial
                                                                                                     respiration first then administer
                                                                                                     atropine.
14/08/03
PYRETHROID PESTICIDES

S.No       Name        of    the   Symptoms of poisoning          First aid measures                  Treatment/antidote
           pesticide
  1.       Allethrin               Headache,       palpitation,   Remove the person from the          No      specific       antidote.
  2.       Alphacypermethrin       nausea, vomiting, flushed      contaminated environment.           Treatment     is     essentially
  3.       Beta-cyfluthrin         face, irritation of nose,                                          symptomatic.
  4.       Cypermethrin            throat, eyes and skin,         In case of (a) skin contact –
  5.       Cyphenothrin            allergic     manifestations    Remove       all   contaminated     Vit E oil       preparation   in
  6.       Decamethrin             etc.            Parasthesia,   clothings and immediately           parasthesia.
           (Deltamethrin)          sometimes bronchospasm.        wash with lot of water and
 7.        D-trans allethrin       In severe cases convulsion     soap; (b) Eye contamination –       -   Inhalation of water vapour
 8.        Fenvalerate             can occur                      Wash the eyes with plenty of            aerosol in case of irritation
 9.        Lamdacyhalothrin                                       cool and clean water; (c)               of upper respiratory tract.
 10.       Permethrin                                             Inhalation – Carry the person to
 11.       Prallethrin                                            the open fresh air, loosen the      -   Antihistamines can be
 12.       Pyrethrin                                              clothings around neck and               given in case of allergy
           (Pyrethrum)                                            chest, and (d) Ingestion – If the       with or without steroid.
 13.       Transfluthrin                                          victim is fully conscious,
                                                                  induce vomiting by tickling         -   To control convulsion in
                                                                  back of the throat. Do not              severe cases Diazepam can
                                                                  administer milk, alcohol and            be given 5-10 mg/IV.
                                                                  fatty substances. In case the
                                                                  person is unconscious make
                                                                  sure the breathing passage is
                                                                  kept    clear    without     any
                                                                  obstruction.     Victim’s head
                                                                  should be turned to one side in
                                                                  the lying down position. In
                                                                  case of breathing difficulty,
                                                                  give mouth to mouth or mouth
                                                                  to nose breathing.

                                                                  Medical aid: Take the patient to
                                                                  the doctor/Primary Health
                                                                  Centre immediately along with
                                                                  the original container, leaflet
                                                                  and label.
14/08/03
ORGANIC ACID

S.No       Name       of     the   Symptoms of poisoning         First aid measures                  Treatment/antidote
           pesticide
1.         2,4-Dichlorophenoxy     -   Irritation to skin and    Remove the person from the          -   Administration of activated
           Acetic Acid (2,4-D)         mucous membrane           contaminated environment.               charcoal    and     laxative
                                   -   Inhalation of spray                                               orally.
                                       may cause burning         In case of (a) skin contact –       -   IV fluid
                                       sensation in nose,        Remove       all   contaminated     -   Accelerate excretion
                                       throat and chest.         clothings and immediately           -   Alkaline     diuresis     by
                                   -   Cough                     wash with lot of water and              alkalization of urine by
                                   -   Prolong      inhalation   soap; (b) Eye contamination –           adding sodium bicarbonate
                                       causes dizziness.         Wash the eyes with plenty of            44.80 mg/L in IV solution.
                                                                 cool and clean water; (c)           -   Maintain urine pH in 7.6 to
                                   On ingestion                  Inhalation – Carry the person to        8.8 range.
                                   - Vomiting                    the open fresh air, loosen the      -   Monitor serum electrolyte
                                   - Pain in chest and           clothings around neck and               balance.
                                       abdomen                   chest, and (d) Ingestion – If the   -   Follow      up       clinical
                                   - Diarrhoea                   victim is fully conscious,              examination       including
                                   - Headache                    induce vomiting by tickling             electromyographic        and
                                   - Mental confusion            back of the throat. Do not              nerve conduction studies to
                                   - Bizzare behaviour           administer milk, alcohol and            detect any neuropathic and
                                                                 fatty substances. In case the           neuro muscular junction
                                   Severe poisoning              person is unconscious make              defect.
                                   - Unconsciousness,            sure the breathing passages is
                                       Myotonea                  kept    clear    without     any
                                   - Areflexia                   obstruction.     Victim’s head
                                   - Muscle twitching            should be turned to one side in
                                   - Body        temperature     the lying down position. In
                                       may be elevated           case of breathing difficulty,
                                                                 give mouth to mouth or mouth
                                   Diagnosis                     to nose breathing.
                                   - Metabolic acidosis
                                   - Urine acidic                Medical aid: Take the patient to
                                   - Elevated creatinine         the doctor/Primary Health
                                       phosphokinase             Centre immediately along with
                                   - Symptoms           of       the original container, leaflet
                                       myglobinuria.             and label.
                                   - Mild leukocytosis

                                   Confirmation       of
                                   poisoning
                                   - GLC for detecting
                                       chlorophenoxy
                                       compound in blood
                                       and urine.

14/08/03
INORGANIC COPPER COMPOUNDS

S.No       Name of the pesticide   Symptoms of poisoning        First aid measures                Treatment/antidote
1.         Copper                  Nausea,         vomiting,    Remove the person from the        -   If indications of systemic illness
2.         Hydroxide               diarrhoea  with blood,       contaminated environment.             appear, administer intravenous
           Copper                  colicky abdominal poin                                             fluids containing glucose and
3.         Oxychloride             and headache are the early   Give water or milk as soon            electrolytes. Monitor fluid balance
                                                                                                      and correct blood electrolyte
4.         Copper Sulphate         features of poisoning.       as possible to dilute the             concentrations as needed. If shock
           Cuprous oxide           Dehydration can lead to      toxicant     and      mitigate        develops, give blood transfusions
                                   shock.                       corrosive action on the               and vasopressor amines, as required.
                                                                mouth, esophagus, and gut.        -   Monitor plasma for evidence of
                                   May cause oedema of lids,    Unless vomiting has been              hemolysis (free hemoglobin) and the
                                   conjunctivitis and corneal   vigorous and effective,               red cells for methemoglobin. If
                                   ulceration.                  empty the stomach by                  hemolysis occurs, alkalinize the
                                                                intubation, aspiration, and           urine to about pH 7.5 by adding
                                   -   Liver enlargement and    lavage,       taking        all       sodium bicarbonate (44-88 mEq per
                                                                                                      litre) to the intravenous infusion
                                       jaundice                 precautions to protect the            fluid. Also mannitol diuresis may be
                                   -   Haemolysis         &     respiratory     tract    from         considered.                   Unless
                                       Methemoglobinemia        aspirated stomach contents.           methemoglobinemia is severe (30-
                                   -   Albuminuria,                                                   40%), it is probably not advisable to
                                       haemoglobinuria and      Activated charcoal included           administer methylene blue.
                                       sometimes acute renal    in the lavage fluid may be of     -   Severe pain may require the
                                       failure.                 some value against the                administration of morphine.
                                                                organometallic compounds          -   The value of chelating agents in
                                   Severe poisoning causes      but is probably less effective        copper poisoning has not been
                                                                                                      established. BAL appears to show
                                   coma, convulsions and        against the inorganic copper          some promise in accelerating copper
                                   death.                       compounds.                            excretion and alleviating illness. If
                                                                                                      the severity of poisoning appears to
                                                                Caution: Gastric intubation           warrant its use. The dosages are:
                                                                may pose a serious risk of            Severe poisoning: – 1st day – 3.0
                                                                esophageal perforation if             mg/kg (4 hourly); 2nd day – 3.0
                                                                corrosive action has been             mg/kg (4 hourly); 3rd day – 3.0
                                                                severe. In this event, it may         mg/kg (6 hourly); and following 10
                                                                be best not to attempt                days or until recovery – 3.0 mg/kg
                                                                                                      (12 hourly). Mild poisoning: - 1st
                                                                intubation.                           day – 2.5 mg/kg (6 hourly); 2nd day
                                                                                                      – 2.5 mg/kg (6 hourly); 3rd day – 2.5
                                                                                                      mg/kg (12 hourly) and following 10
                                                                                                      days or until recovery – 2.5 mg/kg
                                                                                                      daily.
                                                                                                  -   D-penicillamine can subsequently
                                                                                                      be used – Adults & Children over
                                                                                                      12 years: 0.5 g every 6 hours, given
                                                                                                      30-60 min before meals and at
                                                                                                      bedtime for about 5 days; Children
                                                                                                      under 12 years – 0.1 g/kg body
                                                                                                      weight, not exceeding 1.0 g per day,
                                                                                                      divided into 4 doses, given 30-60
                                                                                                      minutes before meals and at bedtime
                                                                                                      for about 5 days.
                                                                                                  -   Caution: Adverse reactions to short
                                                                                                      term therapy are rare.         Persons
                                                                                                      allergic to penicillin may suffer
                                                                                                      allergic reactions to D-penicillamine;
                                                                                                      they should be treated with BAL only.

14/08/03
PARAQUAT COMPOUNDS

S.No       Name of the pesticide   Symptoms of poisoning          First aid measures                 Treatment/antidote
1.         Paraquat dichloride     Nausea,            vomiting,   Remove the person from the         Perform gastric lavage. Give
                                   diarrhoea, burning pain in     contaminated environment.          Fuller’s Earth (an adosrbent)
                                   mouth, throat and upper                                           300 ml of 30% aqueous
                                   abdomen, mouth/throat          In case of (a) skin contact –      suspension. Give mannitol 200
                                   ulceration, concentrate of     Remove       all   contaminated    ml of 20% solution or 30 g of
                                   product is extremely           clothings and immediately          magnesium sulphate in 200 ml
                                   irritating to skin and eyes.   wash with lot of water and         of water via gastric tube.
                                   Inhalation of spray mist       soap; (b) Eye contamination –      Fuller’s earth should be given
                                   may lead to sore throat,       Wash the eyes with plenty of       as early as possible.
                                   husky voice and epistaxis,     cool and clean water; (c)
                                   as a result of local           Inhalation – Carry the person to   If Fuller’s earth is not available,
                                   irritation.                    the open fresh air, loosen the     give Bentonite 1 litre of 7.5%
                                                                  clothings around neck and          suspension       or       activated
                                   Giddiness,     headache,       chest, and (d) Ingestion           charcoal 50 to 100 g dissolved
                                   fever,  diarrhoea   and                                           in 200 ml of water.
                                   myalgia                        Medical aid: Take the patient to
                                                                  the doctor/Primary Health          Maintain a fluid balance chart.
                                   Proteinuria, haematuria,       Centre immediately along with      Give adequate oral or IV fluids.
                                   pyrexia,        azotemia       the original container, leaflet
                                   followed              by       and label.                         If acute renal failure is present,
                                   oliguria/anuria                                                   peritoneal       dialysis      or
                                                                                                     haemodialysis is indicated.
                                   Confirmatory test:
                                   - Colorimetric Test to                                            If respiratory difficulty is
                                      identify paraquat in                                           present delay the use of oxygen
                                      urine.                                                         as long as possible, because
                                   - Spectrophotometric                                              oxygen is harmful to lungs in
                                      method for paraquat                                            paraquat poisoning.
                                      in blood and urine.
                                                                                                     Sorbitol also 1-3 g of body
                                                                                                     weight to a maximum of 150 g
                                                                                                     is given to adult and 1-1.5 g of
                                                                                                     body weight for children upto
                                                                                                     50 g.
14/08/03
CYANIDE COMPOUNDS

S.No       Name      of   the   Symptoms of poisoning            First aid measures                  Treatment/antidote
           pesticide
1.         Sodium cyanide       Bitter, acrid, burning taste     Remove the person from the          Inhalation – If exposed to
                                followed by constriction of      contaminated environment.           fumes remove the patient from
                                membrane        in     throat,                                       further exposure. Give 100%
                                salivation and nausea            In case of (a) skin contact –       oxygen. Establish a clear
                                without vomiting, anxiety,       Remove       all   contaminated     airway.
                                confusion and dizziness          clothings and immediately
                                etc.                             wash with lot of water and          Ingestion
                                Other       features      are    soap; (b) Eye contamination –       Perform gastric lavage
                                dyspnoea,        tachypnoea,     Wash the eyes with plenty of        If the patient’s condition is
                                pulmonary            oedema,     cool and clean water; (c)           deteriorating establish a clear
                                bradycardia or tachycardia,      Inhalation – Carry the person to    airway.         Give     assisted
                                hypotension, conduction          the open fresh air, loosen the      respiration with 0.2 to 0.4 amyl
                                defects,      dysrthythmias,     clothings around neck and           nitrite till other drugs are
                                hyperglycaemia, cerebral         chest, and (d) Ingestion – If the   available. If the systolic blood
                                oedema, convulsions and          victim is fully conscious,          pressure falls below 80 mm Hg
                                metabolic acidosis.              induce vomiting by tickling         stop further administration of
                                                                 back of the throat. In case the     amyl nitrite and start IV fluids
                                There may be bitter              person is unconscious make          immediately.
                                almond smell in breath.          sure the breathing passages is
                                                                 kept    clear    without     any    Other antidotes are (a) give 50
                                Chronic cyanide poisoning        obstruction.     Victim’s head      ml of 25% sodium thiosulphate
                                can       cause      ataxia,     should be turned to one side in     solution (12.5 g) IV over 10
                                peripheral      neuropathy,      the lying down position. In         minutes (For children less than
                                optic atrophy and nerve          case of breathing difficulty,       25 kg body weight, the dose of
                                deafness.                        give mouth to mouth or mouth        sodium thiosulphate is 1.65
                                                                 to nose breathing.                  ml/kg of 25% solution) or
                                                                                                     (b) 20 ml of dicobalt edetate
                                                                 Medical aid: Take the patient to    (kelocyanor) solution (300 mg)
                                                                 the doctor/Primary Health           IV over one minute, followed
                                                                 Centre immediately along with       by 50 ml of 50% dextrose IV or
                                                                 the original container, leaflet     (c)     10     ml    of    40%
                                                                 and label.                          hydroxocobalamin solution (4
                                                                                                     g) IV over 20 minutes, and 10
                                                                                                     ml of 3% sodium nitrite
                                                                                                     solution (300 mg) IV over 5-20
                                                                                                     minutes (For children less than
                                                                                                     25 kg b.w., the dose of sodium
                                                                                                     nitrite is 0.33 ml/kg of 3%
                                                                                                     solution)
                                                                                                     Dicobalt edetate should be
                                                                                                     administered      only    when
                                                                                                     cyanide poisoning is definite;
                                                                                                     otherwise there is a risk of
                                                                                                     cobalt toxicity.
14/08/03
ANTICOAGULANTS

S.No       Name      of    the   Symptoms of poisoning       First aid measures                  Treatment/antidote
           pesticide
1.         Bromodiolone          Bleeding from nose, gums    Remove the person from the          -   Give              Vitamin
2.         Coumachlor            blood in urine and stool.   contaminated environment.               K1(Phytonadione) oral or
3.         Coumatetralyl                                                                             injection 15-25 mg for
4.         Warfarin              Possible    polar    and    In case of (a) skin contact –           adults; 5-10 mg for
                                 petechial   rash,   late-   Remove       all   contaminated         children orally*.
                                 massive echymoses or        clothings and immediately
                                 hematoma of skin, joints,   wash with lot of water and          -   Transfuse with fresh blood
                                 brain hemorrhage.           soap; (b) Eye contamination –           if bleeding is severe or
                                                             Wash the eyes with plenty of            until anemia is corrected.
                                                             cool and clean water; (c)
                                                             Inhalation – Carry the person to    -   Iron (Ferrous sulfate) by
                                                             the open fresh air, loosen the          mouth for correction of
                                                             clothings around neck and               secondary anemia, 0.3 gm
                                                             chest, and (d) Ingestion – If the       t.i.d.
                                                             victim is fully conscious,
                                                             induce vomiting by tickling         *    Vit K1 is specifically
                                                             back of the throat. Do not          required. Neither Vit K3 nor
                                                             administer milk, alcohol and        Vit K4 is an antidote for these
                                                             fatty substances. In case the       anticoagulants.
                                                             person is unconscious make
                                                             sure the breathing passages is      Carefully observe for 4-5 days.
                                                             kept    clear    without     any
                                                             obstruction.     Victim’s head
                                                             should be turned to one side in
                                                             the lying down position. In
                                                             case of breathing difficulty,
                                                             give mouth to mouth or mouth
                                                             to nose breathing.

                                                             Medical aid: Take the patient to
                                                             the doctor/Primary Health
                                                             Centre immediately along with
                                                             the original container, leaflet
                                                             and label.

14/08/03
PHOSPHINE PESTICIDES

S.No       Name of the pesticide   Symptoms of poisoning       First aid measures            Treatment/antidote
1.         Aluminium               Fatalities,       severe    Move patient to fresh air.    Activated charcoal – slurry with
           phosphide               gastro-intestinal                                         sorbitol 30-100 g orally in adults, 15-
2.         *Zinc phosphide         symptoms,        fatigue,   Lay patient on his side to    30 g in children. – adsorbs phosphine
                                   headache, dizziness,        prevent    aspiration   of
                                   thirst, cough, soreness     vomitus.                      Diazepam – Give undiluted and
                                   of breath etc., In                                        monitor BP respiration. 5-10 mg IV,
                                   severe cases coma,          Remove patient to hospital.   slowly over 2-3 minutes (Max. rate: 5
                                   convulsions,                                              mg/min) Repeat every 10-15 minutes.
                                   hypotension          and    Give CPR if indicated.        Maximum dose: 30 mg.
                                   pulmonary       oedema                                    Pediatric Dosage: 0.25-0.4 mg/kg IV,
                                   develop. Death due to       Preserve container to aid     slowly over 2-3 min. Repeat every 2-
                                   shock and peripheral        diagnosis.                    5 min. Max. dose: 5 mg in children
                                   circulatory failure.                                      below 5 years and 10 mg in those
                                                               Warning: Do not give water    above 5 years.
                                                               or water based drinks.
                                                                                             Phenytoin – Monitor BP, ECG. 10-15
                                                                                             mg/kg slow IV (Max. rate: 50
                                                                                             mg/min.) 100 mg orally or IV every 6-
                                                                                             8 hours (Max. dose 1000 mg.)
                                                                                             Pediatric dosage: 15-20 mg/kg IV
                                                                                             slowly (Rate: 1 mg/kg/min) 1.5 mg/kg
                                                                                             every 30 min. Max. dose: 20
                                                                                             mg/kg/day.

                                                                                             Dopamine – 4.6 microgram/kg/min IV
                                                                                             (to treat hypotension & shock)

                                                                                             Magnesium sulphate – 3 gm IV bolus
                                                                                             followed by 6 gm in 12 hr. for 5-7
                                                                                             days. (Role controversial)

                                                                                             Ranitidine – 50 mg IV every 8 hours

                                                                                             Sodium bicarbonate - 50 mEq/15 min.
                                                                                             If arterial bicarbonate is < 15 mmol/L.

                                                                                             Intravenous fluids- 4-6 L over 6 hour.
                                                                                             (Monitor by CVP)

                                                                                             Furosemide – Low dose ( may be tried
                                                                                             for pulmonary oedema if systolic BP
                                                                                             >90 mm HG).

                                                                                             Gastric lavage is contraindicated as
                                                                                             more phosphine is released upon
                                                                                             contact with water in the stomach.

* The symptoms are not that severe in case of zinc phosphide poisoning.
14/08/03
BIOPESTICIDES

S.No       Name of the pesticide    Symptoms of poisoning         First aid measures                  Treatment/antidote
1.         Azadirachtin (Neem       Irritant eye, nose and skin   Remove the person from the          No      specific       antidote.
           products)                                              contaminated environment.           Treatment     is     essentially
2.         Bacillus thuringiensis                                                                     symptomatic
           (B.t)                                                  In case of (a) skin contact –
                                                                  Remove       all   contaminated
                                                                  clothings and immediately
                                                                  wash with lot of water and
                                                                  soap; (b) Eye contamination –
                                                                  Wash the eyes with plenty of
                                                                  cool and clean water; (c)
                                                                  Inhalation – Carry the person to
                                                                  the open fresh air, loosen the
                                                                  clothings around neck and
                                                                  chest, and (d) Ingestion – If the
                                                                  victim is fully conscious,
                                                                  induce vomiting by tickling
                                                                  back of the throat. Do not
                                                                  administer milk, alcohol and
                                                                  fatty substances. In case the
                                                                  person is unconscious make
                                                                  sure the breathing passages is
                                                                  kept    clear    without     any
                                                                  obstruction.     Victim’s head
                                                                  should be turned to one side in
                                                                  the lying down position. In
                                                                  case of breathing difficulty,
                                                                  give mouth to mouth or mouth
                                                                  to nose breathing.

                                                                  Medical aid: Take the patient to
                                                                  the doctor/Primary Health
                                                                  Centre immediately along with
                                                                  the original container, leaflet
                                                                  and label.
14/08/03
HALOGEN FUMIGANT PESTICIDES

S.No       Name of the pesticide   Symptoms of poisoning         First aid measures                  Treatment/antidote
1.         Ethylene Dibromide      Headache,        dizziness,   Remove the person from the          No      specific       antidote.
           (EDB)                   nausea, vomiting, tremor      contaminated environment.           Treatment     is     essentially
2.         Ethylene Dibromide      and ataxia.      Repeated                                         symptomatic.
           and           Carbon    prolonged exposure may        In case of (a) skin contact –
           Tetrachloride (EDCT     lead to incoordination,       Remove       all   contaminated
           Mixture)                muscle weakness and           clothings and immediately
3.         Methyl Bromide          areflexia. In case liquid     wash with lot of water and
                                   comes in contact with         soap; (b) Eye contamination –
                                   skin     severe   burning,    Wash the eyes with plenty of
                                   blister formation and skin    cool and clean water; (c)
                                   necrosis may occur.           Inhalation – Carry the person to
                                                                 the open fresh air, loosen the
                                                                 clothings around neck and
                                                                 chest, and (d) Ingestion – If the
                                                                 victim is fully conscious,
                                                                 induce vomiting by tickling
                                                                 back of the throat. Do not
                                                                 administer milk, alcohol and
                                                                 fatty substances. In case the
                                                                 person is unconscious make
                                                                 sure the breathing passages is
                                                                 kept    clear    without     any
                                                                 obstruction.     Victim’s head
                                                                 should be turned to one side in
                                                                 the lying down position. In
                                                                 case of breathing difficulty,
                                                                 give mouth to mouth or mouth
                                                                 to nose breathing.

                                                                 Medical aid: Take the patient to
                                                                 the doctor/Primary Health
                                                                 Centre immediately along with
                                                                 the original container, leaflet
                                                                 and label.
14/08/03
MERCURIAL COMPOUNDS

S.No       Name of the pesticide   Symptoms of poisoning          First aid measures                  Treatment/antidote
1.         Methoxy         Ethyl   Nausea,           vomiting,    Remove the person from the          Do not induce emesis.
           Mercury      Chloride   diarrhoea,        tenesmus,    contaminated environment.           Perform gastric lavage.
           (MEMC)                  abdominal       pain     and                                       Give activated charcoal 50 to
                                   metallic taste.                In case of (a) skin contact –       100 g in 200 ml of water.
                                   Neurological                   Remove       all   contaminated
                                   manifestations        iclude   clothings and immediately           Give penicillamine 250 mg 4
                                   paraesthesis of hands,         wash with lot of water and          times a day (20 mg/kg/day in
                                   disorientation,                soap; (b) Eye contamination –       divided doses for children) for
                                   restlessness, irritability,    Wash the eyes with plenty of        3 to 10 days.
                                   constriction of visual         cool and clean water; (c)
                                   fields,     incoordination     Inhalation – Carry the person to    Dimercaprol or BAL is given
                                   affecting speech, writing      the open fresh air, loosen the      by IM injection, 2.5 to 3 mg/kg
                                   and gait, stupor and coma      clothings around neck and           4 hourly for 2 days, 6 hourly on
                                                                  chest, and (d) Ingestion – If the   the 3rd day, and then once or
                                   Inhalation can cause           victim is fully conscious,          twice a day for 10 days, or until
                                   gingivo-stomatitis,            induce vomiting by tickling         recovery.
                                   pneumonitis and non-           back of the throat. Do not
                                   cardiogenic pulmonary          administer milk, alcohol and        Anticipate and treat shock and
                                   oedema.                        fatty substances. In case the       renal failure.
                                                                  person is unconscious make
                                   Skin exposure may cause        sure the breathing passages is
                                   redness, blisters and          kept    clear    without     any
                                   dermatitis.                    obstruction.     Victim’s head
                                                                  should be turned to one side in
                                                                  the lying down position. In
                                                                  case of breathing difficulty,
                                                                  give mouth to mouth or mouth
                                                                  to nose breathing.

                                                                  Medical aid: Take the patient to
                                                                  the doctor/Primary Health
                                                                  Centre immediately along with
                                                                  the original container, leaflet
                                                                  and label.
14/08/03
OTHERS

S.No   Name of the pesticide     Symptoms of poisoning         First aid measures                  Treatment/antidote
  1.   Acetamiprid               Headache, palpitation,        Remove the person from the          No      specific       antidote.
  2.   Alphanaphtyl     Acetic   nausea,          vomiting,    contaminated environment.           Treatment     is     essentially
       Acid                      flushed face, irritation or                                       symptomatic.
3.     Atrazine                  nose, throat eyes and         In case of (a) skin contact –
4.     Aureofungin               skin etc.                     Remove       all   contaminated
5.     Barium Carbonate                                        clothings and immediately
6.     Benomyl                                                 wash with lot of water and
7.     Bitertanol                                              soap; (b) Eye contamination –
8.     Butachlor                                               Wash the eyes with plenty of
9.     Captafol                                                cool and clean water; (c)
10.    Captan                                                  Inhalation – Carry the person to
11.    Carbendazim                                             the open fresh air, loosen the
12.    Carboxin                                                clothings around neck and
13.    Cartap Hydrochloride                                    chest, and (d) Ingestion – If the
14.    Chlorimuron ethyl                                       victim is fully conscious,
15.    Chlormequat Chloride                                    induce vomiting by tickling
       (CCC)                                                   back of the throat. Do not
16.    Chlorothalonil                                          administer milk, alcohol and
17.    Cinmethylene                                            fatty substances. In case the
18.    Clamazone                                               person is unconscious make
19.    Cyfluthrin                                              sure the breathing passages is
20.    Cyhalofop-butyl                                         kept    clear    without     any
21.    Cymoxanil                                               obstruction.     Victim’s head
22.    Dalapon                                                 should be turned to one side in
23.    Dazomet                                                 the lying down position. In
24.    Diafenthioron                                           case of breathing difficulty,
25.    Dichloropropene     and                                 give mouth to mouth or mouth
       Dichloropropane                                         to nose breathing.
       mixture (DD mixture)
26.    Diclofop-Methyl                                         Medical aid: Take the patient to
27.    Difenoconazole                                          the doctor/Primary Health
28.    Diflubenzuron                                           Centre immediately along with
29.    Dinocap                                                 the original container, leaflet
30.    Dithianon                                               and label.
31.    Diuron
32.    Dodine
33.    Ethepon
34.    Ethofenprox
       (Etofenprox)
35.    Ethoxyfulfuron
36.    Fenarimol
37.    Fenazaquin
38.    Fenoxaprop-p-Ethyl
39.    Fenpropathrin
40.    Ferbam
41.    Fipronil
42.    Fluchloralin
43.    Flufenoxuron
44.    Fluvalinate
45.    Fosetyl-AL
46.    Gibberellic Acid
47.    Glufosinate
       Ammonium
48.    Glyphosate
49.    Hexaconazole
50.    Hydrogen Cynamid
51.    Imazethapyr
52.    Imidacloprid
53.    Imiprothrin
 54.       Indoxacarb
 55.       Iprodine
 56.       Isoprothiolane
 57.       Isoproturon
 58.       Kasugamycin
 59.       Lime Sulphur
 60.       Linuron
 61.       Maleic Hydrazide (MH)
 62.       Mancozeb
 63.       Metalaxyl
 64.       Metaldehyde
 65.       Metasulfuron Methyl
 66.       Methabenzthiazuron
 67.       Methyl Chlorophenoxy
           Acetic Acid (MCPA)
 68.       Metolachlor
 69.       Metoxuron
 70.       Metribuzin
 71.       Myclobutanil
 72.       Nickel chloride
 73.       Oxadiargyl
 74.       Oxadiazon
 75.       Oxycarboxin
 76.       Oxyfluorfen
 77.       Paclobutrazole
 78.       Paradichlorobenzene
           (PDCB)
 79.       Penconazole
 80.       Pendimethalin
 81.       Piroxofop-propanil
           (Clodinafop-propanil)
 82.       Pretilachlor
 83.       Propanil
 84.       Propargite
 85.       Propiconazole
 86.       Propineb
 87.       S-Bioallethrin
 88.       Simazin
 89.       Sirmate
 90.       Spinosad
 91.       Streptomycin          +
           Tetracycline
 92.       Sulfosulfuron
 93.       Sulphur
 94.       Tebuconazole
 95.       Thiomethoxin
 96.       Thiophanate-Methyl
 97.       Thiram
 98.       Tridimefon
 99.       Triallate
100.       Trichloro Acetic Acid
           (TCA)
101.       Tricyclazole
102.       Tridemorph
103.       Trifluralin
104.       Validamycin
105.       Zineb
106.       Ziram

14/08/03

				
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