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GLOSSARY

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					GLOSSARY
Accountability. Mechanisms that stakeholders can use to assess the public sector’s performance and to pressure the
    state to honor their interests.
Adult education/training. Includes college, vocational, and occupational programs, continuing education and noncredit
     courses, correspondence courses, and tutoring for adults. These services are supplied by employers, community
     groups, and other providers.
Alignment. As used in this paper, the matching of the skills and knowledge created by the education system to the
     skills and knowledge required by a country’s economic and political systems.
Basic education. Primary and lower secondary education combined. ECA countries vary somewhat in the organization
     of their education systems and in the ages and grades associated with each level of education. However, in gen-
     eral, primary education can be grades 1–4/5, the normal age range being 6/7 to 10. The lower secondary level
     can be grades 5/6–8/9, the normal age range varying from 10–14 to 11–15.
Block grants. Grants made to local governments but not reserved exclusively for education.
Capitation financing; demand-driven financing. Funding for education that is determined primarily by the number of
     students in a subnational unit, such as a school or district. Sometimes called “money follows student”, these
     financing systems are based on capitation (“headcounts”), unit cost, or average cost. The funding formula per stu-
     dent can be adjusted for factors that result in differences in the costs of providing education, as in small villages.
Categorical (or “earmarked”) grants. Funding that can only be spent for a specific purpose such as education.
Choice. Giving customers for goods or services, such as educational services, alternatives among which they can select.
     Although competitive market forces are normally used to provide options, the public sector can structure service
     delivery in ways that create alternatives for beneficiaries.
Civic mindedness. Playing by the rules of the game that govern communal life—for example, not cheating on taxes.
Cognition. The act or faculty of knowing, or the process of knowing, or knowledge and the capacity for it, or thinking.
Cognitive self-management. See Metacognitive skills.
Contact hours. The number of hours per week scheduled for face-to-face contact between teachers and students.
Continuous education. The availability of educational and training experiences throughout life.
Diagnostic assessment of student learning. Assessment of a student’s strengths and weaknesses that teachers can use
     to tailor instruction that addresses weaknesses.
Distance education. Programs in which students and teachers communicate almost exclusively through correspondence,
     audio or video links, or computer.
Document literacy. The knowledge and skills required to locate and use information contained in various formats,
    including job applications, payroll forms, transport schedules, maps, tables, and graphics.
Economies of scale. Realized when an increase in the size of an activity—for example, increased class size—requires
    less than a proportionate increase in cost.
Educational attainment. The highest level of education completed.
Education mainstreaming. Policies aimed at limiting the grouping of students by ability or achievement in order to avoid
    exclusion. Mainstreaming implies relaxing rigid divisions between vocational and academic curricula and adopting
    teaching methods and curricula that allow students in shared spaces, but of different aptitudes, to progress.
Efficiency. For an education system, measured by the relationship between the outcomes achieved and the resources
      used to produce those outcomes.
Enquiry-based teaching. Method of teaching in which the teacher, instead of giving the learner verbal descriptions of
    a concept or principle, structures the learning experience so that the student can develop the concept or arrive
    at the principle himself/herself.




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               Enrollment rates (gross and net). A gross enrollment rate expresses the total number of children of any age enrolled
                    in a schooling level as a percentage of the total number of children in the relevant age group for that level. Net
                    enrollment rates measure only the number of children of the relevant age group enrolled in a schooling level as
                    a percentage of the total number of children in that age group.
               Epistemology. Study or theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge, especially with reference to its limits and validity.
               Evaluative skills. Advanced thinking skills that allow the individual to make judgments about the value of materials or
                    methods for a given purpose.
               Fairness. In education, equitable opportunities to learn, rather then equality of learning outcomes; for example, all
                    students have the textbooks for a grade.
               Foundation skills. The literacy and quantitative skills that provide the base for subsequent learning and enhance the
                   efficiency with which it occurs.
               General (academic) upper secondary education. One of three alternatives for students in ECA countries following basic
                   education. The academic, or general, stream leads to matriculation from secondary education and lasts two to
                   four years. (The other alternatives are a technical/vocational stream that also leads to matriculation from sec-
                   ondary education and that lasts three to four years and a vocational program that does not lead to matriculation
                   and that lasts one to two years.)
               Gini coefficient. The Gini coefficient measures the degree of inequality of the distribution of earnings. It is equal to 0
                    in the case of total earnings equality and to 1 in the case of total inequality.
               Governance. Governance in the education sector refers to the process of goal setting for the sector as it affects policy
                    and process and monitoring the progress of the sector relative to these goals.
               Higher education or tertiary education or postsecondary education. Education programs offered to students who have
                   successfully completed prerequisite studies at the upper secondary level. There is usually opportunity for post-
                   secondary technical as well as university training. Program completion is marked by the awarding of a university
                   degree or a recognized equivalent qualification.
               Higher order thinking skills. As defined in Resnik (1987), higher order cognitive thinking is evidenced in solving prob-
                   lems that have certain characteristics: the path of action is not fully specified in advance, nor is the path to a
                   solution mentally visible from any single vantage point; the problem yields multiple rather than unique solutions
                   and requires nuanced judgment and the application of multiple criteria that sometimes conflict with one another;
                   and not all of the information needed to solve it is available.
               Human capital. Investments in knowledge and skills of individuals that increase the individuals’ future welfare by
                  increasing the efficiency of their future consumption and productivity. These investments include but are not lim-
                  ited to education and training.
               Incidence of poverty. Percentage of the population or of a particular population group living below an established
                    poverty line.
               Informal user charges. Payments by service users—such as payments by parents for educational services—that are
                    neither explicit nor public.
               In-service teacher training. Professional development programs of varying duration for the existing teaching force, as
                    distinct from preservice training for students before they enter the teaching profession.
               Knowing-how-to-learn skills. See Metacognitive skills.
               Learning outcomes. The knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values that students acquire as a result of their schooling
                    experiences.
               Literacy. As defined in the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), information-processing skills, including numer-
                     acy, that adults need in order to perform tasks encountered at work, at home, or in the community. These skills
                     include the ability to draw meaning from written symbols—the defining characteristic of higher level reading and
                     writing skills being the ability to draw on an extensive repertoire of knowledge and experiences to expand and
                     interpret the meaning of verbal and quantitative texts.




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Lower secondary education. The upper grades of basic education, usually grades 5/6–8/9, with the normal age range
    varying from 10–14 to 11–15.
Management. How the implementation of goals for a sector is organized.
Metacognitive skills (known also as executive thinking or cognitive self-management). The cognitive ability to observe
    and reflect on one’s thought processes and problem-solving attempts in order to improve their productivity.
Minority language instruction. Teaching subjects in a language of a particular minority group.
Multigrade teaching. Teaching a group of students of different grades combined in a single classroom.
Net reproduction rate. The average number of daughters that would be born to a woman if she passed through her life-
     time conforming to the age-specific fertility and mortality rates of a given year. An NRR of 1 means that each
     generation of mothers is having exactly enough daughters to replace itself in the population.
Paper voucher. A certified document stating the amount of public funding following a student to the school of his or
    her choice.
Pedagogy. The principles and methodology of teaching and instruction.
Poverty assessment. One of the World Bank’s key instruments for analyzing poverty and the public policies, expendi-
     tures, and institutions that affect the incidence of poverty.
Preservice teacher training. Training provided to future teachers before they enter the teaching profession.
Preschool. Distinct from nursery care for children of ages 0–3; includes children from age 3 to ages 5, 6, or 7. When
     preschool includes 7 year olds, the curriculum for 7 year old preschoolers tends to approximate that of the first
     grade in primary schools in other countries.
Primary education. The initial years of basic education, encompassing grades 1–4/5, with the normal age range for
    these grades being 6/7 to 10.
Prose literacy. As defined by the IALS, the knowledge and skills needed to understand and use information from texts,
     including editorials, news stories, poems, and fiction.
Quantitative literacy. As defined by the IALS, the knowledge and skills required to apply arithmetical operations, either
    alone or sequentially, to numbers embedded in printed materials. Such applications include balancing a check-
    book, figuring out a tip, and completing an application for a loan or determining the amount of interest on a
    loan from an advertisement.
Report cards. Periodic formal reports made by a school to a parent or guardian on a student’s performance, progress,
    attitudes, and values, or the report made by a school district or central government to parents on the perfor-
    mance of the schools attended by their children.
Social cohesion. Willingness of groups to cooperate across boundaries that normally divide them (e.g., clan, ethnic,
     or religious membership). Social cohesion increases economic development by reducing the risk of political
     instability and civil strife, both of which increase the risk and uncertainty of economic transactions.
Technical upper secondary education. Three- or four-year programs leading to a diploma and the opportunity to con-
     tinue tertiary studies. Some programs require completion of general upper secondary education as a prerequisite
     for enrollment in the program; others offer academic courses that let students complete academic upper
     secondary school equivalency simultaneously with technical training.
Total fertility rate. The sum of age-specific birthrates over all ages of the child-bearing period. It represents the theo-
     retical number of births to a woman during the child-bearing years, using the given year’s birthrate as a constant.
Trust. The belief that the other person will honor his or her implied or explicit side of a bargain or a contract.
     Economic development is based on human cooperation and exchange—on transactions. Trust enhances economic
     development because it increases the efficiency of these transactions.
Tutor. (1) A teacher; (2) a teacher who works with students individually, perhaps outside school hours, in return for a fee
Tutorial. A meeting between a tutor and a single student (or sometimes small groups of students) in which intensive
     face-to-face teaching and discussion occur.




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               Upper secondary education. The level of education that follows basic education and encompasses three tracks: general
                   secondary or academic, vocational secondary; and technical secondary. The normal ages vary from 14/15 to 17/18.
               Virtual voucher. A computerized system of allocating public funding among schools based on school choice exercised
                    by students.
               Vocational secondary education. One-to-three-year programs providing vocational training in specific occupations or
                    trades through school or work-based programs. Some programs of longer duration also offer academic courses that
                    let students complete general secondary school equivalency along with vocational training, thus giving them
                    access to tertiary education.
               Voice or participation. Opportunities for citizens or customers to exert pressure on service providers to perform. Users
                    and beneficiaries can participate in the definition of input and outcome standards. They can also use information
                    on the performance of the public or private sector to press for improved performance and to choose among educa-
                    tional options on the basis of differential performance. The central players for exercising voice include beneficiaries,
                    users, taxpayers, and civic groups.
               Voucher principle. Combines the principles of school choice and “money follows student”. The voucher principle can be
                   implemented by basing each year’s budget on the previous year’s enrollment.




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