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					  Municipal Environmental Services and Institutional
          Development Action Plan (MESIDAP)

6.1 Introduction
6.1.1 Objectives

     The Municipal Strengthening and Environmental Services
     Improvement Action Plan aims to achieve the ultimate goal
     of a ”Sustainable and Equitable provision of improved
     Environmental Services”. Further details on MESIDAP are
     provided in Appendix H.

     This is derived from the approach developed in the Municipal Environmental
     Improvement Strategy (MEIS) and Strengthening Institutions and Resources
     Strategy (SIRS), which is “access to basic environmental services for all and
     sustainability in the processes of provision, operation, maintenance and funding of
     environment-related municipal services throughout the CMA area and in particular
     in those areas inhabited by lower income groups”.

     The Environmental Services Improvement Programme objective, to provide,
     “sustainable and equitable provision and management of improved environmental
     services,” would be achieved through a series of actions at the municipal level with
     a number of strengthening programmes of the local bodies, capacity building of the
     DoMA and DoUD at the State level and development of a Community
     Environmental Management Programme.

     The GoI in the 74th Constitutional Amendment (CAA) and the GoWB in the West
     Bengal Municipal Act 1993 and several Municipal Corporation Acts legislated
     between 1980 and 1993, have accepted the principle of decentralisation of
     municipal functions to the local body level. This process would be further
     supported by the establishment of the Metropolitan Planning Committee. The
     action plan recognises that there will be a need to strengthen local bodies if they
     are to carry out the duties transferred to them under the Calcutta Municipal
     Corporation Act, 1980 and the West Bengal Municipal Act 1993, and as
     embodied in the 74th CAA.

     The action plan therefore puts forward an integrated programme of physical,
     institutional and community strengthening measures which are intended to
     complement and reinforce each other. The components are phased to ensure
     that the complexity of tasks to be addressed and institutional / community
     capacity remain in step.

     The general aim is to develop a service-led institutional framework, which would
     enable the local bodies to achieve the ultimate goal, that is to provide a
     sustainable and improved environmental services. Additionally, the plans put
     forward would also be applicable to the local bodies outside CMA.

6.1.2 Background
      Bearing in mind the interdependence of the various proposed interventions, the
      Action Plan aims to take an integrated approach, with an emphasis on
      strengthening the various organisations already involved in service provision and
      improving the co-ordination between them. To achieve this goal it will be
      necessary to strengthen the capacity of ULBs, and the best means of achieving
      this will be to increase the capacity of the lead agencies, i.e. the Departments of
      Municipal Affairs (DoMA) and Urban Development (DoUD) departments, to
      provide the necessary support assistance and training. This requires definition of
      the functions of each department, technical strengthening and establishment of
      the proper linkages and communication among the departments and the
      municipalities to create an integrated approach.

      The assumption has been made that it is better to use existing organisations and
      strengthening them where necessary, rather than create an additional level of
      administration, and also that where possible, it is better to use existing well tried
      legal provisions rather than recommend wholesale restructuring. In effect, to
      begin with incremental improvements which are low cost to implement and

      Equally fundamental to the achievement of equitable access to sustainable
      environmental services is the empowerment of the community to enable
      stakeholders to fully participate in the planning, provision and management of
      local environmental services.

      Thus the Municipal Environmental Services & Institutional Development
      Action Plan comprises five basic elements which together combine to
      achieve many of the key objectives of the Environmental Management
      Strategy. These elements are :
      Environmental Services Improvement Programme;
      Municipal Institutional Strengthening Programme;
      Programme for Strengthening the Departments of Municipal Affairs and Urban
      Community Environmental Management Programme; and
      Urban Land Management.
The relationship between these elements of the Action Plan are shown at Figure

6.2 Links with Other Action Plans
      There are a number of linkages between the MESIDAP and other Action Plans
      included under the EMS, of which the most significant are between the Water
      Source Protection component and the Wetlands Management component of
      ISEMAP, the Municipal Waste Disposal sub-component and Industrial
      Environmental Services Programme of the IUPCAP; the Local Environmental
      Planning activity (Approach Paper) and the Environmental Planning function of
      the DoE outlined in the ISEMAP; and the Community Environmental
      Management Programme within MESIDAP and the PPW defined in the ISEMAP.

6.3 Linking with the Existing Investment Plans
There are major linkages between the Action Plan components and current plans
and programmes of GoI and GoWB in the area of environmental improvement.
The most significant are the estimated investments of Rs. 34,000 lakhs by CMDA
under Ganga Action Plan, Rs. 115,000 lakhs under the Megacity Project by
       Figure 6.1 : Municipal Environmental Services and Institutional Development Action Plan (Component Linking Document)

                                 Strengthening of
                             Departments of Municipal               Municipal Institutional           Community Environmental    Environmental Services
Urban Land Management           Affairs and Urban                      Strengthening                                                 Improvement

                                                        Improve linkages between MA /           Improve linkages between
                                                                DoUD and its                  local bodies and Communities,
                            Strengthening                                                              CBOs, NGOs
                         Directorate of Local             operating units and Local
                           Bodies, ILGUS,                           Bodies
                        Municipal Engineering
                         Directorate Central
                         Valuatn. Board etc.
                                                                                                       Empower and Strengthen
                                                                                                        Technical Capabilities     Implement Community
                                                                Institutional                           Resource Mobilisation          led, Municipal
                                                              Strengthening of                           and Organisation of             Supported
                                                                Local Bodies                                Communities            Environmental Services
                                                                                                                                    Projects on Pilot Scale

                                                                                                  SUSTAINABLE AND
                                                                                                     EQUITABLE                             Operate and
                                                      Cost recovery,
                                                                                                     PROVISION                              Maintain
                                                                                                  AND MANAGEMENT                            Improved
                                                     mobilisation and
                                                                                                    OF IMPROVED                              Services
                                                   service management
     CMDA for water supply, sewerage & drainage, SWM, housing and new area
     development, and basti improvement. The estimated investments in other
     projects of CMDA are Rs. 5,050 lakhs in the minimum need programme and
     CSIP. The CMC’s estimated investment is Rs. 49,000 lakhs, with the help of
     HUDCO and an ADB loan, for water supply augmentation, and sewerage and
     drainage rehabilitation.

6.4 Overview
     The MESIDAP comprises five basic components:
     Environmental Services Improvement Programme;
     Municipal Institutional Strengthening Programme;
      Departments of Municipal Affairs & Urban Development (DoMA / DoUD)
  Strengthening Programme;
     Community Environmental Management Programme; and
     Urban Land Management.

     Each of which is described in more detail below.

6.4.1 Departments of Municipal Affairs & Urban Development (DoMA
      / DoUD) Strengthening Programme
     This programme seeks to support the DoMA / DoUD in developing linkages and
     co-ordination between the Directorates and agencies under DoMA / DoUD, with
     respect to their role and functions and resource mobilisation. These institutions
     include : Directorate of Local Bodies (DLB), Institute of Local Government &
     Urban Studies (ILGUS), Central Valuation Board (CVB), Municipal Engineering
     Directorate (MED) and State Urban Development Authority (SUDA).

     In addition the role of CMDA / CMWSA may be reviewed in light of the 74th
     Constitutional Amendment, the West Bengal Municipal Act 1993, Corporation
     Acts and the creation of the Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC). Further
     study of the implementation of the MPC has been undertaken an Immediate
     Action Project.

6.4.2 Municipal Institutional Strengthening Programme
     Institutional capacity building for environmental management seeks to foster the
     development of those units within the municipal administration which will be
     responsible for implementation of planning, management and service
     implementation. The programme aimed at achieving these objectives is broken
     down into a number of core components and tasks which would be :
     Strengthening General Management;
     Resource Mobilisation;
     Strengthening Financial Management;
     Strengthening Technical Management; and
     Action Plan for Community Environmental Management.

     The methodology proposed in the implementation of this programme and in order
     to achieve institutional and skill development in municipalities and municipal
     corporations is to hold discussions on a series of concept papers and action plan
     guidelines prepared with the secondary stakeholders.

6.4.3 Community Environmental Management Programme
     The 74th Amendment, and its devolution of greater powers and responsibilities
     on environmental matters to urban local bodies, calls for a concerted effort in
     developing community capacity in environmental service management.
     CEMSAP’s Community Environmental Management Strategy (CEMS) is a means
     to strengthen, enhance and develop the capability of the local bodies, outside the
     formal administrative system. CEMS argues that through strengthening
     collaboration between local government and community-based organisations,
     municipal management can become more cost-effective, as well as more
     sensitive and responsive to community needs, priorities and initiatives.
     Furthermore, a greater degree of environmental justice for the people of Calcutta
     can be achieved, and especially those who are most vulnerable.

     The Community Environmental Management Programme seeks to facilitate such
     a devolution of responsibilities for environmental services management at the
     tertiary level, to local, community-based organisations. This involves :
      empowering community- and neighbourhood-level institutions, with information,
  guidance, linkages to authorities and to other organisations and networks, skill
  development opportunities and resources to support community-based actions; and
     strengthening local bodies, through building commitment to securing
  improvements in service provision in low-income areas, enhancing their ability to
  respond to community needs and priorities, and supporting their efforts at

     The process goal is active, informed, and capable participation by communities in
     local area planning, service provision, infrastructure maintenance, resource
     mobilisation and awareness raising, in close collaboration or partnership with the
     local bodies.

     The programme essentially involves integrating elements of existing practice, of
     state and local governments, as well as NGOs and CBOs, into a comprehensive
     system for community and municipal strengthening. Initially, this system will be
     introduced in the context of a specific area. With this base, the approach will then
     be extended to other CMA local bodies, as well as to urban local bodies in the
     rest of West Bengal.

     The Programme components are :
     (i)    (i)      initiation of a community-based CEMSAP Immediate Action
            Project on environmental service improvement, located in three wards of
            Howrah. The objective is to develop a participatory framework of problem
            and options analysis, prioritisation, planning, decision-making,
            responsibility-sharing, implementation, maintenance and awareness-
     (ii)   (ii)     development of a capacity-building programme for community
            environmental management, addressed to primary and secondary
            stakeholders, through the Immediate Action project. Guidelines and
            training materials will be prepared, and training programmes initiated.

     These community based principles would be further institutionalised through the
     Public Participation Window (PPW) proposed for the DoE (see ISEMAP).

     The PPW would take up an ongoing programme of facilitating capacity-building
     for community environmental management, as well as outreach, information and
     communication. It would work in close collaboration with the local bodies, other
     GoWB Departments, CBOs and NGOs. An information management system
     would be developed by CEMSAP, covering a range of issues, actors, agencies,
     programmes, capacities and resources. This would be a tool for the PPW in
     taking up its supportive linkage and communication role. This can subsequently
     be further developed by the PPW over time, as the scope of its work grows (Also
     see ISEMAP).

     The range of capabilities built up, at departmental, municipal, institutional,
     organisational and community levels, would enable forthcoming infrastructural
     improvement efforts (such as the Megacity plans) to benefit from clear
     identification of community priorities, and wider, more active spread of
     responsibility sharing, especially in regard to maintenance. Such plans would
     therefore be aided in achieving basic, long-term, substantive solutions, that are

6.4.4 Environmental Service Improvement Programme
     The Environmental Services Improvement Programme is intended to provide
     enhanced sustainable levels of service in the key environmental sectors of water
     supply and waste management. The programme aims to encourage better
     access to basic environmental services for all, sustainability in the processes of
     provision, operation, maintenance of environment-related municipal services.

     To meet the objectives of the Environmental Services Improvement Programme,
     an integrated set of components and sub-components is envisaged which
     comprise packages of short, medium and long term interventions. The major
     components are as follows :

     Water Resource Management Component (Equitable access to water
     through improved resource management)

     The Water Resource Management Component sets out to tackle the problems of
     poor water quality, inefficient distribution and inadequate access in an integrated
     manner. In the short term, it includes measures which are aimed at improving
     basic access and the operation of existing systems :
     Improved Basic Access to Potable Water; and
     Water Distribution Improvement.

     Parallel sub-components relating to the operation and maintenance of treatment
     facilities and water resources management are included through :
     Water Treatment Improvement; and
     Water Resources Study.
    Finally, a desirable objective for CMA should be the achievement of a 24 hours
    per day supply. This is far from being possible in most areas, but it has been
    included as a long-term goal, and may be possible in limited areas within the
    CMA in the medium term.

    Water Source Protection Component (A basic right to sanitation and a
    clean and healthy environment)

    The fundamental objective of the Water Source Protection Component is to
    improve access to basic sanitation for the urban poor and maximise the utility of
    existing sewerage, drainage and sewage disposal facilities. In order to achieve
    this, the component includes a range of sub-components to achieve the objective
    of providing a healthier, productive and protected environment. The sub-
    components are :
    Storm Water Drainage Cleaning and Rehabilitation;
    Septic Tank Cleaning;
    Improved Basic Access to Sanitation;
    Household Sewer Connection and Tertiary Sewer Installation;
    Sewer Cleaning and Rehabilitation; and
    Sewage and Waste Water Treatment and Reuse.

    Solid Waste Management Component

    There are three broad stages in the solid waste management process, primary
    collection, transfer and transport to the disposal site and disposal. The MEIS
    identified the need for the following sub-components :
    Evaluation of Collection and Handling Technologies;
    Community Waste Management;
    Operations Improvement;
    Municipal Waste Disposal; and
    Solid Waste Management Improvement.

    The first of these programme sub-components is a prerequisite to the others in
    that improvements in collection and transport will not occur without the
    introduction of appropriate technologies while effective disposal cannot be
    achieved without functioning systems for the collection and transport of waste.

6.4.5 Urban Land Management Programme
    Land management will determine the location, the economic viability of industry,
    the ability to meet future infrastructure needs or protect sensitive resources, and
    the ability of urban managers to assist the poor in their efforts to find shelter and
    to guide the planning of the urban growth. It is therefore necessary to provide the
    GoWB with a structured approach to promote the management and co-ordination
    of all economic, administrative, institutional, legislative and policy matters
    concerning land.

    CEMSAP’s analysis has identified three major gaps in the management of urban
   land in Calcutta :
   the lack of departmental responsibility for urban land management;
   the lack of understanding and breadth of the issue of urban land management;
  the lack of understanding of the land market, the significance of market
mechanisms and the implications of government interventions.

   The objective of the urban land management programme is to create a
   framework which will bring about a sustainable, transparent and efficient market
   and management system for urban land in Calcutta. The programme de-
   segregates the broad issue of land management by focusing on the land market,
   the government interventions into that market and the institutional and legal
   systems which are necessary to support government and market mechanisms.

   Five main areas of action have been identified :
   land market assessment (formal and informal markets);
   land policy and planning;
   land tenure and informal settlements;
   land administration, registration and taxation; and
   land law and dispute resolution.

   A new area of work is proposed within the land market assessment component -
   the collection, organisation and dissemination of information on land values, land
   utilisation, density and servicing, to promote a broad range of initiatives by
   various private sector actors. This market information will be supplemented by
   reforms to management processes. Within each action area it is necessary to
   review the information base, and to compile and co-ordinate required information,
   to audit the organisational and skills capacity of the responsible institution, to
   review the legal framework under which it operates, and to propose a package of
   reforms which collectively aim to achieve a well functioning, accessible,
   transparent land market and management system. The action plan extends to
   this stage at which government approval is required.

   While CEMSAP proposes that action be taken to move toward an efficient,
   transparent land system, it simultaneously acknowledges the difficult political
   nature of the issue and that reform to the current situation will take time. The
   objective is to start the process, to improve knowledge, to expose the
   inadequacies of the fragmented, closed and malfunctioning system which exists
   today, and to promote the benefits of a reformed system.
       Table 6.1 : Municipal Environmental Services & Institutional Development
             Action Plan : Investment Guide
       Immediate                Short Term               Medium Term               Long Term
  (November 1996 to       (April 1997 to March       (April 1998 to March       (Beyond 9th Plan)
      March 1997)                  1998)                     2002)
Component      Rupee     Component        Rupee     Component Rupees           Component   Rupees
                   s                         s                         in                  in lakhs
                  in                        in                       lakhs
                lakhs                     lakhs
Capacity Building DoMA / DoUD / Municipal Strengthening Programme
MPC Study        18.70 Implementatio           6.0
                        n of Action
                        Plan for DLB
Local              7.50 Implementatio          8.0
Environment             n of the Action
al planning             Plan for
and                     ILGUS
Capacity                Capacity             10.0
Building                Building of
Review                  Introduction of    113.0 Introduction          282.0
                        User Charges               of User
                        Collection of        14.0 Collection of         40.0
                        Arrears of                 Arrears of
                        Property                   Property
                        Tax and                    Tax and
                        improved rate              improved
                        of collection              rate of
                        Strengthening General Management :
                        Improved             83.0 Improved             223.0
                        Budget                     Budget
                        Preparation                Preparation
                        Process &                  Process &
                        Introduction of            Introduction
                        MIS                        of MIS
                        Introduction of      27.0 Introduction         111.0
                        improved                   of improved
                        operational                operational &
                        and control                control
                        procedure                  procedure
                        Strengthening        53.0 Strengthenin         141.0
                        Financial                  g Financial
                        Management                 Management
                        Improved             16.0 Improved              60.0
                        physical Asset             physical
                        Management;                Management
                        project                    ; project
                        scheduling;                scheduling;
                        improved O &               improved O
                        M and                      & M and
                        contract                   contract
                        Management                 Management
                        process                    process
                        Approach to
     Immediate               Short Term              Medium Term                  Long Term
 (November 1996 to      (April 1997 to March      (April 1998 to March         (Beyond 9th Plan)
    March 1997)                 1998)                     2002)
Component    Rupee     Component        Rupee    Component Rupees           Component        Rupees
                 s                         s                        in                       in lakhs
                in                        in                      lakhs
              lakhs                     lakhs
                      Planning &
Capacity       26.20  Capacity           330.0   Capacity           857.0
Building              Building Total             Building
Total                                            Total
Environmental Services Improvement Programme
Howrah         16.50 Improved          200.0     Improved          4000.0   Improved         18300.0
Community              basic access              basic access               basic access
Environment            to potable                to potable                 to potable
al                     water                     water                      water
                       Water            10.0     Water               20.0
                       Resource                  Resource
                       Study                     Study
                       Water           200.0     Water            12400.0   Water            44100.0
                       distribution              distribution               distribution
                       system                    system                     system
                       improvement               improvement                improvement
                       Storm water      50.0     Stormwater        7450.0   Stormwater       53300.0
                       drainage                  drainage                   drainage
                       cleaning and              cleaning and               cleaning and
                       rehabilitation            rehabilitation
                       Septic tank      50.0     Septic tank        950.0   rehabilitation
                       cleaning                  cleaning
                       Improved       1000.0     Improved         10700.0
                       basic access              basic access
                       to                        to
                       sanitation                sanitation
                       Household       100.0     Household         1800.0
                       sewer                     sewer
                       connection                connection
                       and tertiary              and tertiary
                       sewer                     sewer
                       installation              installation
                       Sewer            50.0     Sewer             9250.0   Sewer            45400.0
                       cleaning and              cleaning and               cleaning and
                       rehabilitation            rehabilitation             rehabilitation
                                                 Sewage and         200.0   Sewage and          300.0
                                                 waste water                waste water
                                                 treatment                  treatment
                                                 and reuse                  and reuse
                      Solid waste        50.0    Solid waste       3050.0   Solid waste      30900.0
                      Management                 Management                 Management
                                                 Water               20.0
                                                 Water              100.0   Water               900.0
                                                 treatment                  treatment
     Immediate             Short Term              Medium Term               Long Term
 (November 1996 to     (April 1997 to March     (April 1998 to March      (Beyond 9th Plan)
    March 1997)                1998)                    2002)
Component    Rupee     Component       Rupee   Component Rupees         Component     Rupees
                 s                        s                       in                  in lakhs
                in                       in                     lakhs
              lakhs                    lakhs
                                               improvement              improvement
Environment  16.50 Environmental      1710.0   Environment    49,940.   Environment   193,200.
al Services          Services Total            al Services         0    al Services         0
Total                                          Total                    Total
Land Management Programme
                     Preparation of     4.00
                     ToR for
                     review and
                     Land Market        25.0   Land market     100.0
                     Assessment                Assessment
                     Study tour,               in CMA;
                     pilot areas
.                    Land Policy        15.0   Capacity         25.0
                     and Reform                Building,
                     review of                 Scoping
                     policies and              Study, land
                     institutions              policy
                      Land Tenure       25.0   Implement        50.0
                      Information              tenure
                      base, develop            programme
                      programme in
                      pilot areas
                      Land              50.0   Develop          50.0
                      Administratio            reform
                      n                        packages for
                      Review land              government
                      cadastrals,              approval
                      Land Law /       100.0   Capacity         20.0
                      Dispute                  Building
                      Review of
                      package of
Land            -     Land             219.0   Land            245.0    Land             -
Management            Management               Management               Management
total                 total                    total                    total