An Introduction to the ABCs & Ds of Objectives James Marshall San Diego State University What Are Objectives? Tangible manifestations of goals Outcome statements of what learners can (will be able to…) do Clear reasons for training Examples: Given a printout, the learner will be able to (LWBAT) diagnose an electrical malfunction in a widget so that necessary parts can be ordered, resulting in repair in 90% of problems. LWBAT assemble the widget in under 45 minutes so that it functions to specification. The learner will choose to (LWCT) attend the opera at least once each season. Why bother with objectives? Clear, public statement of purpose Guidance for kinds of strategies Guidance for validation/evaluation (can they do it?) Focus designer's attention on organizing and sequence (terminal and enabling objectives) Focus trainee's attention: communicates expectations Establishes specifications for instructional products and services Where do objectives come from? curriculum frameworks tests policy statements government statements and regulations management priorities subject matter experts research and review of the literature political pressure What analyses give life to objectives? GOAL ANALYSIS TASK ANALYSIS Optimals SUBJECT MATTER ANALYSIS Where do objectives come from? OPTIMALS - ACTUALS NEEDS GOALS OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES More... Which are most like goals vs. most like objectives? A. sorts the broken parts and working parts into two piles B. pays strict attention to detail C. is ever vigilant about the dangers inherent in the equipment D. can name the governor of each state and his/her party affiliation, when given the name of the state From goals to objectives GOALS OBJECTIVES Broad Narrow General intentions Precise Intangible Tangible Abstract Concrete Can't be validated as is Can be validated as is e.g. Knows about After the teacher’s question, behavioral obj. LWBAT name the 4 parts of a behavioral objective as per p.35 in Mager. Kinds of objectives 1. COGNITIVE: thought, knowledge "What the student is able to do” 2. AFFECTIVE: feelings, choices "How the student chooses to act” 3. PSYCHOMOTOR: physical skills "What the student can do” LW . . . LWBAT "Learner will be able to...." Used for: • Cognitive objectives • Psychomotor objectives Given a picture and 3 short sentences, the student will be able to match the picture with the sentence that describes it. LWCT "Learner will choose to...." Used for: • Affective objectives The citizen will choose to vote in every election. Components of an objective FOUR COMPONENTS: • AUDIENCE • BEHAVIOR • CONDITION • DEGREE (Criterion) Audience Identifies WHO it is that will be doing it-- It is never about the instructor, unless the problem or opportunity focuses on the performance of instructors. The newly hired executive EGS: The first year medical student The computer salesperson The veteran teacher The graduate student in EDTEC Behavior (performance) What the learner will be able to do. Something that can be seen or heard. EGS: Name, List, Describe, Attach, Compare, Repair, Convince, Save, Write, Create, Develop, Purchase,State, Cook, Produce, Tap Dance, Compose, Sequence, Post... Conditions Describes conditions under which the performance is to occur. Will it be aided or not? Purpose is to establish the antecedents for performance What will they be allowed to use? What won't they be allowed to use? Under what conditions must it occur? What sets off the behavior? What must the learner see and recognize as appropriate stimuli for performance? Conditions EGS: Given a crying child, Given the question, ‘what did you do on your summer vacation?’ and a rubric, During the Olympic trials and on national TV, When the screen blinks and line 122a reads siogqoihoif, Given a radar that shows an incoming plane, at night, and with fuel sufficient for only 20 more minutes of flight, With a map of the United States, with drawn state boundaries, Degree / Criterion Tells how well the behavior must be done. Common criteria: Speed Accuracy Quality Can also use "pointing" criteria, though less desirable: "As established in the reference manual." "As defined by the American Red Cross." Answers the question: What's good enough? Degree / Criterion EGS So that the child starts breathing To match the map given in the 3rd grade textbook, page 67 With no more than one prompt from the teacher With no more than one miscue or error Including all four parts as defined by Mager Improving customer satisfaction ratings by 25% Requirement 1 1 Should be stated from an INDIVIDUAL LEARNER'S point of view, NOT the teacher's or instructor's. Good One: The fourth grader will be able to write a sentence using alliteration. Bad One: The English teacher will teach the students the technique of "alliteration“ so that they can use it in their writing. Requirement 2 2 They should state what knowledge, skills, or attitudes a learner should have attained by the END of instruction (OUTCOMES/ENDS), NOT the activities or lessons which occurred DURING the instruction to get him/her there (NOT MEANS). Good One: Given a second-degree polynomial equation test, the algebra student will be able to use the quadratic formula to solve 8 of 10 equations in a paper & pencil test. Bad One: Given a lecture on the quadratic formula, the algebra student will learn how to use the quadratic formula to solve 8 out of 10 equations given. Requirement 3 3 The actual performance the learner is to attain should be stated in OBSERVABLE or MEASURABLE terms. It will be seen the same way by 2 or more people. Good One: The fifth grader will be able to describe the five major organ systems of the human body in terms of their primary function and major physical organs. Bad One: The fifth grader will have a good understanding of the body’s organ systems. Some Common Errors 1. VASTNESS Restating the goal Too broad in scope Must be reduced 2. COMPLEXITY Includes two or more unrelated objectives 3. WEAK CRITERIA Criteria must be: reasonable specific useful measurable More Common Errors 4. FALSE GIVENS Statement of learning setting or method 5. DOMAIN CONFUSION Goal and objective must match 6. EARNESTNESS Promises too much and not in behavioral terms. What would you say? “Who are YOU to establish objectives for someone else?" "We want a program for teachers on empowerment. Where are you going to get objectives for such an important topic?" "I don't like to be tied down by anything like objectives."