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					CBS, STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF ISRAEL 2008                             2008   ‫למ''ס, שנתון סטטיסטי לישראל‬

                    3             VITAL STATISTICS

SOURCES AND EXPLANATIONS                                 of both spouses is unknown are not included
                                                         in the framework of any religion, and are
Marriages and divorces                                   included only in the total calculation of
Until 1996, the sole source of data was                  marriages and divorces.
marriage and divorce certificates.                       The data on marriage and divorce do not
Marriage and divorce certificates of Jews are            include civil marriages performed abroad or
obtained from rabbinical courts. Marriage                “alternative marriages” performed in Israel
and divorce certificates of Moslems and                  which are not part of the Orthodox
Druze are submitted by the Sharia Courts,                Rabbinate, nor do they include divorces in
and of Christians by the authorised officiating          courts dealing with family matters.
ministers.                                               Marriages of Israelis to persons from Arab
As of 1997, data on marriages and divorces               localities in Judea, Samaria and the Gaza
of Christians and Druze originate from the               Area were included in data on Israelis when
Population Register.                                     the marriage certificates were issued in
As of 2004, the data on marriages of Jews                Israel. Between 1967 and 1976, Arab and
are also obtained from the Population                    other brides from Israel who married
Register.                                                bridegrooms from those areas were not
As of that year, data on divorces of Jews as             included.
well as data on marriages and divorces of                In 1993-1995, there was a substantial
Moslems that were obtained from marriage                 increase in the number of marriages of
and divorce certificates were completed on               Moslems in which one partner came from
the basis of data from the Population                    Judea and Samaria or from the Gaza Area.
Register.                                                During 1995, the procedure of issuing an
As of 2006, data obtained from the                       Israeli marriage certificate to couples who
Population Register include cases in which               were married by a marriage registrar from
one spouse is not a resident of Israel, as well          Judea, Samaria and the Gaza Area was
as cases in which couples are not the same               discontinued. Consequently, there was a
religion. The data also include cases in                 significant drop in the number of marriages
which the Population Register does not                   in Jerusalem, as well as in the number of
contain data on the place of the marriage or             Moslem marriages in which one partner
divorce, but in which examination of records             came from Judea, Samaria or the Gaza
of entries and departures from Israel reveal             Area.
that the marriage or divorce took place when             Marriages and divorces in East Jerusalem
the couple was in Israel.                                are included as of 1973; and in the Golan as
There is no information regarding the                    of 1987.
characteristics of spouses who are not                   Due to problems in the definition of the
residents of Israel (e.g., age, and marital              Bedouin population that is located in the
status prior to the marriage or divorce), and            South, marriage rates for those living outside
those cases are recorded as “unknown”.                   localities are not presented separately (see
Cases in which the religion of one spouse is             introduction to Chapter 2 - Population).
unknown (e.g., when that spouse is not a
resident of Israel) are registered accorded to
the religion of the second spouse.
Cases of marriage and divorce in which the
groom is Moslem and the bride is Jewish are
included in marriages of Moslems.
Every other case of marriages and divorces
of couples who are not the same religion or
marriages and divorces in which the religion

VITAL STATISTICS                                  )33(                                    ‫תנועה טבעית‬
Births and deaths                                         In Tables 3.11 and 3.12, those births are
Data are based on personal information in                 included only in the total population.
the Population Register as well as on                     For further details, see the Introduction to
information appearing in the forms:                       Chapter 2 - Population in the paragraph “the
"Notification of Live Birth", "Notification of            Population Evacuated from the Israeli
Death" or "Notification of Stillbirth". The               Localities (the Jewish Localities) in the Gaza
Population Registration Ordinance 1965                    Area and in Northern Samaria”.
requires that the person in charge of the                 The number of deaths, their rates and the life
institution where the birth takes place, or the           tables in 1967, 1973, 1982 and 2006 do not
parents of the child, the doctor or midwife if            include soldiers killed in war - about 750 in
the birth occurred elsewhere, notify the                  June 1967, about 2,450 in October-
Ministry of the Interior within 10 days of the            December 1973, about 360 in June-
birth. Notification of death must be made                 September 1982, and 116 in July-August
within 48 hours of the death by the person in             2006. (In Chapter 2 - Population, Table 2.3,
charge of the institution in which the death              soldiers killed in war were accounted for in
took place or by the physician who issued                 the sources of population increase).
the death certificate. If no physician was                Until 1962, data on births and deaths, infant
present at the time the death took place, the             deaths and stillbirths were recorded
notification of death must be made by any                 according to the year of registration. Since
person who was there. Details on the                      1963, data are recorded according to the
sources were published in Vital Statistics:               year of occurrence.
Mortality 1996 (Special Publication No.                   Data on live births for 2007 include 723
1108).                                                    cases of births that occurred in 2005-2006
Data on births include births in Israel                   and were recorded late. Of those cases, 534
(including the Judea and Samaria Area),                   of the women who gave birth were Moslem,
when at least one of the parents has an                   104 were Jewish, 50 were not classified by
Israeli identity card. The data do not include            religion, 31 were Christian, and 4 were
births that occurred abroad to Israeli citizens.          Druze.
Data on deaths include deaths of permanent                Between 1957 and 1959, in 1975 and in the
residents and potential immigrants, but do                first half of 1976 the data on births were
not include deaths of Israelis abroad, of                 computed from a sample of 50%.
tourists or of foreign workers who died in                Until 1984, each vital statistics event in which
Israel (until 2002, see below).                           religion was unknown was included among
Prior to 1962, births and deaths among the                "Druze and others" ("others" including
Bedouins in the South were not included in                adherents        of      other        recognised
Table 3.1. Until then, vital statistics rates             denominations, e.g., Bahais, Samaritans,
were computed accordingly, after deducting                etc).
the number of Bedouins in the South from                  As of 1996, total births include births of
the total population. Bedouins in the South               women not classified by religion (see the
are, however, included in the detailed                    Introduction to Chapter 2 - Population, in the
breakdown of births in all years. Due to a                paragraph “Population Group and Religion”.
discrepancy between the data in the                       Until 1990, the source of data on birth order
Population Register and the population                    was the Notification of Live Births. Since
estimates for Bedouin tribes, no birth rates              1991, the source has been the Population
were calculated for those living outside                  Register. According to this source, it was
localities.                                               possible to identify for the first time cases of
As of 1970, births and deaths in East                     unknown birth order, which until 1990, had
Jerusalem are included; and as of 1982, the               been included among first births.
Druze in the Golan are included.                          As of 1999, data on stillbirths have been
In 2007, data on births include 57 live births            supplemented by the Department of Mother,
of residents who were evacuated in August                 Child and Adolescent Health in the Ministry
2005 from the Israeli localities (the Jewish              of Health, which receives copies of stillbirth
localities) in the Gaza Area and in northern              forms in addition to the forms received by the
Samaria but had not yet changed their                     CBS.
address in the Population Register.                       As of 2002, data on deaths include deaths
VITAL STATISTICS                                   )34(                                     ‫תנועה טבעית‬
abroad of Israeli residents who were out of               religion was unknown.
the country for less than a year (there were
109 and 182 deaths of Israelis abroad in                  Causes of death
2002 and 2003, respectively, in 2004 there                The source of data on causes of death is the
were 183 deaths, in 2005 there were 141                   death notification form which, in addition to
deaths, in 2006 there were 176 deaths, and                demographic data on the deceased, contains
in 2007 the preliminary figure is 13).                    a medical certificate specifying the cause of
These cases, like all cases of deaths abroad              death. The causes of death until 1997 were
of Israeli citizens, are included in data on              categorized according to the "International
causes of death.                                          Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision,
Termination of pregnancy                                  Clinical Modification”.
Termination of pregnancy is carried out                   The ninth edition of the classification was
according to the "Penal Law - 1977,                       first introduced in Israel in 1979. The causes
termination of pregnancy", as follows:                    of death were grouped according to the
1. The woman is under the minimal age of                  recommendations of the World Health
    marriage (17) or older than forty;                    Organisation in the “Mortality List”.
2. The pregnancy is a result of relations                 As of 1998, causes of death were classified
    prohibited by criminal law or incestuous              according to the “International Statistical
    relations or extramarital relations;                  Classification of Diseases and Related
3. The foetus is likely to have a physical or             Health Problems, Tenth Revision”.
    mental defect;                                        In addition to the causes listed on the
4. Continuation of pregnancy is likely to                 Notification of Death form, the causes of
    endanger the woman's life or cause her                death have been revised in accordance with
    physical or mental harm;                              information received from additional sources:
5. Continuation of pregnancy is not desirable             investigation of cases classified by health
    due to personal reasons or because of                 offices as death due to unspecified causes;
    family or social circumstances (this article          the road accident files of the Israel Police,
    was repealed by the Knesset in 1980)                  the suicide files of the Ministry of Health, the
The data appearing in Table 3.20 were taken               file of deaths due to terror attacks of the
from monthly summaries that were submitted                National Insurance Institute, the causes of
by committees for termination of pregnancy,               death file for soldiers received from the Israel
to the Department of Information in the                   Defence Forces, and additional inquiries
Ministry of Health. These summaries also                  conducted at hospitals.
include women who are not residents of                    Data on maternal deaths are revised on the
Israel.                                                   basis of the live deaths file.
Tables 3.21-3.23 are based on copies of                   In 2000-2004, causes of death in cases
applications for termination of pregnancy                 where the notification of death did not reach
which were received in the Central Bureau of              the CBS were imputed using the “hot deck”
Statistics    from    the     committees     for          method by personal characteristics of the
termination of pregnancy. These data refer to             deceased person, such as age, sex, and
Israeli residents only.                                   population group. In 1999, the reference
As of 1989, the discrepancy between the                   groups for imputation were chosen after
total number of these forms and the total                 statistical analysis of the cases in which
number of summaries received by the                       notifications of death were not received by
Ministry of Health ranged from 4% to 12%.                 the CBS and were supplemented by copying
As of 2004, the religion of a woman who                   data from the Ministry of the Interior. The
applies to the committee for termination of               total number of imputed causes was 2,199 in
pregnancy is determined according to the                  2000; 763 in 2001; 487 in 2002; 789 in 2003,
religion appearing in the Population Register             and 515 in 2004. In 2005, a special effort
and not according to the religion listed on the           was made to locate missing notification of
application for termination of pregnancy.                 death forms. For total of 289 missing
Until 2004, the woman’s religion was                      notification of death forms no imputations
determined according to the listing on the                were made.
form, or according to the listing in the                  The causes of death were categorized
Population Register in cases where the                    according to Mortality Tabulation List 2 of the
VITAL STATISTICS                                   )35(                                     ‫תנועה טבעית‬
World Health Organization, which includes               Comparison coefficients between the ninth
80 groups. In the presentation of data in the           and tenth revisions of the classification of
Statistical Abstract, some of the groups were           diseases:
combined. In addition, the following changes
were made in the grouping of codes, in order            Number in       Cause of Death          Compa-
to adjust them to the groups used in Israel.             Mortality                               rison
Group 53: Ischaemic heart disease was                    List 2 -                                  co-
divided into myocardial infarction (code I21),          Edition 10                              efficient
and other ischaemic heart diseases (I20,                  1-3         Intestinal infectious       1.25
                                                           4-5            Tuberculosis            0.80
Group 65 (renal disease): also includes the
                                                            11            Septicaemia             1.40
remaining codes for renal disease (N17-                     18           Viral hepatitis          1.05
N29).                                                       19               Human                1.10
Groups 66-68 (obstetric deaths) also include                           immunodeficiency
code O95 (obstetric death of unspecified                              virus (HIV) disease
cause).                                                     48             Mental and             1.20
Groups 47+72 (all other diseases) do not                             behavioural disorders
include the codes included in the groups                              due to psychoactive
listed above.                                                            substance use
Groups 75-77 (other accidents) also include                 50        Alzheimer’s disease         1.35
the codes for the remaining types of                        53          Acute myocardial          0.95
accidents W20-W64, W75-W99, X10-X39,                                        infarction
                                                            53       Other ischaemic heart        1.10
Groups 79-80 (other external causes
                                                            59            Pneumonia               0.70
including assault) do not include the codes                 61           Chronic lower            1.10
listed in the group of other accidents.                              respiratory infections
Causes of death in the historical data (1979-
1997) presented in Table 3.27 were coded                   65           Kidney disease            1.35
                                                           69         Perinatal conditions        1.10
according to the ninth revision of the
                                                           70        Congenital anomalies         0.85
classification of diseases, but were grouped
                                                           74                Falls                0.25
according to the “International Classification            75-77        Other accidents            1.30
of Diseases, 10th Revision and comparison
coefficients were applied to them. The
coefficients were determined based on                   For other causes of death, the comparison
double coding of death certificates of 1997             coefficient is 1.0.
(according to the ninth and tenth revisions).           DEFINITIONS
In cases of rare diagnoses the Israeli                  Live birth: birth of a foetus, that after being
coefficients were adjusted according to the             parted from the mother (whether the
American coefficients.                                  umbilical cord has been cut or not, whether
In Table 3.32 (infant mortality), the                   the afterbirth (placenta) is still connected or
comparison coefficients were not applied to             not), shows at least one of the following
historic data (1970-1997).                              signs of life: respiration, heartbeat, umbilical
                                                        pulse or obvious movements of voluntary
                                                        Natural increase: the difference between
                                                        births and deaths in a specified period.
                                                        Stillbirth: birth of a foetus that does not
                                                        show one of the signs of life specified in the
                                                        definition of a “live birth” above.
                                                        Until 2002 (inclusive), the data in Table 3.1
                                                        include dead foetuses after a pregnancy of
                                                        28 weeks at least or if week of pregnancy is
                                                        unknown - weighing 1,000 gr. or more.
                                                        As of 2003, the data include dead foetuses
                                                        weighing 1,000 gr. or more, or after a
VITAL STATISTICS                                 )36(                                         ‫תנועה טבעית‬
pregnancy of at least 28 weeks if the weight               For further details, see the Introduction to
is unknown.                                                Chapter 2 – Population in the paragraph
The data in Table 3.18 refer to dead foetuses              “Permanent and Current Type of Locality”.
weighing 500 gr. or more, or after a
pregnancy of at least 22 weeks if the weight               METHOD OF COMPUTATION
is unknown.                                                All rates, averages, etc., that are based on 5-
                                                           19 cases, are given in brackets, while those
Infant: a new-born who has not yet
                                                           based on fewer than 5 cases, are marked by
completed one year of life.
                                                           two dots (. .).
Birth order: The ordinal number of a live
                                                           The calculation of rates since 1969 is based
birth in relation to all of the previous live
                                                           on the population including potential
births a mother has had.
                                                           immigrants (see Chapter 4 - Immigration).
From 1991 to 2002, birth order calculations
                                                           Annual rates are based on current population
were based on the total number of children a
                                                           estimates, according to the last census.
mother has. In 2002, the method of
                                                           Vital rates are per 1,000 persons of the
calculating birth order was changed, and it is
                                                           average permanent population, unless
now based on the total of all previous
                                                           otherwise stated.
children born to the mother, with the addition
                                                           Natural increase: the data of natural
of 1 to mark the event of the present birth
(regardless of the number of living newborns               increase presented in Tables 3.1-3.2 are
born at that birth). In addition, for newborns             different from those presented in Chapter 2 -
whose mothers are not Israelis, the order of               Population, because the data in Chapter 3
birth was calculated according to the                      are updated according to the late reports on
Notification of Live Birth form.                           deaths.
Sex ratio of live births: The number of live               Rate of infant mortality is per 1,000 live
births of males for every 100 live births of               births. Until 1979 the infant mortality rates of
females.                                                   the Jewish population were calculated per
Multiple birth: a birth that includes more                 1,000 live infants (including infants of
                                                           immigrants) according to a monthly life table.
than one new-born. These births are
identified on the basis of “Notification of Live           Rate of stillbirths: in Tables 3.1 and 3.2,
Birth” and “Notification of Stillbirth” forms for          rate of stillbirths is calculated per 1,000 live
the same year. The data published in table                 births. In Table 3.19, the rate of stillbirths is
3.18 refer to live new-borns who born in                   calculated per 1,000 live births and stillbirths.
multiple births, where at least one new-born               Crude birth rate: total live births divided by
is born alive.                                             the average permanent population.
Life expectancy (ex): The average number                   General fertility rate: total live births divided
of years a person is expected to live after a              by the average permanent population of
certain age, assuming that the mortality rates             women aged 15-49.
prevalent at the period of reference will                  Specific fertility rates by age: The number
remain constant throughout the person’s life.              of live births for mothers of a given age,
Underlying cause of death: The cause that                  divided by the average permanent population
led to the chain of events that resulted in                of females of the same age.
death. The underlying reason leading to the                Total fertility rate represents the average
death is selected from the causes recorded                 number of children a woman is expected to
by the physician in the notification of death,             bear during her lifetime. The rate is based on
in accordance with the definitions and rules               the assumption that child-bearing among all
of the “International Classification of                    the women in a certain generation will occur
Diseases”.                                                 between the ages 15 and 49, according to the
Population group and Religion: see                         specific birth rates of the women in the
introduction to Chapter 2 - Population.                    population in a given year (synthetic cohort).
                                                           Mortality rates (mx): the number of deaths
Type of locality: Until 2007, data on births
                                                           at a certain age, divided by the average
and deaths were presented by permanent
                                                           population of the same age.
type of locality. As of 2007, the data are
                                                           Due to the small number of deaths in some
presented in Table 3.12 by current type of
                                                           small populations (e.g., Arabs in the age
                                                           group 60 and over) random changes or

VITAL STATISTICS                                    )37(                                      ‫תנועה טבעית‬
discrepancies are possible in their mortality            event took place in the first half of the year,
rates.                                                   the age is equivalent to the said difference
Age computation: age at marriage and                     less one.
divorce is computed according to month and               The average age is:
year of birth and month and year of marriage                                 xfx
and divorce, respectively. Until 1990 the                                            0.5
month of birth was not considered in                                         fx
computing the age at marriage. The age at                Where:
death is calculated according to date of birth           x=age
and death (day, month and year), and the                 fx= number of cases at age x.
age refers to years completed on the                     Since the age relates to the last birthday, i.e.,
deceased's last birthday. For births, age is             the full number of years reached, half a year
calculated according to the year of the                  should be added to the average age. For
mother's birth and it is assumed that the date           example, age 21 refers to all those who
of birth is July 1st. Hence, if the event took           reached the full age of 21 but have not yet
place in the second half of the year, the age            reached the age of 22, so that their average
is equivalent to the difference between the              age is 21.5.
year of birth and the year of the event; if the

                              SELECTED PUBLICATIONS
SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS                                     1324   Socio-Demographic Characteristics of
1242 Vital     Statistics:  Marriages    and                    Women Applying for Pregnancy
     Divorces, 2000-2001 (Internet only)                        Terminations in Israel 2003 (Internet
1260 Stillbirths 1997-2002, Demographic and                     only)
     Health Characteristics                              1332   Infant      Mortality     1997-2004,
1270 Health and Social Profile of the                           Demographic           and     Health
     Localities in Israel 1998-2002                             Characteristics
1322 Complete Life Tables of Israel 2002-
     2006                                                JUBILEE PUBLICATIONS (on the occasion of
                                                                  Israel’s 50th year)
                                                         Health (No. 7 in the series)

VITAL STATISTICS                                  )38(                                      ‫תנועה טבעית‬