GoP Commitments to Women Development

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HANDOUT 1 PICTURE ......................................................................................... 2

HANDOUT 2 GENDER-BASED FACT SHEET ...................................................... 3


HANDOUT 4 GENDER & THE MDGs................................................................. 14

HANDOUT 5 GENDER ROLES AND GENDER ISSUES ..................................... 17

HANDOUT 6 GLOSSARY OF TERMS................................................................. 21

HANDOUT 9 TAKING FORWARD THE GENDER AGENDA................................ 27

PROGRAMMES AND PROJECTS ...................................................................... 29

NATIONAL POLICY FRAMEWORKS .................................................................. 32

HANDOUT 7 GENDER CHECKLIST FOR the project cycle ............................... 34

HANDOUT 8 GENDER Checklist for THE DATA CYCLE ................................... 35

MANAGERS & PLANNERS ................................................................................ 37

USEFUL LINKS .................................................................................................. 39

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                                       HANDOUT 1

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners   2
                                HANDOUT 2
                          GENDER-BASED FACT SHEET
            Gender related Development Index (GDI)              107 out of 177 countries
            Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)                    71 out of 173 countries

                                 Census         1999-     2001-02      2003-04
                                   1998         2000
          Sex Ratio                108           105        107          105
            Sex Ratio is defined as the average number of men per 100 women.

                                Literacy Rates 10 years + (%)
Year                    Total                    Rural                             Urban
                Total             Men Total Women Men                     Total    Women
                        Women                                                              Men
Census          43.9      32      54.8     34.4       20.8      47.4      64.7      55.6   72.6
2001-02          50      36.9     62.2       -          -         -            -     -      -
2003-04         51.6     39.2     63.7       -          -         -            -     -      -

        Distribution of population 10 years + by level of education and sex (%)
 Level of Education                          2001-02                 2003-04
                                      Total   Men     Wome Total        Men     Wo
                                                         n                      men
 No formal education (Literate)        0.5     0.6      0.5     0.6      0.7     0.5
 Below Matric                         33.5    41.1     25.4    33.7     41.1    26.0
 Matric but less than Intermediate     9.3    11.9      6.5     9.7     12.3     7.0
 Intermediate but less than            3.6     4.4      2.6     3.9      4.7     3.1
 Degree and above                      3.1     4.2      1.9     3.8      4.9     2.6
 Total Literate                       50.0    62.2     36.9    51.6     63.7    39.2
 Illiterate                           50.0    37.8     63.1    48.4     36.3    60.8

     Human Development Report, 2005
     Pakistan Labour Force Survey, 2003-04

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Error! Bookmark not defined.Error! Bookmark                                         not                         0.84
defined.Public Health Expenditure (% of GDP) 2003-04
  Life Expectancy at birth (years) 2002                                                         Women          63.4
                                                                                                  Men          63.7
    Probability at birth of surviving to age 65 (2000-05)                                       Women          61.9
                                                                                                  Men          60.0
Error! Bookmark not defined.Error! Bookmark not                                                               530.0
defined.Maternal Mortality Ratio reported (per 100,000 live
births) 2004
  Births attended by skilled health personnel (%) 1995-2002                                                    20.0
  Average rate of fully immunized children and child bearing age                                             < 50%
  Aneamic women of child bearing age                                                                        58%
  Women (45 years of age and above) of low income in rural                                           Almost 45%
areas suffering from poor health
  Individuals (45 years of age and above) of low income in rural                               Women          >80%
areas suffering from poor to fair health                                                         Men           60%
  HIV/AIDS cases reported up to 2004                                                            Total         2,431
                                                                                               Women            291
                                                                                                 Men          2,136
    Prevalence of Smoking (% of adults) 2000                                                   Women              9
                                                                                                 Men             36

                                          Economic Activity
                             Refined Activity Participation Rates (%)2

         Year               Both             Women                 Men               Improved Women
                            sexes                                                    Participation Rate
      1999-2000              42.8               13.7               70.4                     39.2
       2001-02               43.3               14.4               70.3                     37.7
       2003-04               43.7               15.9               70.6                     39.3
**According to the old methodology, persons 10 years of age and above reporting housekeeping and other related
activities are considered out of labour force. However, as per the improved methodology, they are identified as
employed if they have spent time on the agricultural and non-agricultural activities that have been identified as being
a part of labour activities.

  Economic Survey 2001-02, Ministry of Finance
  Pakistan Common Country Assessment, 2003, UN and GoP
  Annual report of State Bank of Pakistan, 2003-2004
  National AIDS Control Programme, Draft Surveillance Report, 2004

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       Percentage distribution of population employed by major occupational
                                  groups, 2003-042

                                                               Both           Women                Men
Legislators, senior officials and managers                      11.5             1.4               13.5
Professionals                                                   2.0              1.9                2.0
Technicians and associate professionals                         4.9              8.7                4.1
Clerks                                                          1.6              0.2                1.9
Service workers and shop and market sales                       5.2              0.8                6.1
Skilled agricultural and fishery workers                        34.9             48.4              32.2
Craft and related trades workers                                15.9             14.3              16.2
Plant and machine operators and assemblers                      3.7              0.1                4.5
Elementary (unskilled) occupations                              20.3             24.2              19.5

Error! Bookmark not defined.Error! Bookmark not                               9,387 out of 175,189
defined.Women employed by the Federal Government                                            (5.4%)
  Ratio of estimated women to men‟s earned income                                             0.33
  Women Contributing Family Workers (%) 1995-2002                                             33.0
  Labour Force Unemployment 2003-04 (%)                                       Men               6.6
                                                                            Women             13.0

                                       Political Participation

Total number of seats reserved for women in all tiers of the local                             33%
Total number of seats reserved for women in the Senate, National &                             17%
Provincial Assemblies

                Women in the National and Provincial Assemblies, 20048

                                        Elected on               Elected on                 Total
                                       general seats           reserved seats
    National Assembly                       13                       60                       73
    Punjab                                   6                       66                       72
    Sindh                                    4                       29                       33
    NWFP                                     1                       22                       23
    Balochistan                              1                       11                       12
    Total                                          12                     128                       140
          The total strength of 73 women in National Assembly constitutes 21% of its composition
          as compared to approximately 4% of 1997.

       Female legislators, senior officials and managers (% of total)                          9
       Women in government at ministerial level (% of total) 2004                              11

    Pakistan Labour Force Survey, 2001-02
    Aurat Foundation, Islamabad

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                                 Violence against Women9

                                                            2000-2004         2004
      Cases reported on
      Violence against Women                                   35,335         8,560
      Murder                                                    6,519         1,492
      Rape                                                      3,722          728
      Torture                                                   6,603         1,601
      Abduction                                                 6,505         1,397
      Suicide                                                   5,542         1,327
      Karo kari                                                 4,153         1,353
      Burn cases                                                1,241          310
      Police torture                                             483           182
      Trafficking                                                215            67
      Abandoned corpses of women found                           352           103

    Madadgar, LHRLA 2004

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                     HANDOUT 3
                    Policy Environment for Gender Mainstreaming

International Commitments
    1. MDGs – Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 2000)
    2. CEDAW – in force on September 3, 1981. Pakistan ratified in 1996.

National Commitments
   3. MTDF – Mid Term Development Framework (2005-10)
   4. NPA – by Ministry of Women and Development, September 1998.
   5. NPDEW – by Ministry of Women and Development, 2002

Major Initiatives
   6. GRAPs – National and Provincial GRAPs (2004)
   7. Decentralization Support Program - TA2
   8. GSP - Gender Support Programme (2003-2008)

Convention on the Elimination of                   the basis for realizing equality between
Discrimination Against Women                       women and men in political and public
(CEDAW)                                            life, education, health care, marriage
The Convention on the Elimination of All           and family relations, property ownership
Forms of Discrimination Against Women              and employment. It is the only human
(CEDAW) which came into force on                   rights treaty which affirms the
September 3, 1981 has, as of                       reproductive rights of women and
November 1, 1999 been ratified by 165              identifies culture and tradition as
state parties including Pakistan which             influential forces shaping gender roles
did so in 1996. Often described as                 and family relations.
international bill of rights for women, it is
the only legally binding treaty that               But CEDAW is not self-executing. It
women can turn to in demanding state               requires the enactment of national
protection of their civil, economic and            legislation for its enforcement. CEDAW
political rights. Consisting of a preamble         can be cited and used by the courts in
and 30 articles, it defines what                   deciding cases of discrimination against
constitutes discrimination against                 women in almost all spheres of life such
women and sets up an agenda for                    as politics, employment, education,
national action to end such                        health care, marriage, family relations
discrimination. The Convention provides            and property ownership.

                                                                              (Source: UNICEF)

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3. MTDF – Mid Term Development Framework (2005-10)

Vision for MTDF                                      c. affirmative actions to create a
Enhancement of the status of women                      „level playing field‟ (mainstreaming
through promotion and protectionb of                    gender in the PRSP 2003)
women‟s rights, their empowerment                        Strengthening of institutional
and advancement, and their active                            mechanisms
participation and mainstreaming in all                   Mainstreaming of gender
spheres and at all levels, so as to                      Initiation of special
bridge the gender gaps and move                              programmes for women‟s
towards gender equality.                                     economic empowerment
                                                         Social protection measures
Strategies:                                              Macro economic policy
a. Meeting women‟s basic minimum                             framework
   needs: making efforts towards                         Access to training and
   broader horizontal linkages                               employment
b. Poverty reduction, economic                           Organizing women
   empowerment, social and legal                     d. Gender responsive budgeting and
   empowerment, personal security                       required investments
   and political participation:

4. National Plan of Action (NPA)

The National Plan of Action (NPA)                            Women and Poverty
puts together the strategic objectives                        Education and Training of
and action the government of Pakistan                          Women
will take to implement the Beijing                            Women and Health
Platform for Action (PFA). It was the                         Violence against Women
result of nationwide consultations and                        Women and Armed Conflict
the joint efforts of government both                          Women and Economy
federal and provincial, and civil                             Women in Power and
society, particularly women‟s groups.                          Decision-Making
The       PFA      recommended     that                       Institutional Mechanisms
government address twelve (12)                                 for the Advancement of
critical areas of concern:                                     Women
                                                              Human Rights of Women
                                                              Women and the Media
                                                              Women and the
                                                              The Girl Child

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5. National Policy for the Development & Empowerment of Women (NPDEW)

Goal:                                                   Eliminating all negative social
Empowerment of Pakistani women,                          practices.
irrespective of caste, creed, religion, or
other consideration for the realization              Major Thrusts:
of their full potential in all spheres of             Social Empowerment of Women:
life, especially social, economic,                      Education, Health, Law and
personal and political and in keeping                   Access to Justice, Violence
with our Islamic way of life.                           against Women, Women in the
                                                        Family and Community, The Girl
Key Policy Measures:                                    Child;
 Ensuring that government                            Economic Empowerment of
   agencies adopt a gender sensitive                    Women: Poverty, Access to Credit,
   approach to development in                           Remunerated Work, Women in the
   preparing needs based,                               Rural Economy and Informal
   participatory and implement able                     Sector, Sustainable Development;
   programmes and projects. Gender                    Political Empowerment of Women:
   sensitization to be institutionalized                Power & Decision Making,
   and integrated into all sectors of                   participation of women in all
   development, and to include the                      political arenas and at all positions,
   private sector as well.                              participation of women in all
 Developing multi-sectoral and                         decision making bodies of the
   inter-disciplinary approaches for                    executive and judicial organs of
   women‟s development, with                            the state and community
   horizontal and vertical linkages at
   every level.
 Mainstreaming gender issues
   through integration into all sectors
   of national development.

6. National and Provincial Gender Reform Action Plans (GRAPs) for
Engendering Governance Structures

What are GRAPS?                                      international commitments the gender
GRAPS stands for Gender Reform                       related gaps have not decreased
Action Plan. There are five GRAPS                    substantially. The GRAPS seek to
one for each province and one for the                address some of these gaps through
National/Federal level.                              reforms in four major areas:
                                                          Political reforms
Why GRAPS?                                                Administrative/institutional
Pakistan is a signatory to various                           reforms
international commitments including                       Reforms in public sector
Convention on Elimination of All forms                       employment
of Discrimination Against Women                           Policy and fiscal reforms.
(CEDAW) and the Universal                            To these reforms substantial capacity
Declaration of Human Rights                          building interventions and support
declaration. The government has also                 actions are added. These reforms
prepared a National Plan of Action                   shall be implemented in 4 years.
(NPA) and a National Policy for
Development and Empowerment of
Women. Given these national and

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                      9
Key principles of GRAPS:
These reforms have been designed                     Amendments in Rules of Business of
under the ambit of liberalization and                MoWD and selected Ministries in order
enlightened moderation. They take                    to update their mandate for a proactive
women's empowerment at the center                    approach towards gender equality.
and carry a view to enhance the
participation of women across the                    Establishment of women and social
gender and governance sphere. It is                  development (W&SD) sections in 5
about creating space for women within                ministries in order to create capacity
the existing systems while trying to                 for gender analysis, planning and
improve the efficiency of the system.                mainstreaming.
                                                          Formulation of sector specific
GRAPS deliverables:                                          policy frameworks
Under the four broad categories of                        Nomination of gender focal
reforms a large number of activities                         persons in selected ministries
have been identified . Some of the key                       for coordinating gender
ones include                                                 activities.
                                                          Establishment of an inter
Women's political participation:
                                                             ministerial gender
Electoral reforms:
                                                             mainstreaming committee for
These shall improve women's voting,                          gender accountability.
enumerate the votes cast by men and                       Research and Publication
women, registering women voters,                             section to be reestablished in
quota for women and induction of                             MoWD
women in EC and others.                                   Strengthening the existing role
                                                             of MoWD and NCSW
Parliaments and Local Government:
    20% representation of women
       agreeing to the bill and 20%                  Women's employment in public
       women ministers and advisors.                 sector
                                                     Pre induction measures:
    Speaker or deputy speaker
       should be a woman.                                Establishment of public
                                                         Career development and
Political party reforms:                                    information service.
     Women's issues to be                               Affirmative advertising for posts
        addressed in political party                     Establishment, improvement of
        manifestos.                                         basic office facilities for
     33% quota for women in                                comfortable work environment
        political party elected councils.                   for women.
     Enhancement of women's wing
        in political parties.                        Induction process:
                                                         Appointment of 2 women
Women's role in politics:                                    Federal secretaries, 2 on
   Government supported                                     NCSW and 1 on selection
     electronic and print media                              committees.
     campaign on gender and                              Recruiting and promotion of
     women's participation.                                  women against 50% vacancies
                                                             in BPS 17 and 18, 9-11 and 4-
Institutional restructuring:                                 6.
These aim at updating the                                Appointment of women ADCO,
organizational structures of                                 DCO and EDOs on 20% seats.
government to include gender
perspective in mainstream government

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Post induction measures:                                     development' in the federal and
    Enforcement of code of ethics                           provincial budgets; creation of
       regarding sexual harassment                           new codes in each sector for
       at workplace.                                         women specific facilities and
Policies and fiscal reforms:                                Obligatory direction to all
Policy formulation and implementation:                       departments to separately
                                                             indicate their women specific
Rewrite the National Policy for                              capital expenditures
Development and Empowerment of                              Creation of separate section
Women NPDEW Incorporate the                                  within PSDP and ADPs for all
gender recommendations in                                    sectors to indicate women
„mainstreaming gender in PRSP'                               specific investments in the
Gender review and amendment of                               capital budget
existing policy documents as well as                        From the ABS for 2004-05 a
those pertaining to federal legislation                      clear set of policy statements,
and concurrent lists, policy formulation                     addressing women's specific
guidelines of P&D Revision and                               issues, to accompany the
redesigning of PC1-PC5 to                                    budget documents
encompass gender planning.                                  A pre-budget seminar with
                                                             women rights groups and
Budgeting & public expenditure                               NGOs to present government's
mechanisms:                                                  commitments to gender issues
                                                             and indicate resource
Initiating the following for education                       allocations
and health sectors:                                         Presentation of results of
      Gender aware policy analysis                          analytic studies in the seminars
      Gender disaggregated                                  inviting civil society
         beneficiary analysis                                organizations and political
      Gender disaggregated time                             parties to them
         use analysis                                       Where budget formats are
      Gender disaggregated public                           prepared for local
         expenditure incidence analysis                      governments, they will indicate
      Gender disaggregated revenue                          allocations for women in each
         incidence analysis                                  sector separately
      Gender aware medium term                             The budget process for 2004-
         economic framework                                  05, through the Budget Call
      MoWD to submit an evaluation                          Letter in the federal
         report on budgetary reform in                       government and provinces, to
         May 2004 and thereafter every                       include specific timeframe and
         year in the month of March to                       dates for policy discussions
         NCSW and Finance Division                           with NGOs and women
      Modification of Budget Call                           members of assemblies
         letters for the Budget of 2004-5                    • FBS to design and
         to include the instruction that                     implement surveys to bring out
         all expenditure estimates of                        data on violence against
         education and health be                             women, gender disaggregate
         submitted with clear indication                     socio-economic indicators
         of their intended targeting and                    Direction from Finance Division
         impact of women and men                             to CGA and AGs to generate
      Approval of creation of a                             sectoral reports, starting with
         separate demand under budget                        education and health, to
         demands with allocation of a                        provide gender specific
         demand code for „women                              expenditures reports from the

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                     11
            appropriation accounts of                              Women's Employment in the
            2004-05 for gender specific                             Public Sector
            facilities                                             Policy & Fiscal Reforms
          Direction from Finance Division
            to CGA to review the Chart of                 Support Actions:
            Classification and institute                  These will include:
            separate codes for generating                     Legislative Support Actions
            gender disaggregated data                         Poverty Support Actions
            where required for gender                         Projects & Programs
            specific service delivery units
     Capacity Development                                      (Decentralization Support Program –
     These will include:
          Political Participation
          Institutional Structures

     7. Decentralization Support Program – TA2

One national and four provincial GRAPs                    arching package of legislative, political,
were prepared by the Ministry of Social                   administrative and fiscal reforms. A key
Welfare, Women Development and                            package of reforms, in the shape of
Special Education and Provincial Women                    Gender Reform Action Plans (GRAPs),
Development Departments in a                              has been the main output of the recently
consultative and review process under                     concluded technical assistance (TA)
ADB‟s technical assistance (TA) project,                  project for Gender Reform Program.12
TA3832: Gender Reform Program.                            GRAPs have now been approved by the
Federal and provincial cabinets have now                  Cabinets of the federal government and
approved the draft GRAPs cleared by the                   the provincial governments of Sindh,
Provincial and National Steering                          Punjab, North West Frontier Province
Committees. The Ministry of Social                        (NWFP) and Balochistan. GRAPs have
Welfare, Women Development and                            significance for the ADB as their
Special Education is the national focal                   implementation is a policy commitment in
ministry for implementation of national                   the DSP, in the Punjab Resource
GRAP, while the provincial Women                          Management Program (PRMP)13 and the
Development Departments will implement                    Sindh Devolved Social Services Program
their respective GRAPs.                                   (DSSP Sindh).14 During 2004, the ADB
                                                          Board will consider two additional
                                                          programs, the Balochistan Resource
ADB‟s principal commitments to gender
                                                          Management Program15 (BRMP) and the
and governance reforms in Pakistan are
                                                          Punjab Devolved Social Services
articulated through two major programs,
                                                          Program16(DSSP Punjab) in which GRAPs
the Decentralization Support Program
                                                          implementation is proposed as a policy
(DSP)10 and the Access to Justice
                                                          action. DSP provides for a dedicated TA
Program (AJP).11 Although these
programs provide a high-level framework                   12
                                                             TA3832-PAK: Gender Reform Program of
for policy dialogue with Government on                    $600,000 was approved by ADB on 1 February
gender and governance issues, this                        2002.
dialogue has been sporadic as both                           Loans 2030/1-PAK: Punjab Public Resource
programs have awaited a firm                              Management Program of $200 million, approved on 4
                                                          December 2003.
commitment from Government to an over-                    14
                                                             Loans 2047/8/9-PAK: Sindh Devolved Social Services
                                                          Program of $229 million, approved on 12 December
   Loans 1935/36/37/38-PAK: Decentralization Support      2003.
Program of $300 million, approved on 21 November             A $120 million loan is in the pipeline year 2004-2006
2002.                                                     for Balochistan Resource Management Program.
11                                                        16
   Loans 1987/88/89-PAK: Access to Justice Program:          A $150 million loan is in the pipeline for lending for
of $350 million, approved on 20 December 2001.            the year 2004-2006 for Punjab Devolved Social Services.

     Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                               12
to support implementation of                             Strengthening of Institutional
GRAPs.17Thus, through these                              Mechanisms: 4 interventions
commitments, ADB has made an                              Institutional strengthening of the
unprecedented effort to mainstream both                     NCSW
corporate and government policy on                        Gender responsive budgeting with the
gender through innovative and high profile                  Ministry of Finance
assistance.                                               Gender mainstreaming in the planning
8. Gender Support Programme (GSP) .                         process & P&DD
                                                          Working towards achieving the
The Gender Support Programme (GSP)                          national and international
(2003-2008) has been designed to provide                    commitments on gender and poverty
a unified holistic strategy in promoting                    issues with MoWD
gender equality in Pakistan. GSP is
coordinated by Economic Affairs Division                 Political Participation
(EAD) and works with the relevant                         GSP project with the Ministry of
Government       Ministries     and     line                Women Development titled „Women‟s
Departments at the Federal and Provincial                   Political School‟
level as well as other stakeholders.
Addressing poverty in Pakistan through                   Social Protection Measures
gender-responsive governance and rights                   GSP      project  with     the   Local
based approach to sustainable human                         Government titled “Gender justice
development,     it   aims to provide                       through the Musahilat Anjuman”.
coordinated     policy,    technical    and
managerial support to the Government of                  Economic Opportunities
Pakistan     (GoP)      in   the     design,             GSP project titled WACT (Women‟s
implementation and monitoring of national                Access to Capital and Technology)
programmes and projects. GSP is linking
with     Government        Policies     and
programmes as follows:
      NPDEW
      PRSP
      CEDAW
      MDGs
      MDTF
      GRAP
In terms of women‟s areas of concern, the
following are being addressed through

 Loan 1938-PAK: Gender and Governance

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                  13
                                           HANDOUT 4

1. Gender and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Why Gender Matters to the MDGs                           by the international women‟s movement.
The Millennium Development Goals, or                     Its very existence demonstrates that the
MDGs, are an integrated set of eight goals               global community has accepted the
and 18 time-bound targets for extending                  centrality of gender equality and women‟s
the benefits of globalization to the world‟s             empowerment to the development
poorest citizens. The goals aim to                       paradigm– at least nat the rhetorical level.
stimulate real progress by 2015 in tackling
the most pressing issues facing                          Yet the gap between rhetoric and reality
developing countries – poverty, hunger,                  persists: the 2005 primary and secondary
inadequate education, gender inequality,                 school parity target will likely be missed.
child and maternal mortality, HIV / AIDS                 But even if it were achieved, it is hardly
and environmental degradation. UNDP                      sufficient to ensure the full participation of
helps countries formulate national                       women in the political and economic lives
development plans focused on the MDGs                    of their countries. Much more is needed:
and chart national progress towards them                 full reproductive health rights and access
through the MDG reporting process.                       to services, guarantee of equal property
                                                         rights and access to work, affirmative
In most developing countries, gender                     action to increase political representation,
inequality is a major obstacle to meeting                and an end to violence against women
the MDG targets. In fact, achieving the                  and girls. To realize the MDGs,
goals will be impossible without closing                 governments and their partners must
the gaps between women and men in                        seriously and systematically „engender‟
terms of capacities, access to resources                 efforts to achieve all the goals. But today,
and opportunities, and vulnerability to                  the gender focus is largely limited to the
violence and conflict.                                   gender equality, maternal mortality, and
                                                         HIV/AIDS goals – leaving out critical
Millennium Development Goal 3 is „to                     development issues such as the
promote gender equality and empower                      feminization of poverty, the
women‟. The goal has one target: „to                     preponderance of female-headed
eliminate gender disparity in primary and                households among the hungry, and the
secondary education, preferably by 2005,                 lopsided impact of environmental
and to all levels of education no later than             degradation on women (particular in terms
2015‟. Four indicators are used to                       of time spent gathering fuel and hauling
measure progress towards the goal: the                   water).
ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary
and tertiary education; the ratio of literate            Making MDG Reporting Gender-
women to men in the 15-to 24-year-old                    Sensitive
age group; the share of women in wage                    Gender experts and advocates have
employment in the non-agricultural sector;               suggested several concrete ways to make
and the proportion of seats held by                      the MDG implementation and reporting
women in national parliaments. The                       process more gender-sensitive. Two
existence of a separate goal on gender                   complementary approaches include
equality is the result of decades of                     adding targets and indicators to
advocacy, research and coalition-building                Millennium Development Goal 3 (on

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                     14
gender equality and women‟s                                   Involve women‟s groups and gender
empowerment), and disaggregating the                           experts in consultations on all the
targets and indicators for the other goals                     goals;
by gender. Both deserve UNDP support.                         Support independent studies using
The UN Millennium Project Task Force on                        rapid participatory methodologies to
Education and Gender Equality1 suggests                        collect qualitative information on key
that national governments add additional                       gender dimensions of goals and
targets, beyond the education target,                          targets;
under the gender equality and women‟s                         Share draft reports with independent
empowerment goal. Recommended                                  gender experts for review;
targets include:                                              Support efforts to sensitize
 Ensure universal access to sexual and                        statisticians involved in collating and
    reproductive health services through                       processing MDG tracking data to the
    the primary health care system;                            gender dimensions of the mandatory
 Eliminate gender inequality in access                        indicators under each goal;
    to assets and employment;                                 Support the collection of sex-
 Achieve a 30 percent share of seats                          disaggregated data;
    for women in national parliaments;                        Provide training to country teams and
 Reduce by half the lifetime prevalence                       others involved in the MDG reporting
    of violence against women.                                 process.

The task force also suggests that national               Where to Go for Help
governments add additional indicators for                Gender Equality and the Millennium
tracking progress towards the gender                     Developments Goals
goal. Their recommendations include:                     ( is a website
 Completion rates (in addition to                       with resources and tools for addressing
    enrolment rates) for primary and                     gender equality in all of the MDGs – from
    secondary school;                                    literature on gender equality as it relates
 Economic indicators such as gender                     to each goal, to tools for advocacy and
    gaps in earnings, sex-disaggregated                  action.
    unemployment rates and occupational                  UNDP best practices can be found in
    segregation by sex;                                  National Reports, a Look Through a
 Prevalence rates for domestic violence                 Gender Lens, available at:
    in the past year.
Another option is to add at least one                    genderlens.pdf
gender-specific indicator not just to the
gender goal, as suggested above, but also                See the final reports of the UN Millennium
to the set of indicators for all the goals and           Project Task Force on Education and
targets. A recent UNDP review of National                Gender Equality, Toward universal
MDG Reports2 argues that adding more                     primary education: investments,
indicators for each and every target, ideal              incentives, and institutions and Taking
though it would be, is not feasible given                action: achieving gender equality and
country capacity and workload                            empowering women at:
considerations as well as the availability of  
data. Instead, the report recommends                     reports/reports2.htm#02
providing sex-disaggregated data and
qualitative information on gender issues                     National Reports, a Look Through a Gender Lens.
across goals and targets, and gives
practical suggestions on how to do so:

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                         15
Millennium Development Goal 3 Goal:                      Everywhere there are significant ways in
Promote gender equality and empower                      which men‟s and women‟s responsibilities,
women.                                                   opportunities and influence are unequal,
                                                         although the nature and extent of
Target:                                                  inequality varies from society to society.
Eliminate gender disparity in primary and                Whilst there are instances where men are
secondary                                                disadvantaged in comparison to women,
Education preferably by 2005 and to all                  generally women and girls have fewer
levels of education no later than 2015.                  opportunities, lower status and less power
                                                         and influence than men and boys. Millions
Indicators:                                              of women around the world:
_ Ratio of girls to boys in primary,                             have to work harder than men to
secondary and tertiary education.                                 secure their livelihoods
_ Ratio of literate females to males of 15-
24 year olds.                                                    have less control over income and
_ Share of women in wage employment in                            assets
the nonagricultural sector.                                      have    a     smaller   share  of
_ Proportion of seats held by women in                            opportunities       for     human
national parliament.                                              development
Research has shown that education for
                                                                 are subject      to   violence        and
girls is the single most effective way of
reducing poverty. In this context, the
elimination of gender disparity in                               have a subordinate social position
education has been selected as the key                           are poorly represented in policy
target to demonstrate progress towards                            and decision-making.
gender equality/women‟s empowerment.
However, education alone is not enough.                          Gender inequality represents a
Progress towards gender equality in                               huge loss of human potential, with
education is dependent on success in                              costs for men as well as for
tackling inequalities in wider aspects of                         women.
economic, political, social and cultural life,
and this is reflected in the indicators of               Helen Derbyshire, (2003) Gender Manual, A
progress education and the right to a                    Practical Guide for Development Policy Makers &
secure livelihood, as well as civil, political
and legal rights.

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                        16
                               HANDOUT 5
    Gender refers to the economic, social                             can result in terrible waste of
    and     cultural    attributes    and                             resources both for the
    opportunities associated with being a                             agencies and the local
    man or a woman in a given society.                                community involved.
    They are about:
                                                                     ……. place to place: Tasks
        what a man or woman can or
           cannot do
                                                                      that are intimately related
        what a man or woman can or                                   with men in one place are
           cannot be                                                  the tasks of a woman in
        social, economic and political                               another.     For      example,
           relations between men and                                  cutting trees in the forest for
           women                                                      firewood is generally man's
        who should do what                                           work in Finland whereas in
        who has control over decision-                               Pakistan or Tanzania it
           making, access to resources                                would be women's work.
           and benefits.                                              Farmers in North America
                                                                      are assumed to be men
    Gender roles are created by societies,                            whereas        most       food
    they are not biological and they vary                             production in Africa is done
    from society to society, from time to
                                                                      by women. It is important to
    time, from place to place, and from
    age to age. For example:                                          understand       that    these
                                                                      variations take place from
           ……         generation         to                          one country to another, but
            generation:     Think       how                           also within a country from
            different the day in the life of                          one region or a cultural
            your grand-father or grand-                               group to another!
            mother would have been at
                                                             Women and men play multiple roles in
            your age and you will                            society, through which they participate
            appreciate how gender roles                      in, and contribute to, the four domains
            have changed!                                    around which society is organized:

           ……. time to time: Our own
            roles change as we grow
            from a daughter/son to an
            adult and a parent. The trap
            we often fall into when
            planning for development
            interventions is that we
            make assumptions about the
            context    of  development
            based      on   our     own
            experience in a different
            context. These assumptions

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                   17
   Reproductive Activities (“INSIDE”):                Productive Activities (“OUTSIDE”):
         Recognized as „Natural‟                             Recognized as „Work‟
Roles:                                             Roles:
Child bearing/rearing responsibilities and         Work undertaken for pay in cash or kind –
tasks – required to guarantee maintenance          includes market production and
and reproduction of labor force; includes          subsistence / home production.
care and maintenance of the current and
future work force (infants/school kids).

     Community Managing Activities                         Community Activities
  (“INSIDE/OUTSIDE”): Recognized as                  (“Outside”): Recognized as „Work‟
Roles:                                             Roles:
Activities in the public sphere of the             Activities at community level where
community, such as participating in a              decisions are made with regard to access
farmers or a women‟s group, attending              to and control over human and material
religious meetings, organizing social              resources. Would involve participation
events and services, community                     within the framework of national or local
improvement tasks, maintenance of                  politics – generally paid work directly or
scarce resources of collective                     indirectly (financially rewarding) through
consumption, i.e. water, fuel, attending to        STATUS or POWER.
the elderly sick and disabled. It involves
voluntary time and is important for
community organization and

Once these roles are defined around the four domains, there is generally pressure on both
men and women to conform to these social expectations. This pressure is generally exerted
through the family, media, education, traditions and cultural norms.

Gender roles change over time in response to many factors – social, technological,
economic, geographic, and legal. During this process of evolution, some values are
reaffirmed, while others are challenged as no longer appropriate.

Gender issues arise when gender stereotyping prevent men or women from enjoying their
full potential and human rights! Gender issues emerge when gender roles result in:

  Invisibility of         Women and men‟s multiple roles have to be recognized. If not,
  either gender           one of the gender will tend to become invisible or undervalued, e.g.
                          the roles that women play in the reproductive domain; or women‟s
                          contribution to the productive domain in terms of farming,
                          management of livestock, mushroom farming, sericulture, etc. is
                          not factored into interventions. Similarly, men‟s absence from the
                          reproductive domain means that they lose out on care and close
                          bonding; women‟s absence from the political domain (before
                          devolution) did not allow women‟s representation in decision

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                     18
  Unequal burdens         Men and women often have different needs and priorities due
  of work for either      to their different status and roles in society. Therefore development
  gender                  interventions affect men and women differently. Men and women
                          are interested in those interventions that make their lives easier to
                          manage. Unless the needs and priorities of both women and men
                          are addressed, humane, just and sustainable development is not

  Unequal access          Gender issues also arise when one gender has a greater
  to, and control         access to, or control over, resources, including education,
  over, resources         training, land, credit, health, labor, income, technology, information,
                          political power, transport, etc. Only if the relationship between men
                          and women is equitable can men and women fully participate in
                          and benefit from development. And development results must
                          consciously define the benefits of any intervention for both men and

    Men and women are the agents of change and an integral part of every development
    strategy. The participation of both men and women is essential for effective and efficient

    It is only when gender equality interventions are holistic and focus on macro and micro
    levels, i.e. on policy, program and project that society will progress and develop as a
    whole and any meaningful change would become visible. Policy makers must
    understand that interventions need to be designed so that they may address men and
    women‟s practical needs and strategic interests, as follows:

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                 19
        Practical Gender Needs (PGNs)                       Strategic Gender Needs (SGNs)
      Gender needs of women arising from                 Gender needs of women which change
             existing gender roles                             existing roles and status
 Are immediate, concrete and often essential for      Are those needs, that when met, will actually
 human survival – such as for food, water,            challenge the traditional gender division of
 shelter, fuel and health care, etc. Attention to     labor which has relegated women to
 practical needs can address immediate                subordination and vulnerable roles in society.
 disadvantages and inequality, but can also           Programs addressing the strategic needs
 reinforce the gender division of labour by           contribute to improved gender equality. They
 helping women and men perform their                  are more long term and less visible (than
 traditional roles better. Addressing practical       practical needs).
 needs usually does not change traditional
 gender roles and stereotypes.

 Examples of actions towards PGNs:                   Examples of actions towards SGNs:
  Potable water                                      Women‟s representation in political
  Housing and household facilities                     structures and decision-making bodies
  Community health centers/drugstores                Policies/legislations against sexual
  Labor-saving devices                                 harassment in the workplace
  Food processing/preservation technologies          Paternity leaves
  Pre and post natal care for mothers                Removal of legal obstacles such as
  Day care centers                                     discrimination in access to land and credit
  Literacy and skills development                    Training for women and men in non-
  Accessible and adequate market facilities            traditional areas (carpentry for women,
  Provision of credit facilities                       education for men)
  Women‟s crisis centers                             Men helping more equally with domestic
  Community kitchens and laundries                     work

 Not equal numbers …..             Gender equality does not simply mean equal numbers of men
                                   and women or boys and girls participating in all activities. It
 but equal recognition and         means that men and women enjoy equal recognition and status
 status                            within a society.
 Not to make them the same         It does not mean that men and women are the same, but that
                                   their similarities and differences are recognized and equally
 but to highlight and value        valued. It means that women and men experience equal
 similarities and differences      conditions for realizing their full human potential, have the
                                   opportunity to participate, contribute to, and benefit equally from
                                   national, political, economic, social and cultural development.

 Not to provide equal inputs       Most importantly, gender equality means equal outcomes for
 …….                               men and women. Gender equality is both a critical human rights
                                   issue and an essential requirement for equitable, efficient,
 but to ensure equal outcomes      effective and sustainable development.

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                     20
                                       HANDOUT 6
                                   GLOSSARY OF TERMS
                                                         opportunities and outcomes for some
1. GENDER                                                groups.
Gender attributes are socially-assigned
roles and relations between men and
women. Gender relationship relates to a                  4. DIVISION OF LABOR
range of institutional and social issues
                                                         This concept looks at the different tasks
rather than a specific relationship between
                                                         and responsibilities undertaken by either
certain male and female individuals.
                                                         women or men. The allocation of activities
Gender characteristics are not natural or                on the basis of sex is learned and clearly
biological. We are not born with them.                   understood by all members of a given
Societies create and assign gender
attributes to girls and boys, men and                    The triple role of women includes:
women, and there is often considerable                   Productive work (production of goods and
social pressure to conform to these ideas                services for consumption by the
about behaviour. For example, in many                    household or for income), Reproductive
societies women are expected to be                       work (bearing and rearing children,
subordinate to men. But in some societies                domestic work and maintenance of the
women are dominant in decision-making.                   household) and Community work
In other societies it is expected that                   (provision and maintenance of resources
women and men will participate equally in                used by everyone – water, health care,
decision-making.                                         education, and leadership). Men tend to
                                                         be more involved in Community and
2. SEX                                                   Productive work.
The biological differences between male
                                                         5. GENDER RELATIONS
and females that we are born with, and
that are universal.                                      Social relations between women and men,
                                                         in particular how power is distributed
For example men can impregnate and
                                                         between them. They impact on men‟s and
women can give birth and breast-feed.
                                                         women‟s position in society and tend to
3. GENDER ROLES                                          disadvantage women. Gender hierarchies
                                                         are often accepted as „natural‟ but they
What women and men are expected to do                    are socially determined relations that are
and how they are expected to behave                      culturally based and subject to change
towards each other.                                      over time.
Gender roles are different across
                                                         6. GENDER EQUALITY
communities and across the world. They
change over time in response to changing                 Women and men‟s similarities and
community circumstances (e.g. during                     differences are recognized and equally
wars – when women take on more                           valued.
leadership roles) and changing ideas
                                                         Men and women enjoy equal status,
about what is acceptable or not
                                                         recognition and consideration.
acceptable behaviours and roles.
                                                         Women and men enjoy:
Gender roles and characteristics affect
power relations between men and women                       Equal conditions to realize their full
at all levels and can result in inequality in                potential and ambitions;

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                     21
   Equal opportunities to participate in,               workplace or society due gender
    contribute to, and benefit from                      stereotypes. For example, when a women
    society's resources and development;                 is not promoted to a leadership position
                                                         (even when she has suitable qualifications
   Equal freedoms and quality of life;
                                                         and experience) because a society
   Equal outcomes in all aspects of life.               believes that only men can make
                                                         important decisions.
The process of being fair to men and
women – such as equitable allocation of                  11. GENDER BLIND
resources and opportunities. Equity can                  Unaware of gender concepts and the
be seen to be the means and gender                       impact that they have on life experiences
equality as the end. Equity contributes to               and outcomes for girls and boys, men and
equality.                                                women.
                                                         12. GENDER SENSITIVE
8. GENDER DISPARITY OR GAP                               Properly aware of the different needs,
A specific difference or inequality between              roles, responsibilities of men and women.
girls and boys, or men and women in                      Understands that these differences can
relation to their conditions, or how they                result in difference for women and men in:
access or benefit from a resource (e.g.
men's and women's access to health                          Access to and control over resources;
services, school drop-out rates of girls and                Level of participation in and benefit
boys).                                                       from resources and development.
A set of characteristics that a particular               13. GENDER RESPONSIVE
group assigns to women or men (e.g.
domestic work does not belong to men's                   Aware of gender concepts, disparities and
responsibilities).                                       their causes, and takes action to address
                                                         and overcome gender-based inequalities.
Gender stereotypes are often incorrect (do
not reflect an individual's actual capacity)             14. GENDER TRANSFORMATIVE
and usually limit what a person is
permitted and expected to do by others in                Actively seeks to understand the
the society.                                             underlying causes of gender inequalities
                                                         and takes effective action to transform the
10. DISCRIMINATION AGAINST                               unequal power relations between men and
WOMEN                                                    women, resulting in improved status of
                                                         women and gender equality.
“Any distinction, exclusion or restriction
made on the basis of sex which has the                   15. THE MAINSTREAM
effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying
the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by                The dominant set of ideas, values, beliefs
women, irrespective of their marital status,             and attitudes, relationships and practices
on a basis of equality of men and women,                 within the mainstream of society.
of human rights and fundamental                          Includes all of society's main institutions
freedoms in the political, economic, social,             (families, schools, government, mass
cultural, civil or any other field.1” Men and            organizations) which determines who is
women are treated differently (restricted or             valued and how resources are allocated,
excluded or violated) in the family, the                 who can do what, and who gets what in

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                    22
society. Ultimately, the mainstream affects              making – their participation makes sense
the quality of life outcomes for all of                  from a government efficiency and
society.                                                 effectiveness perspective – as it results in
                                                         more effective government policies,
                                                         programs and projects.
                                                         18. PRACTICAL NEEDS
An approach or a strategy to achieving
                                                         Concrete immediate needs that are often
broad-based gender equality throughout
                                                         essential for human survival such as food,
society – by getting gender issues into the
                                                         water, shelter, money, security.
                                                         Action to address practical needs can
Broadening of responsibility for achieving
                                                         relieve immediate disadvantage but tends
gender equality.
                                                         not to change underlying causes of
Essentially involves acceptance by the                   gender inequality.
mainstream of gender equality as a worthy
goal, and acceptance of responsibility by
the mainstream to actively address the
gender issues relevant to them, their                    19. STRATEGIC INTERESTS
relationships and work, with the aim of                  Longer term and less visible issues that
achieving gender equality throughout                     relate to the underlying causes of gender
society.                                                 inequality. When strategic interests are
Gender mainstreaming can be viewed as                    met for women, there will be changes and
a tool in achieving good governance                      improvements in power relations between
because it seeks to ensure that the needs                men and women (e.g. removal of legal
and priorities of all members of a society               barriers, sharing of domestic work, and
are considered and met, that all members                 equal decision-making in the household).
of society participate and contribute to the             20. CONDITION AND POSITION
process of governance, and that the
benefits of development are distributed                  Condition refers to the material state in
equitably amongst all members of society.                which men and women live (e.g. food,
                                                         quality of health care and housing, etc.)
Gender mainstreaming is not an end in
                                                         Position refers to women‟s and men‟s
itself – it is an ongoing approach to the
                                                         political, social, economic and cultural
way we think, relate with each other and
                                                         standing in society (e.g. unequal
do our work.
                                                         representation in the political process,
17. MAINSTREAMING WOMEN                                  unequal ownership of land and property).
An approach that emphasizes the need to                  21. ACCESS TO RESOURCES
increase the number of women and
                                                         When a person has the use of a resource
women‟s active participation in
                                                         (access), but does not control it, and as
mainstream activities, particularly in
                                                         such is not in a position to make certain
politics, leadership and governance; key
                                                         decisions about how the resource is used
decision-making processes at all levels, in
                                                         (e.g. renting land to grow crops, or access
all sectors.
                                                         to/ participate in political processes).
A strategy based on the recognition that
men and women have different life                        22. CONTROL OVER RESOURCES
experiences, different needs and priorities,             When a person has the power to make
and are affected differently by policies and             decisions about the use of resources (e.g.
programs. Therefore, in addition to it being             use the land or when to sell it, control over
women‟s right to participate in decision                 which issues are discussed in political

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                    23
processes and what the final decisions
                                                         26. GENDER ANALYSIS
                                                         Provides a deeper understanding of the
                                                         situation for and between men and
A systematic ongoing approach to                         women, their constraints, needs, priorities,
checking if interventions are on track to                and interests.
achieving their goals – specifically
                                                         Gender analytical information (results of
designed to reveal the differences in
                                                         gender analysis) is essential in designing
experiences and impact on men and
                                                         good policies – because it tells us why the
                                                         differences exist – the causes. Gender
24. GENDER RESPONSIVE                                    analysis is an important part of policy
EVALUATION                                               analysis that identifies how public policies
                                                         (or programs/projects) affect men and
A systematic approach to assessing the                   women differently.
policy intervention, program or project
(from a gender perspective) whether it                   Conducting gender analysis requires well-
achieved its objectives, what the broad                  developed social and gender analytical
impact was and why it was successful or                  skills and is usually carried out by
unsuccessful. While monitoring is at the                 appropriately trained and experienced
implementation (more micro) level and                    social researchers or gender experts.
ongoing, evaluation occurs at the strategic
(more macro) level and less frequently –
typically mid-term and completion.                       27. GENDER STATISTICS
Gender-responsive evaluations are                        A special group of statistics that focus on
designed to capture the impact on the                    specific known gender related issues such
entire group of stakeholders or                          as hours of sleep and leisure, violence
beneficiaries, and show clearly the                      against women.
different outcomes for women and men.
Evaluations should provide us with                       28. BASELINE
important information to inform future                   Information gathered before an
policies, programs and projects.                         intervention is implemented to tell us what
Evaluation results must therefore be                     the situation is before action is taken.
documented, communicated effectively                     Baseline information is useful to the
and made available to relevant policy,                   process of setting targets and measuring
program and project designers.                           progress. Baseline information should be
                                                         disaggregated by sex wherever possible
                                                         to ensure that differences for women and
Quantitative statistical information on the              men are clear from the outset.
differences between men and women,
boys and girls for a particular issue or in a            29. TARGET
specific area. Looking at data for                       Targets (or objectives) help
individuals and breaking it down by the                  policy/program/project implementers and
sex of the individuals (e.g. data of life                managers keep their eye on the prize –
expectancy, school enrolment, smoking                    the ultimate outcome expected. Targets
prevalence divided by men and women).                    increase the likelihood that overall
Sex-disaggregated data shows us if there                 objectives will be met and that adequate
is a difference in a given situation for                 resources will be allocated to ensure
women and men, girls and boys, but it                    success. Wherever possible targets
doesn‟t tell us why the difference exits.                should be gender-responsive –

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                   24
highlighting the focus for both men and
women where appropriate (e.g. reduce
school dropout rates to X% for girls and                 33. GENDER-RESPONSIVE
boys).                                                   GOVERNANCE
30. INDICATOR                                            Gender-responsive governance is an
                                                         important step in achieving good
Indicators specify how achievement
                                                         governance. Gender-responsive
towards targets will be measured. What
                                                         governance seeks to ensure that
are the „indications’ of progress? How do
                                                         institutions, policies, programs and
we know if we are getting closer to our
target or objective? They can be thought
of as the steps along the way to achieving                  Involve women and men equally in
the target. For example, if the target is “re-               government processes;
forestation of a particular area”, the
                                                            Learn about, take seriously, and
indicators might be X hectares of land
                                                             respond to the needs, interests and
prepared for planting, X number of
                                                             priorities of all members of society;
seedling trees grown, irrigation system
planned and set up, fertilizer purchased                    Distributes resources and benefits of
and spread, percentage of area replanted,                    development equally between women
percentage of trees planted – all of the                     and men;
„indications‟ of progress towards the
target.                                                     Ensures that men and women, girls
                                                             and boys enjoy equal quality of life.
Quantitative data are measures of quantity               35. NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE
(total numbers, proportions, percentages                 ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN (NCFAW)
etc), such as population figures, labour
force figures, school attainment rates, etc.             National Committee for the Advancement
It is important that wherever possible data              of Women is the advisory body to the
for individuals be disaggregated by the                  Prime Minister in developing and
sex of the individuals – sex-disaggregated               monitoring the implementation of the
data.                                                    National Strategy and Plan of Action for
                                                         Advancement of Women; coordinates with
                                                         relevant agencies to make proposals,
32. QUALITATIVE                                          advocate and disseminate laws and
Information that is based on people‟s                    policies of the State relating to gender
judgments, perceptions and opinions                      equality and advancement of women; acts
about a subject. Obtained through attitude               as a coordinating agency in drafting
surveys, focus group discussions, public                 national reports on CEDAW
hearings and consultations, participatory                implementation and a national focal point
appraisals etc. It is essential that                     for international cooperation in gender
qualitative information be collected in a                equality and advancement of women.
manner that is sensitive to gender issues
and shows a representative view of both                  36. COMMITTEE FOR THE
male and female stakeholders.                            ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN (CFAW)
                                                         Committees for the Advancement of
                                                         Women are based in line ministries and at
                                                         local levels to advise and support leaders
                                                         in the implementation of the Party and

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                    25
State's policies for gender equality and
advancement of women.                                    41. GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT
                                                         (GAD) APPROACH
                                                         GAD was developed in the 1980s in
38. NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR THE                            response to the perceived failures of WID.
ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN                                     Instead of focusing only on women, GAD
                                                         is concerned with the relations between
National Strategy for the Advancement of                 women and men; it challenges unequal
Women by 2010 contains five specific                     decision-making and power relations.
objectives. Its overall goal is aimed at                 GAD seeks to address the underlying
improving the quality of women‟s material                causes of gender inequality by addressing
and spiritual life, as well as establishing              the different life experiences for men and
the conditions necessary for women to                    women through mainstreaming gender
experience their fundamental rights, and                 into planning at all levels and in all sectors
to fully and equally participate in and                  and focusing on whatever steps are
benefit from all aspects of political,                   necessary to ensure equal outcomes.
economic, cultural and social life.
The National Plan of Action for the
Advancement of Women to 2005 guides
the implementation of the National
Strategy and details specific
responsibilities and actions for ministries
and agencies to take in achieving the POA
and National Strategy.
The WID approach which emerged in the
1970s began with an uncritical acceptance
of existing social structures and focused
on how women could be better integrated
into existing development initiatives. It
included strategies such as women only
projects, focusing on training, and
women‟s productive work – often credit
and income generation projects. WID
treated women as passive recipients of
development: women‟s concerns were
viewed in isolation as separate issues.
WID failed to address the systematic
causes of gender inequality.

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                     26
                             HANDOUT 9

                                                            Extend moral support and lead policy
                                                             advocacy and dialogue on gender
                                                             issues, e.g. raising it regularly in
                                                             discussions with politicians and
Only senior most management can                              representatives    of   development
properly oversee a crosscutting theme                        organizations?
like Gender that overlaps the various
management structures and areas of an                       Promote measures to develop gender
organization. The authority and support                      equity within your own organizational
of policy makers is essential in                             structures, procedures and culture?
communicating the message that
attention to gender equality is important                      Adapted from: DFID April 2002, Gender
and is expected!                                             Manual: A Practical Guide for Development
                                                                       Policy Makers and Practitioners.
As Senior Most Management, Do
   Seek information, give ideas, and                    SUPPORT FROM EXPERTS
    get progress reports on the gender
    mainstreaming        process,     and                Stakeholders have a significant impact
    gender equality progress in policies                 on the outcome of a policy, program, or
    and programs?                                        project. Reflect a moment on:
   Recognize        innovations      and
    achievements related to gender                          Who are your organizations key
    equality?                                                stakeholders? Do they include
                                                             individuals or groups with a „gender
   Integrate gender equality issues                         perspective‟?
    and perspectives into speeches                          Is there an appropriate balance of
    and statements on a range of                             women and men in all institutions
    subjects and not reserve comments                        and agencies involved in your
    on this theme purely for gender                          planning processes?
    and/or women-specific occasions?                        Has     gender     expertise    been
   Assert what needs to change and                          mobilized for your organization‟s
    how to do it to achieve gender                           planning processes?
    equality, especially in the face of
    resistance      towards        gender                Have the following been brought in to
    equality?                                            contribute to the Public Sector Policy,
                                                         Programme or Project Cycle?
   Allocate     sufficient     resources,
    financial and human, for the
    promotion and support of gender                         Gender focal points in other
    mainstreaming efforts?                                   ministries or departments?
   Participate in discussions on                           Development partners with a
    gender     issues      i.e.   opening                    gender equality mandate?
    workshops,        chairing     panels,                  An umbrella organization of women
    sponsoring discussions?                                  or gender NGOs?

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                     27
   Relevant sectoral or special interest
    NGOs that have an interest                 or
    experience in gender issues?
   Think tanks or policy analysts with
    experience or expertise in gender
   Academics or researchers from
    university    Gender       Studies
   Gender consultants

           Adapted from: UNDP RBEC 2002 Gender
             Mainstreaming in Practice: A Handbook

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners   28

    1. SITUATION ASSESSMENT &                               In what specific ways will the
    ANALYSIS:                                                project lead to women‟s increased
                                                             empowerment? Will         women‟s
       Has      specific     and     relevant               participation increase at the level
        information been collected on                        of the family and community? Will
        issues and differences for men and                   women be able to control
        women in relation to the specific                    income resulting from their own
        problem?                                             labor?
       Were women involved in                              Do any of the objectives
        conducting         the      needs                    challenge the existing          or
        assessment, and were the                             traditional sexual division of
        women of the community asked                         labor, tasks, opportunities and
        for their opinion on their                           responsibilities?
        problems and needs?
                                                            Have specific ways been
       Has there been an assessment                         proposed to encourage and
        of women‟s position in terms of                      enable women to participate in
        such possible problems as their                      the projects despite their
        heavier work burden, relative                        traditionally more domestic
        lack of access to resources and                      location      and     subordinate
        opportunities      or   lack   of                    position within the community?
        participation in the development
        process?                                            Have indicators been developed
                                                             to measure progress towards
       Has a gender analysis been                           the fulfillment of each objective?
        conducted to understand the                          Do these indicators measure
        cause of the issues or                               the gender aspects of each
        differences?                                         objective?

                                                         3. PROJECT STRATEGY:
       Do the project objectives make
        clear that project benefits are                     Is there need to target gender
        intended equally for women as                        balance    as   a    corrective
        for men?                                             measure?
       Does the goal seek to correct                       Have the women in the affected
        gender imbalances through                            community and target group
        addressing practical needs of                        been consulted on the most
        men and women?                                       appropriate way of overcoming
                                                             the problem?
       Does the goal seek to transform
        the institutions (social and                        Is the chosen intervention
        other) that perpetuate gender                        strategy likely to overlook
        inequality?                                          women in the target group, e.g.

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                  29
    because of their heavier burden
                                                     5. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION:
    of work and more domestic
    location?                                           Are    the   implementers   gender-
   Is the strategy concerned                            responsive and aware of the
    merely with delivering benefits to                   specific gender issues?
    women, or does it also involve                      Will both women and men
    their increased participation and                    participate in implementation?
    empowerment, so they will be in a
    better position to overcome the                     Do implementation methods
    problem situation?                                   make sufficient use of existing
                                                         women‟s     organizations  and
                                                         networks such as women‟s
MANAGEMENT:                                             Have these partners received
                                                         gender mainstreaming training, so
   Do planned activities involve both                   that gender perspective can be
    men and women as equally as                          sustained              throughout
    possible?                                            implementation?
   Are women and men of the
    affected community represented
    equally on the management                        6. MONITORING:
    committees?                                         Does the monitoring strategy
   Are any additional activities                        include a gender perspective?
    needed to ensure that a gender                      Are        there        monitoring
    perspective is made explicit                         mechanisms that ensure that all
    (e.g. training in gender issues,                     policy / program / project
    additional research, etc)?                           activities are on track and take
   Is there a clear guiding policy                      account of progress for male
    for    management       on   the                     and female beneficiaries?
    integration of women within the                     Are there monitoring methods to
    development process?                                 check the progress in reaching
   Have financial inputs been                           women?          E.g.      women‟s
    „gender-proofed‟ to ensure that                      (increased) income, occupation
    both men and women will                              of leadership roles, utilization of
    benefit from the planned                             credit facilities, participation in
    intervention?                                        project     management          and
   Has management been provided                         implementation, and influence
    with the human resources and                         over decision making?
    expertise necessary to manage                       Has a communication strategy
    and     monitor  the   women‟s                       been developed for informing
    development component within the                     various publics about the
                                                         existence, progress and results
                                                         of the project from a gender

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                    30
   Do women receive a fair share,
    relative to men, of the benefits
    arising from the projects?
   Does the project redress a
    previous unequal sharing of
   Does the project give women
    increased control over material
    resources, better access to credit
    and other opportunities, and more
    control over the benefits resulting
    from their productive efforts?
   What are the likely long-term
    effects in terms of women‟s
    increased ability to take charge of
    their own lives, understand their
    situation and the difficulties they
    face, and to take collective action
    to solve problems?

    Source: Adapted from Astrida Neimanis,
      Gender Mainstreaming in Practice: A
                         Handbook, Part I.

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners   31
                            HANDOUT 10
In the late 1990s and new millennium, the focus of donor-supported development has
shifted to a significant degree away from discrete project interventions onto processes
concerned with the development and implementation of national policy frameworks for
poverty elimination. Evaluation material is beginning to emerge examining experiences of
mainstreaming gender in the context of national policy frameworks such as PRSPs
(Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers) and SWAPs (Sector Wide Approaches).


       National policy frameworks potentially                     weak     and    little  consistent
       provide the ideal context for gender                       attention has been paid to gender
       mainstreaming, concerned as they are                       dimensions of poverty reduction.
       with mainstream policy development                       Insufficient  documentation     of
       and effectiveness. They provide a                          gender disparities and gender-
       context whereby:                                           disaggregated analysis of poverty
          Gender analytical information and                      is a barrier to recognising and
            sex disaggregated data on men‟s                       addressing     gender      issues
            and women‟s concerns and                              effectively.
            experiences can inform national                     Few PRSPs and I-PRSPs (Interim
            or sector-wide policy and planning                    Poverty Strategy Papers) include
            processes.                                            specific plans for gender-sensitive
          The importance of gender-aware                         consultation processes.
            consultation processes, involving                   Action to promote gender equality,
            civil    society    and     other                     when included, is too often vague,
            stakeholders,    is   specifically                    and not backed up with
            acknowledged.                                         appropriate monitoring indicators.
          National policy commitments to                       The donor voice in advocating
            gender equality should be backed                      gender     equality    goals     is
            up   with     budgets,   effective                    inconsistent (to the frustration of
            processes of monitoring, and                          partner organisations and staff
            capacity-building.                                    concerned with equalities issues).
          The long-term time frame of                          Commitments to gender equality at
            PRSPs           and        SWAPS                      the national level are subject to
            acknowledges       the     complex                    “policy evaporation”.
            processes of change involved.
            However, the potential of national                  equity outcomes are not achieved
            policy frameworks for promoting                       unless they are explicitly stated
            effective gender mainstreaming is                     and operationalised through well
            greater than achievements to                          thought out procedures.
            date. The following problems                         Helen Derbyshire, (2003) Gender Manual,
            have been highlighted in all                         A Practical Guide for Development Policy
            currently available evaluations:                                        Makers & Practitioners

          Incorporation of gender issues into
            PRSPs has, thus far, been
            minimal. Whilst a few have
            addressed gender issues in
            specific sectors (usually health
            and education) with reasonable
            depth, the overall coverage is

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                        32
                                  SEPARATE INSERTS

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners   33
                             HANDOUT 7
                  GENDER CHECKLIST FOR the project cycle

    Policies, programs and projects                            resources been aligned to work
    impact differently on women and                            with both men and women?
    men due to their gender-based roles
    and life situations. Developing                            4. Monitoring/Evaluation: Does
    institutional capacity for gender                             the monitoring and evaluation
    mainstreaming thus requires that the                          strategy have a gender
    needs of both women and men are                               perspective? Do the indicators
    reflected from beginning to end of                            measure        the     gender
    the policy, program and planning                              dimension of each objective?
    process as follows:                                           Have appropriate methods
                                                                  and resources been assigned
    1. Situation    Assessment     and                            to obtain information from
       Analysis:       Were     gender                            both    gender?    Is    there
       disaggregated data and gender                              provision for a communication
       analysis used in the background                            strategy? Does the project
       and justification of the policy,                           redress a previous unequal
       program or project?                                        sharing?

    2. Project         Goals/Objectives,
       Strategy         and        Project
       Management: Are the needs of
       both women and men reflected in
       the     goals,    objectives    and
       strategies of the Project? Is there
       a clear policy for mainstreaming
       women?         Has      appropriate
       budgeting been assigned for
       sufficient for the development of
       both men and women? Does the
       strategy consider men‟s and
       women‟s practical and strategic
       gender needs?

    3. Project Implementation: Will
       both men and women participate
       in the implementation? Are those
       who will implement the Program
       or Project gender aware? Has
       adequate     and     appropriate

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners               34
                             HANDOUT 8
                  GENDER Checklist for THE DATA CYCLE
   Stage               Description                 Main Questions
   Determining         Objectives                  What potential advantages and improvements
   the need                                        in the current situation of women vis-à-vis men
                                                   have been identified as objective of the

                       Gaps              Do the gaps identified include lack of
                                         information about women‟s situation?
   Design              Situation         Were the women‟s groups and/ or other
                       Review/Background researchers working on gender issues involved
                       Research/         in designing this research?

                       Definitions                 Do the definitions (e.g. work, productivity)
                                                   include women‟s dimension of contribution?

                       Sample                      Is the research sample indicative /
                                                   representative of the sex ratio on the ground?

                                                   Are the questions probing enough to get to the
                       Questionnaire               realities of the women (which are often

                                                   Is their a sufficient number of questions to
                                                   explore the gender dimensions of the subject?

                                                   Does the questionnaire design cater to the low
                                                   literacy levels of women in Pakistan?

                                                   Are the designer of the questionnaire trained to
                                                   design gender balanced research studies?

   Data                                            What are the particular techniques/ measures
   Collection                                      to ensure women‟s voices are included in data
                                                   gathering? (e.g., *appointment of women
                                                   enumerators, organizing homogenous focused
                                                   group interviews based on gender, age, and
                                                   class when prioritizing problems,)

                                                   Have possible factors (legal/ cultural or
                                                   practical constraints) that may prevent/
                                                   discourage the participation in the research (**
                                                   season***, time of the day) been identified and

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                   35
      Analysis                                         How does the research intend to analyze
                                                       gender differences in roles/ practices and
                                                       outcomes related to the case? What “analytical
                                                       approaches” **** will be used to enhance
                                                       explanation and/or understanding of relevant
                                                       gender differences?

                                                       Are the analysts gender-sensitive enough to
                                                       look for gender differences?

                                                       Are there any women involved in the team
                                                       analyzing the data?
      Presentation                                     Have the differences and similarities in the
                                                       findings between men and women been

      Dissemination      Planners                      Has the research been disseminated to
      Consumption        Managers                      organizations focused on women

                                                       Do the consumers of the research utilize
                                                       gender disaggregated data? Are they trained
                                                       to design and implement gender sensitive
  *    Accuracy is considerably enhanced when enumerators are of the same sex as the interviewee or
       observed person, so most data collection teams need to include more women.
  ** Women‟s work is sometimes seasonal and if the data is collected out of the season then their work
       might not be captured . so there is a need to constantly ask the question Is the timing suitable to give
       a real picture of the gender dimension ?
  *** Research has shown most women have very little “free time” and are handling more than two chores
       at a time. That means a women could be in the house and yet not available. It is important that the
       time of interview suits women‟s and men‟s schedules.
  **** Gender analytic tools are systematic frameworks for diagnosing the existing gender situation in a
       given community, or for assessing what the impact of an intervention such as an energy project is
       likely to be, on men and on women. They are intended firstly to draw attention to gender inequalities
       in a given community, and secondly to be a early warning system identifying problems that may arise
       if an initiative is started within this community, as regards impacts on men and on women. Most
       gender tools in themselves however give no direct guidance in how to determine desired
       development directions; they are simply tools which can be applied to describe the existing situation,
       or to predict what the impacts of a project will be.

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                                36

                                       Feedback Form
Q.1. How would you rate the following sessions? (place a tick in one of the four columns)

                                              Excellent       Worthwhile      Confusing   Terrible



 Acknowledging Gender Disparities

 Understanding Gender

 Mainstreaming Gender

 Institutionalizing Gender

Q.2 Please share with us which aspects of the session you found most useful (e.g. contents,
concepts, use of case studies, participatory aspect of the event, presentation, etc) ?

Q.3 Please rate the quality of the facilitation by circling one number on the following scale:

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     poor           average            competent               excellent

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners                37
Q.4 Have you ever attended a gender training before this? If „yes‟, please specify when and

Q.5 Please identify one step that you would like to take in order to mainstream gender in
your organization‟s policy, programme or planning processes.

Q.6 What support the Gender Mainstreaming Project could extend to your organization with
regard to mainstreaming gender?

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners            38
                                      USEFUL LINKS

Visit these official websites for information on Gender Mainstreaming
 bureau/gender/newsite2002/about/defin.htm

Interactive Discussion on Gender Mainstreaming for Data Managers & Planners   39

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