Dr. Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING ...........2
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ...........................................................................8
LEARNING STYLES.................................................................................. 11
ACTIVE LEARNING AND 10 PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING........................ 16
LEARNING OPPROACHES – SURFACE, DEEP & STRATEGIC ................. 20
TEACHING THEORIES & METHODS ....................................................... 27
TEACHING STYLE ................................................................................... 30
TEACHING APPROACH – PEDAGOGY & ANDRAGOGY............................ 33
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD TEACHER ........................................... 36
SUBJECT CENTRED VS. INTEGRATED TEACHING ................................ 40
STUDENTS CENTERED VS. TEACHERS CENTERED .............................. 44
PRINCIPLE OF DISTANCE LEARNING..................................................... 46
LEARNING THEORIES ............................................................................. 50
INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
• In the early Greek, medicine was a manual work, a craft, the physician was a “tekton”
• The source of learning was merely an empirical one (from observation/ other experiences)
• They believe God alone possessed an infallible science (maha mengetahui), that is wisdom. A
man gifted such wisdom.
• This seems to be one of the reasons why medicine could have a supernatural or mythical
• In every case medical teaching was oral, at least until the 6th century B.C.
• Alcmeon was the first to write a “scientific” book in Greek prose concerning medical or natural
• Opollonious of Cition (50 B.C) tells that in Alexandria, one sat before a teaching physician,
hearing and looking upon him. Later we shall have to discuss that and also how, this is lecture.
2. Middle Ages
• A close study of diagram makes verbal explanation unnecessary.
• A visual methods of teaching was exploited in the teaching anatomy.
• Lecture followed by question and answer method of teaching.
• The method of teaching was extended commentary.
3. In 14th century
• There were practical lessons on anatomy, surgery, operation and dissection.
• Examination of the patients; student must observe the appearance of patient, talk with him
about his symptoms, thereafter note his pulse and observe everything necessary to gain a
knowledge of the particular illness.
4. Last few decades
• Lot of changes seen during the few decades:
o Changes in curriculum content
Changes in the volume of content
Changes in teaching hours for each subject.
o Changes in teaching methods
In class teaching
Community based teaching
Web based teaching
Two way teaching
Problem based teaching
o Changes in assessment methods
o Changes in recruitment of students
• All these changes are made based on some theories and principles.
• Theory is a statement that makes a specific prediction about the relationship between 2 or
• It is a reasonable general principle or group of principles offered in terms of a model to explain
6. Principle is a general truth, a law on which others are based.
7. Andragogy (M. Knowles)
• Theory: Adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility for decision.
o Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction.
o Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for learning activities.
o Adult are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their
job or personal life.
o Adult learning is problem-based rather than content-oriented.
8. Learning is an active process of transformation of ideas, translation of meaning, formation of
attitudes, skills and value.
9. Teaching is simply defined as the intended behaviour which the aim is to induce learning.
10. The word education comes from the Latin e-ducere meaning to leads out.
11. “Research show that you begin learning in the womb and go right on learning until the moment you
pass on (death). Your brain has a capacity for learning that is virtually limitless, which makes every
human a potential genius.” – Michael J. Gleb
12. The knowledge or skill obtained or developed by a learning process.
There is more than one type of learning. A committee of colleges, led by Benjamin Bloom, identified 3
domains of educational activities:
• Cognitive: mental skills (knowledge)
• Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (skills)
• Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude – mental readiness to act by
1. Cognitive domain:
• The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This
includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve
in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.
• Cognitive domain – Taxonomy of educational objectives (Bloom 1956)
Remembering of previously learned material.
Knows common terms, know method and procedures, know principles
Defines, identifies, lists, names, labels, outlines, selects, states.
Ability to grasp the meaning of learned material.
Understands facts and principles, interpret chart and graph, justifies methods
Convert, distinguishes, extends, predicts, rewrites, give examples.
Ability to use learned material in new situation.
Applies principles to new situation, construct chart and graph, applies theories
to practical session.
Changes, computes, demonstrates, produces and solves.
Ability to break down and understand learned material into its component
Recognizes unstated assumption, evaluate the relevancy of data, analyze the
organizational structure of work.
Break downs, diagrams, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes.
Ability to put parts together to form a new whole.
Writes a well organized theme, gives a well organized speech, propose a
scheme for experiment.
Combine, composes, creates, explains, design, plans, relates.
Ability to judge the value of learned material for a given purpose.
Judges the consistency of written material, judges the value of a work by use
of internal criteria.
Appraises, compares, concludes, criticizes.
2. Psychomotor domains
• The psychomotor domain includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill
areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed,
precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution.
• Psychomotor domain – Taxonomy of educational objectives (Simpson 1972)
Uses the sense organs to obtain cues that guide motor activity.
Recognize malfunction of machine by sound of machine, relates taste of food
to need for seasoning.
Choose, detects, isolates, relates, selects.
Readiness to take a particular type of action.
Knows the sequence of steps in dressing an wound.
Begins, displays, moves.
o Guided response
Imitation and trial and error.
Applies first bandage as demonstrated.
Assembles, builds, constructs, displays.
Performs with some confidence and proficiency.
Writes smoothly and legibly setup laboratory equipment.
Assembles, builds, constructs, displays.
o Complex overt response
Performance of complex motor acts.
Demonstrate skill in driving an automobile.
Assembles, builds, constructs, displays.
Can modify movement pattern to fit special requirement.
Adjust tennis play to counteract opponent’s style.
Adapts, alters, change.
Creating a new movement pattern.
Creates a dance step, design a new dress style.
Arranges, combines, constructs.
3. Affective domains
• This domain includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings,
values, appreciation, enthusiasm, motivations and attitudes.
• Affective domain – Taxonomy of educational objectives (Krathwohl 1964)
Willingness to attend to particular stimuli.
Listen attentively, shows awareness of the importance of learning.
Asks, choose, describes, follows, locates.
Complete assigned homework, participates in class discussion, volunteers for
Answers, assists, reports, writes.
Worth of value a student attaches to a particular object or behaviour.
Demonstrate belief in the democratic process, appreciates the rule of science
in everyday life.
Explains, completes, justifies, reports, selects.
Bring together different values, resolving conflicts between them.
Recognize the role of systematic planning in solving problem, understand and
accept own strengths and limitations.
Alters, arranges, combines, compares.
o Characterizes by a value or value complex
Individual has a value system that controlled his behaviour for long time.
Practices cooperation in group activities, uses objective approach in problem
solving, display safety consciousness.
Acts, discriminates, displays, modifies, solves.
4. Psychomotor domain always backed up by cognitive domain.
1. The intentions of the courses are usually expressed in the form of aims and objectives.
• Prophet Muhamad S.A.W said “Every action must begin with ‘Niat’ (intention). The intention
(aims and objectives) will lead you to where you go or what you do.”
• Mager stated that “If you are not certain of where you are going you may very well end up
somewhere else (and not even know it).”
2. Aims and Objectives
• Aims are general statements of educational intent.
o E.g. to teach the student to monitor growth development of infant.
• Objectives are rather more specific statements of intent as a result of course of study.
o E.g. the student should be able to measure accurately the height and weight of an
infant on growth chart.
• Goal is the end toward which an effort is directed.
• Aims and objectives are used interchangeable even though they are very different.
o Goals and purposes rather like aims
o Learning outcomes rather like objectives
3. Aims and objectives play very important roles in planning for examples:
• Training program
• Short training event for individual trainees
4. Instructional objective (is objective for teacher)
• Provide direction for instructional process
• Convey instructional intent to others
• Provide the basic for evaluating pupil learning
5. Learning/educational objective (is objective for student) is stated as learning outcomes
• State them in terms of student’s performance
o What the student should be able to do at the end of a learning period that they could
o Educational objectives are also called ‘learning objective’ as opposed ‘teaching
o They define what the student, not the teacher, should be able to do.
o The definition of the objective of a course is that of the result sought (expected result
of instruction), not a description or summary of the program.
• Do not state them in terms of
o Teacher performance
E.g. teach pupil the meaning of terms
o Learning process
E.g. pupil learns the meaning of terms
o Course content
E.g. pupil studies geometric figures
• Avoids using vague objective which can be interpreted in different way.
6. What types of learning outcomes do you expect from your teaching.
• Thinking skills
• Performance skills
7. Clearly defining the learning outcomes is the first step in good teaching. It is also important in the
evaluation of student learning.
8. Sound evaluation requires relating the evaluation procedures as directly as possible to the intended
9. They are 3 broad divisions of objectives: (please refer back to learning domain note)
• Knowledge objectives (the cognitive domain)
o For examples
The learner can describe the clinical features of the 4 grades of
• Skills objectives (the psychomotor domain)
o Guided response
o Complex overt response
o For examples
Discriminate between normal and abnormal chest x-ray
• Attitudinal objectives (the affective domain)
o Characterized by a value or value complex
o For examples
Able to work effectively as a member of a team
10. Steps in preparation of instructional objectives:
• Prepare tentative list of instructionally relevant learning outcomes
• Review the list for
Are all important outcomes included
Are outcomes related to school goals
Are outcomes in harmony with sound principles of learning
Are outcomes realistic in terms of student abilities, time available and facilities
• Final list of instructional objectives
11. Keep in mind that we are listing intended outcomes of teaching learning situation.
12. We are not describing what we intend to do during instruction but listing the expected result of that
• According to Keefe (1979) learning style defines how a leaner perceives, interacts
with, and responds to the learning environment.
• According to Blumhardt JH learning style varies with the personality style. As
personality style varies from individual to individual, learning style must be different
for different individual.
o As learning style is individualized there is possibility of wide variation in the
learning style even in a specific group of students.
o A specific instructional method may work well for an individual learning but
may not produce similar achievement in others.
• According to Irvine & York (1995) if students’ learning styles are considered in
teaching strategies it can improves students’ attitude toward leaning and an increase in
thinking skills, academic achievement, and creativity.
• Chang WC (2004) state that it is the responsibility of teacher to facilitate learning by
using student-centered approach i.e. teaching according to students’ learning style.
2. There are 3 mains learning style:
o Learn by listening
o Consist of 30% of learners
o Learn from spoken instruction
o Written information has little meaning until it has heard
o Write lightly and it is not always legible
o Talk while they write
o Remember names but forget faces
o Distracted by noise
o Remember by listening, especially with music
o May be good speakers, and specialized in law or politics
o Learn by seeing and writing
o Consist of 65% learners
o Relate most effectively to written information, notes, diagrams and picture
o Can be verbal (sees words) or pictorial (sees picture)
o Remember faces but forget names
o Think in pictures, uses color
o Facial expression tells what their emotions are
o May be good writer, journalist and graphic design
o Learn by doing
o Consist of 5% of the learners
o Remember what was done
o Doesn’t hear things as well
o Learn through touch and movement in space
o Attacks things physically – fight, hit, pound
o Can appear slow because information is not normally presented in a way that
suits their needs.
o Loves game
3. VARK learning style:
• Visual (V)
o This preference of information in charts, graphs, flow charts, and all the
symbolic arrows, circles, hierarchies and other devices that instructors use to
represent what could have been presented in words. It does not includes
movies, videos or PowerPoint.
• Aural/ Auditory (A)
o This perceptual mode describes a preference for information that is heard or
spoken. Students with this modality report that they learn best from lectures,
tutorials, tapes, group discussion, email, speaking, web chat, talking things
• Read/ write (R)
o This preference is for information displayed as words. Not surprisingly, many
academicians have a strong preference for this modality. This preference
emphasizes text-based input and output – reading and writing in all its form.
• Kinesthetic (K)
o By definition, this modality refers to the perceptual preference related to the
use of experience and practice (simulated or real). Although such an
experience may invoke other modalities, the key is that the student is
connected to reality, either through concrete personal experiences e.g. practice
4. Kolb’s learning style:
• Although Kolb thought of learning styles as a continuum that one moves through over
time usually people come to prefer, and rely on, one style above the others. And it is
these main styles that instructors need to be aware of when creating instructional
V A R K
This is the main style the student Changes of student’s prefer
prefers even though the leaning style learning style over the time
will change to others over the time.
o Concrete experience/ active experimenter
• Anything that encourages independent, self discovery is the most
• Accommodators prefer to be active participants in their learning.
• Seek hidden possibilities
• Need to know what can be done with things.
• Learn by trial and error.
• Perceive information concretely and process it actively.
• Likes variety and flexibility.
• Risk takers.
• Function by acting and testing experience.
o Instructional methods that suit accommodators include:
• Working in pairs using library/ research centres.
• Open debate in front of the rest of the group.
o Concrete experience/ reflective learner.
• Seek meaning.
• Need to be involved personally.
• Learn by listening and sharing ideas.
• Perceive information concretely and process it reflectively.
• Interested in people and culture.
• Believe in their own experience.
• Function through social interaction.
o Instructional methods that suit divergens include:
• Lecture methods
• Focusing on specifics such as the weakness, strength and uses
of a system
• Hand-on exploration of a system
o Abstract conceptualization/ active experimenter.
• Seek usability.
• Need to know how things work
• Learn by testing theories in ways that seem sensible.
• Perceive information abstractly and process actively.
• Enjoy solving problems and resent being given answers.
• Function through inferences drawn from sensory experience.
o Instructional methods that suit convergens include:
• Above all, the instruction should be interactive, not passive for these
kinds of learners.
• Computer-assisted instruction is a possibility.
• Problem sets or workbooks can be provided for students to explore.
o Abstract conceptualization/ reflective observer.
o These learners are perhaps less instructor intensive than some other learning
styles. They will carefully follow prepared exercised, provided a resource
person is clearly available and able to answer questions.
• Seek facts
• Need to know what the expert think
• Learn by thinking through ideas.
• Perceive information abstractly and process it reflectively.
• Less interested in people than ideas and concepts.
• Enjoy traditional class.
• Function by adapting to experts.
o Instructional methods that suit assimilator include:
• Lecture methods (or video/audio presentation) followed by a
• Exploration of a subject in a lab, following a prepared tutorial (which
they will probably stick to quite closely) and for which answers should
ACTIVE LEARNING AND 10 PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
1. Learning is an active process of transformation of ideas, translation of
meaning, formation of attitudes, skills and values.
2. According to Ewell (1997), “The learner is not a receptacle of knowledge,
but rather creates his or her learning actively and uniquely”
3. Ewell (1997) also stat that “This characterization of learning, of course, is
quite odds with our dominant instructional models such as lecture”
4. Lao Tzu (6th century BC) stat “if you tell me, I will listen. If you show me, I
will see. If you let me experience (do), I will learn”
5. John Dewey (1916) stat “Why is it that in spite of the fact that teaching by
pouring in, and learning by passive absorption, are universally condemned,
are still so entrenched in practice? Education is not an affair of telling and
being told, but an active constructive process.
6. Bonwell & Eison (1991) stat “Learning is anything that involves students
in doing things and thinking about the things they are doing”
7. Active learning results in longer-term recall, synthesis, and problem-
solving skills than learning by hearing, reading and watching.
8. In educational situations, we describe, analyze, apply and then implement
our new learning. When we practice a skill analyze our practice, and then
repeat the practice at a higher level, we move from practice to praxis. We
learn what we are doing.
• Step 1: Description
o What do we perceive, we describe
• Step 2: Analysis
o Why do we think happening
• Step 3: Application
o When it happens, what problem does it cause
• Step 4: Implication (implementation)
o What can we do?
• Summary of practice to praxis
o Experience (does) + Reflection (thinking) Action (decision).
9. A model of active learning:
Experience of Dialogue with
• Dialogue with self
o This happens when a learner thinks reflectively about a topic.
o They ask themselves what they think, what they feel about the
o This is thinking about my own thinking
• Dialogue with others
o When student read a book or listen to a lecture, they listening to
o Dialogue occurs when a teacher creates an intense small group
discussion on topic
o This occurs whenever a learner watches or listen to someone
else doing something that is related to what they are learning
o This refers to any learning activity where the learner actually
• Power of interaction
o Students write their own thought on a topic (dialogue with self)
+ Engage in small group discussion (dialogue with others)
o Having the students engage in the action itself (doing) + learners
process this experience by writing about it (dialogue with self) or
discuss it with others (dialogue with others) observe the
10. Ten principles of learning:
• We learn to do by doing
• We learn to do what we do and not the something else
• Without readiness mentally, learning is inefficient and may be harmful
• Without motivation there can be no learning
• For effective learning, responses must be immediately reinforced
• Meaningful content is better learned and longer retained than less
• For the greatest amount of transfer learning, responses should be
learned in the way they are going to be used
• One’s response will vary according to how one perceives the situation
• An individuals responses will vary according to the learning
• One does the only thing one can do given the physical inheritance,
background and present acting forces
11. Five general principles of learning
• The constructivism
o Students build their knowledge by processing the information
they receive, making connection between their past knowledge
with the present information
• The change
o Facilitation of conceptual change through a variety of
• The distribution function
o Individuals shows a significant variation in their style of
• The context
o What students construct depends on the context of learning,
including students’ mental state
• The social learning
o Learning is most effectively carried out via social interaction
LEARNING OPPROACHES – SURFACE, DEEP & STRATEGIC
1. Learning is an active process of transformation of ideas, translation of
meaning and formations of attitudes, skills and values
2. There are 3 approaches of learning:
• Surface learning
o According to Marton (1975) surface level is
Try to memorize those parts of the article which they
think they might be questioned on.
o If you are interested in directly observing life below the water’s
surface, you would have a few options from which to choose to
accomplish this objective. Snorkeling is one option. Snorkeling
does not require extensive training and most people have
enough basic skill to master this technique rather easily.
However, your movement is restricted to the surface of the
water, precluding direct contact with aquatic life beyond arm’s
reach. Your perceptions are limited to visual observations that
may result in incomplete information about habitat, food
sources or swimming patterns of aquatic life.
o Surface learning consists mainly of comprehension and
reproducing knowledge (rote learning) which is often forgotten
by students shortly after the course has ended.
o Surface learner are extrinsically motivated
Those students typically motivated by grades wanting only
to know what to study for the next test.
o As educator we might think of our students as either snorkeler
or scuba diver. Some students are content to learn as little as
they can about a subject area in order to get by (pass) and fulfill
the requirements of the class. These are the snorkelers or
surface learners who are motivated by externals such as
passing an examination test. The surface learners restrict the
depth of their learning to the first two or three levels of
taxonomy (Bloom’s Taxonomy) i.e. knowledge, comprehension &
o It is difficult to get these students engaged in the learning
process beyond these levels
• Deep learning
o According to Marton (1975) deep level is
Active search for meaning
o A greater freedom of movement is gained through the second
technique – scuba diving. With this technique, you are able to
gain a deeper appreciation for life underwater through
exploration deep below the surface. Additional information
about aquatic life is accessible to the scuba driver. Since
movement is not restricted to the surface, a more complete
understanding of habitat, food resources or swimming patterns
can be obtained through use of this technique. However, scuba
diving is more difficult to master than snorkeling.
o It requires a greater investment of time and energy which can
discourage many from learning this technique.
o Deep learning requires higher order cognitive thinking skills
such as analysis (i.e. compare, contrast) and synthesis
(students are required to integrate components in to new whole,
e.g. what is the relationship…)
o Deep learners are intrinsically motivated and incorporated new
ideas they are learning with existing knowledge and personal
o Some students appear to have an insatiable appetite (desire) for
information presented in class.
They are self-motivated to learn additional information
beyond the scope of that presented by the instructor
They are the scuba divers, the independent learners or
deep learners who really engage in the higher levels of
learning such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation
o A good teacher guides students in the process of learning so
that they have an understanding of how to approach the subject
and actually learn (a deep learning approach) instead of just
memorizing (surface learning).
o Factors promote deep learning:
• Faculty are well prepared and confident
Openness to student
• Faculty are friendly, flexible and helpful
Freedom in learning
• Student have choice in what they study
Clear goals and standards
• Assessment standards, expectation are clearly
• Course seen as relevant to future careers
• Good relations between students (social, academic)
o Dr Knapper offered some instructional methods for promoting
Encourage faculty/student interaction
• Personalize teaching.
• Develop a rapport with students so that they can
begin to relate to you as their instructor, guide
• Remove the barriers to free thought and creativity
Encourage student/student interaction
• Develop an environment that promotes a sense of
community among the students.
• Utilize cooperative learning techniques such as
group projects or peer tutoring.
• Establishing study groups early in the semester
may also encourage communication among
Use active and interactive teaching methods
• Case studies are a good example of an active
learning strategy that engages groups of students in
solving a real life dilemma, thus learning
information at the application level of Bloom’s
taxonomy or beyond
Make links with what students already know to encourage
a sense of structure
• Students should build upon pre-existing knowledge
in order to personally relate to the information. This
helps students begin to make sense of new,
potentially confusing concepts.
Allow students input into course goals and methods
• Students will become more engaged in a course if
they feel some sense of ownership in some of the
decisions. This might be as simple as agreeing on
dates for an exam or identifying a topic of common
Discuss teaching/learning skills explicitly
• Teaching process may be as important to a
student’s learning as teaching the subject matter of
• Student must be taught the process of critical
thinking before they can critical thinkers
• As educators, we must not simply provide students
with the end result but we should include the map
of how to get there
Try to link course topics to student’s lives and career
• This provides a necessary aspect of vocational
relevance to the students
• There is often no stronger motivator than to show
how information may be relevant to a student’s
o In order to encourage a classroom environment that enhances
deeper learning, Dr Knapper suggested the following:
Cut down on lecture time and extended time for individual
study and projects
• Formal teaching rather than individual studying
tends to inhibit deep learning.
• Straight lecturing reduces faculty/student and
student/student interaction and is counter
productive to encouraging deep learning
• Weave other teaching techniques within a lecture
Ensure a reasonable workload, if necessary by sacrificing
• The objective is to promote deeper understanding of
the information presented rather than a superficial
knowledge of a library of information.
• Prioritize information into categories of ‘need to
know’ and ‘nice to know’. ‘nice to know can be
o Select appropriate assessment methods when teaching for deep
Define assessment goals and tasks clearly, and ensure
they are congruent
Allow choice of assessment tasks
Stress tasks that allow time for information gathering
depth and reflection (e.g. project vs. exam)
Encourage collaborative projects
Chose tasks that require integration of information from a
range of sources
Give full and proactive feedback on labs, assignments and
• Strategic learning
o Strategic teaching & concomitantly, strategic learning are
techniques in which significant student-teacher interaction &
resultant learning & thinking are at the high end of the scale
o Strategic teaching describes instructional processes that focus
directly on fostering student thinking
o To give one information is not difficult, but to help one be able
to develop the tools to both know what information is relevant
and the means to acquire it, is perhaps the most important
function of any social studies teacher
o Strategic learning is learning in which students construct their
own meanings, and in the process, become aware of their own
thinking. The links between teaching, thinking and learning is
critical. As a teacher, if you are not causing you students to
think about what you are presenting, discussing,
demonstrating, mediating, guiding or directing, then you are not
doing an effective job. You must be more than a dispenser of
o As teachers, we must strive to assist our students to develop
intellectual tools by which they can create knowledge. Any
knowledge, once created, becomes a part of a large system that
o The saying “Give a man a fish, and he fed foe a day. Teach a
man how to fish, and he is fed for a lifetime,” is at the heart of
the thinking about strategic teaching and learning. As a teacher,
you must learn “how to fish,” and so must your students.
The gap in the Formulate a The gap between
market and the strategic vision, the desired future
market in the gap objectives and and current reality
Analyse the Strategic learning model Craft and
company and its implement a
environment programme of
The gap between against the vision The gap between
perception and and objectives planned and
3. “Anything not understood in more than one way (visual or auditory or
reading or kinesthetic learning style) is not understood at all”
4. The more one knows, the more one can know.
TEACHING THEORIES & METHODS
1. Learning definition:
• It is an active process of transformation of ideas, translation of
meaning, formation of attitude, skills and values.
2. Teaching definition:
• Simply defined as the intended behavior which the aims is to induce
• Complicatedly defined as “teaching is to lead learners to attain mental
goals’ and the strategies involve communication, leadership,
motivation and control through either discipline or management.”
3. Teaching theories:
o Teacher simply to administer the correct stimulus in order to
achieve behavioral change. Focuses very much on punishment
and reward, and setting the right climate and environment for
o First, a task analysis should be understood in order to
determine the behavioral changes needed to accomplish the
task. Then, the instructor should prescribe a sequence of
learning events to which will enable the learner to reach the
o “The worst mistake my generation has made is to treat people as
if they were rats” – Skinner (1990)
o Learning could be achieved by facilitating and encouraging the
appropriate thought process of the learner.
o It is important to understand the learner’s existing mental
o Learning is an active process which learners construct new
ideas or concepts upon their current/past knowledge
o Teaching strategies should be tailored to student responses and
encourage students to analyse, interpret and predict
information. Teachers also rely heavily on open-ended questions
and promote extensive dialogue among students
o “No man’s knowledge can go beyond experience” – John Locke.
o Teaching learning process became totally student centre and
self-directed and the teacher to act as facilitator rather than
controlling the learners.
o Human being are different from other species and posses
capacities not found in animals (Edwords, 1989).
o Humanist, therefore, give primacy to the study of human needs
and interests. A central assumption is that human beings
behave out of intentionally and values (Kurtz, 2000)
o According to Gage and Berliner (1991) some basic principles of
the humanistic approach that were used to develop the
Student will learn best what they want and need to know.
Knowing how to learn is more important than acquiring a
lot of knowledge.
Self-evaluation is the only meaningful evaluation of a
Feelings are as important as facts.
Students learn best in a non-threatening environment.
4. Methods based on size of class:
• Small group teaching
o Number of students 10-15 in a class?
o Interactive mode of teaching
• Large group discussion
o More than 15 students in a class
o Teacher speak, student listen
5. List of methods:
• Lecture with discussion
• Panel of experts
• Class discussion
• Small group discussion
• Case studies
• Role playing
• Report-back session
• Index and exercise
• Guest speaker
• Values clarification exercise
• Video conference
• Individualized contract courses
• Computer assisted instruction
• Web based courses
• Web enhance courses
• When planning and developing instructional material, strive for a balance of teaching
styles to match the various learning styles – Felder & Soloman, 1992 –
• Students will gain more knowledge, retain more information, and perform far better when
teaching styles match learning styles – Lage, Platt & Treglia, 2000 –
• It is recognized that it is difficult to match with every learning style and therefore, a
portfolio of teaching styles is recommended – Moallem, 2001 –
2. How do we define a teaching style?
• Possibilities offered by Grasha:
o General patterns of classroom behavior
o Characteristics associated with a popular instructor/ teacher
o Teaching methods and teaching style
o Behaviors common to all college faculty (teacher)
o The roles teachers play
o Personality traits and teaching style
o Archetypal forms of teaching style
• Teaching style may also be defined in terms of the answer to five questions
o What type of information is emphasized by the instructor
Concrete – factual?
Abstract – conceptual? Theories?
o What mode of presentation is stressed:
Visual – pictures, films, demonstration?
Verbal – lectures, reading, discussion?
o How is the presentation organized:
Inductively – phenomenon leading to principle (details general)
Deductively – principle leading to phenomenon (general detail)
o What mode of student participation is facilitated by the presentation:
Active – students talk, move, reflect?
Passive – students watch and listen?
o What type of perspective is provided on the information presented
Sequential – step-by-step progression (the trees)?
Global – context and relevance (the forest)?
3. Teaching style (Grasha, 1996)
• Formal authority
• Personal model
4. Teaching style cluster:
• Skills for cluster 1: Expert/ formal authority
o Traditional teacher-centered presentations and discussion techniques
o These style worked best with the students who were less capable with the content and
who possessed more dependent, participant, and competitive learning e.g. during in
o Cluster 1 teaching also was effective when teachers were willing to control classroom
o It did not appear necessary in most circumstances for a teacher to devote time to
building relationships with students
• Skill for cluster 2: personal model /expert/formal authority
o Role modeling and coaching/guiding students on developing and applying skills and
o Student need to possess more knowledge than they would in a lecture class because
they will frequently have to show what they know
o Such styles work nicely in learning environments where coaching and following the
examples of role models are prominent e.g. ward round teaching
• Skills for cluster 3: facilitator/personal model/expert
o Collaborative learning and other student-centered learning processes consistently
emphasized in a course e.g. PBL
o In addition to possessing or being willing to acquire appropriate content, students also
need to be willing to take initiative and to accept responsibility for meeting the
demands of various learning tasks
• Skills for cluster 4: Delegator/facilitator/expert
o Emphasis on independent learning activities for groups and individuals
o Teaching works best when students have appropriate levels of knowledge and possess
independent, collaborative and participant learning style
o To use the highly student-centered teaching methods of cluster 4 or the independent
study processes means that teachers must be willing to give up direct control over
how learners engage various tasks and their outcomes e.g. learning contract.
TEACHING APPROACH – PEDAGOGY & ANDRAGOGY
The term pedagogy was derived from Greek words ‘Paid’ meaning child and
‘agogus’ meaning leading. Thus it is defined as the art and science of
The word education come from Latin word ‘Educare’ which means “to draw
out”. Unfortunately, teaching system have gotten somewhat off track and
heave been concentrating on pushing information into the student. –
Frank j. Clement (1992) –
First do what I want you to do. Then, you may do what you want to do. – A
The term Andragogy was coined by researcher of adult learning in order to
contrast their beliefs about learning to the pedagogical model. It was
derived from the Greek words ‘aner’ meaning ‘man not boy’.
– Malcolm Knowles –
Andragogik – Alexander Kapp (1833) –
Andragogy is the science of
the lifelong and lifewide
education/ learning of adults
Lifewide Learning of Adults
Intentional learning Not-intentional learning
Out-side Self-directed Planned, but Happening Woven to
directed learning is not life-routines
Adult education Autodidactic Travel Accident Aging
Always includes not-intended Can lead to intentional learning
learning-process and learning-product
Prof. Jost Rochman, University of Bamberg, Germany
Adragogy (M. Knowles)
Adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility for
Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their
Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for learning
Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have
immediate relevance to their job or personal life.
Adult learning is problem-based rather than content-oriented.
3. Differences between Pedagogy and Andragogy
Rely on others to decide what is Decide for themselves what is
important to be learned important to be learned
Accept the important being Need to validate the information
presented at face value based on their beliefs & experience
Expect what they are learning to be Expect what they are learning to be
useful in their long-term future immediately useful
Have little or no experience upon Have much experience upon which
which to draw-are relatively clean to draw-may have fixed viewpoints
Little ability to serve as a Significant ability to serve as a
knowledgeable resource to teacher knowledgeable resource to trainers
or fellow classmates and fellow learners
4. Proven principles to enhance teaching and learning:
Seize the moment
Teaching is most effective when it occurs in quick response to a need
the learner feels.
Involve the student in planning
Learning to occur, you will need to get the student involve in
identifying his learning needs & outcomes.
Begin with that the student knows
Learning moves faster when it builds on what the student already
Move from simple to complex
Accommodate the student’s preferred learning style
Visual learners, auditory learners, tactile or psychomotor leaners.
Sort of goals by learning domain
Most learning all 3 domains (cognitive, affective and psychomotor)
Make material meaningful
Relate material to the student’s lifestyle
Allow immediate application of knowledge
Immediate application translates learning to the ‘real world’.
Plan for periodic rests
Periodic plateaus occur normally in learning. Be sure to recognize
these signs of mental fatigue and let the student relax.
Tell the students how they are progressing
Learning is made easier when the students are aware of their
Reward desired learning with praise
It improve the chances that the students will retain the material or
repeat the behaviour.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD TEACHER
“The true teacher accepts all”
– Ernest O. Melby from the Teacher & Learning –
1. “Good teachers are more concerned that every student learns as much as
they can than they are about putting grades in the grade book. Students in
many of my courses can re-do assignments if they are not satisfied with
their performance. I don’t try to maximize the variance (gap between the
weak student and good students) in grade distributions; I think it’s great if I
teach an academically rigorous course and everyone does well. That means I
did a good job as a teacher.”
- George Wardlow (Agriculture & Instruction) Dale Bumpers College of
Agriculture, Food, and Life Sciences Outstanding Teacher Award –
2. “Good teaching isn’t about technique. I’ve asked students around the
country to describe their good teachers to me. Some of them describe people
who lecture all the time, some of the describe people who do little other than
facilitate group process and others describe everything in between. But all of
them describe people who have some sort of connective capacity, who
connect themselves to their students, their student to each other, and
everyone to the subject being studied.”
- Parker Palmer 1999 –
3. “A good teacher plans the course content and activities to teach
LEARNERS, not only subject matter. Acknowledgement of the learner’s life
experiences, knowledge, and contributions to the topic can be a starting
point for connections to be made.”
- Theresa Cronan (Curriculum & Instruction) ASG and Student Alumni
Teaching Award –
4. “This involves a great number of things including very prepared yet
flexible, having a sense of humor and being able to laugh at yourself,
practice, approachableness, firmness and standards with compassion, and
diversity of life experience and interests, but above all, I think the one thing
that might set the difference is the desire to see those you teach become
successful and being willing to invest my life for their return.”
- Mark Boyer (Landscape Architecture) School of Architecture Outstanding
Teacher Award –
5. “I believe an outstanding teacher is someone who not takes great cares in
his/her preparation but cares that the students ‘get it’. I also believe that a
really great teacher is someone who know that there is more to learn and is
seen as someone who actively pursues new knowledge regarding not only
the content of what she teaches but hoe she might design her class so that
students come to genuinely understand the content.”
- Marcia Imbeau (Curriculum & Instruction) College of Education and
Health Professions Outstanding Teacher Award –
6. “An outstanding teacher inspires student to go beyond their comfort levels
in learning. These teachers are role models who help their students gather
information, assess and evaluate, assimilate and synthesize. Outstanding
teachers are not knowledge dispenser, rather they are facilitators in the
learning process. Students of these teachers are self confident about their
abilities to solve problems.”
- Ronda Mains (Music) J. William Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences
Outstanding Teacher Award –
7. “EMPATHY – know what the student is ‘carrying’, but also believe that the
student can always push themselves to be and do more.”
- Greg Herman (Architecture) School of Architecture Outstanding Teacher
8. “For lecture style classes, be excited about the content! Enjoy interacting
with your student.”
- Neil Allison (Chemistry) J. William Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences
Outstanding Teacher Award –
9. “The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior
teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.”
- William Arthur Ward –
10. “A teacher is one who makes himself progressively unnecessary.”
- Thomas Carruthers –
11. “The object of teaching a child is to enable him to get along without his
- Elbert Hubbard –
12. “You can teach a student a lesson for a day; but if you can teach him to
learn by creating curiosity, he will continue the learning process as long as
- Clay P. Bedford –
• Has positive relationships with students
• Deals with students’ emotion
• Maintains discipline and control
• Creates a favorable environment for learning
• Recognizes and provides for individual differences
• Enjoys working with students
• Obtain student’s involvement in learning
• Is creative and innovative
• Emphasizes teaching of reading skills
• Gives students a good self-image
• Engages in professional growth activities
• Knows subject matter in depth
• Is consistent
• Is flexible
• Displays fairness
“Teachers open the door. You enter by yourself.”
- Chinese proverb –
SUBJECT CENTRED VS. INTEGRATED TEACHING
1. Related terms:
2. Jacobs (1989) contends that multidisciplinary integration describes a unit
of instruction based on a theme approached from two or more traditional
• e.g. hypertension (theme) is taught (related to the theme) by many
difference department such as medicine, pathology, biochemistry, etc.
3. Fogarty (1991) identifies a variety of models integrating curriculum within
disciplines, across disciplines, and within and across learners.
• e.g. of within and across learners is bringing difference health
profession student learn together.
4. Integrated curriculum involves elements from more than one discipline
and somehow relates to a problem, theme, or situation from the real world.
5. Identify criteria for the selection of powerfully themes and concepts
around which they can organize interdisciplinary teaching.
For example of integrated teaching:
CVS Int. Medicine
6. There are 2 type of integration
• Horizontal integration
o For example unifying of basic (preclinical) subject.
In respiratory system involves physiology, biochemistry,
anatomy, microbiology, pathology, and immunology.
o This involves one level of integration which is only basic subject.
• Vertical integration
o For example unifying of preclinical and clinical subject.
Peripheral and central nerves involve medicine, physiology,
anatomy, neurosurgery, physical examination, pharmacology.
o This involves two level of integration which is preclinical subject
(1st level) and clinical subject (2nd level).
7. Rationale for integration of curriculum
8. Research has shown that learning is more powerfully enabled when
curricula are integrated such that connections are established between
subject areas rather than as fragmented island of information or knowledge.
(Drake, 1993; Edling, 1996; Lewis & Shaha, 1999)
9. Student can attempt interdisciplinary work only after they have mastered
some elements of disciplinary knowledge
• However recent evidences suggest that integration can be introduced
as earlier as possible into the learning process.
10. Issues in the integrated teaching
• The teacher knowledge problem
o It means those teachers are not the expert in every subject so it is
difficult to find such integrated teacher.
o However it can be improved by participating the entire related
teacher in the system.
• The school structure problem
o It is difficult to incorporate integration when there are many
departments in the school because every department has its own
way of management.
o Furthermore every one has their own opinion regarding the
o How to ensure the departments are integrated? Because integrated
teaching best work in the integrated environment.
• The assessment problem
o The assessment must also be integrated too.
o It is difficult to bring the entire related teacher to sit down together
to plan assessment which is integrated in nature.
o Commonly the assessment is more on subject based rather than
• Is it change or is it progress?
• Develop integrated form of assessment
11. Establish teacher preparation programs that focus on disciplinary and
12. Integrated curriculum and student achievement
• Reviews by Cotton (1982) and St. Clair and Hough (1992) suggest that
few studies conclusively show that multi-, cross- or interdisciplinary
teaching enhances student learning in measurable ways.
STUDENTS CENTERED VS. TEACHERS CENTERED
1. Student-centered learning (SCL), or learner-centeredness, is a learning
model that places the student (learner) in the center of the learning process
(selection of topic, collection/gathering information, assimilation of
2. In students-centered learning
• Students are active participants in their learning
• They learn at their own pace and use their own strategies
• They are more intrinsically than extrinsically motivated
• Learning is more individualized than standardized (it means that what
they (students) want to know and to learn)
3. To produce successful learners, two essential conditions are necessary
• Active student participation in the total learning process
• The use of authentic material
4. For learning to be successful
• It must be conducted as a multi-dimensional activity. That is, straight
teacher-to-student instruction has value (albeit limited value) but the
addition of other dimensions such as student-to-teacher, or student-
to-student alter the learning environment and enhance learning from
a variety of directions
• It is through this creative participation in third-dimensional, student,
student-centered learning activities that both students and teachers
advance to fourth-dimensional “eureka” discoveries
• It encourages student involvement in the curriculum and emphasizes
the students and what may they learn
• In the student-centered approach students can choose
When they will study
Their pace of study
The method of study
What they will study
• Typical questions asked in planning a student-centered lesson
What is it I want them to learn?
Why do I want them to learn it?
What do they already know?
How will I and they know they have learned it?
What difficulties will they have?
How do I help them overcome these difficulties?
• It depends more on the teachers and emphasizes what is taught
• Typical questions asked in planning a teacher-centered lesson
What do I need to teach?
How do I explain it?
How do I make it interesting?
7. The idea of learner-centered education/training has been much maligned
on the basis that this translates as “do you own thing” with little or no
• ‘A teacher is one who makes himself progressively unnecessary’
8. Learner-centered is an attitude towards providing information that the
needs of the broad range of learners
PRINCIPLE OF DISTANCE LEARNING
1. Design for active and effective learning. Distance learning designs
• specific content
• needs, goals and other characteristics of the learners
• nature of content
• appropriate instructional strategies and technologies
• desired learning outcomes
• local learning environment
2. Support the needs of learners. Distance learning opportunities are
effectively and flexibly supported:
• initial briefing on the learning opportunities
• orientation to the process of learning at a distance, including use of
technologies for learning
• site and tutorial support
• student advising and counseling
• provision of technical support and library
• problem-solving assistance
3. Develop and maintain the technological and human infrastructure.
The provider of distance learning opportunities has both a technology and a
human infrastructure to ensure that:
• appropriate technical requirements are established
• compatibility needs are met
• technology at origination and receive sites are maintained
• learners and facilitators are supported in their use of these
• partnering and collaborative are explored as appropriate
4. Sustain administrative and organizational commitment. Distance
education initiatives are sustained by an administrative commitment to
quality distance education:
• integration of distance education into the mission of the organization
• financial commitment to accommodate diverse distance learning
• faculty development and reward structures
• training to support learners, site facilitators and technicians
• marketing and management structures to promote and sustain
• cost-effectiveness reflected through best use of fiscal, technical and
• ongoing evaluation and research
5. Course evaluation
o Distance learning courses will be periodically reviewed and
o Course is consistent with the academic program’s curriculum
o Currency of content, appropriate technology, and the effectiveness
of the delivery strategies
o Update each course as needed
o Meet the same objectives and include the same substantive content
as a traditionally delivered course
o Include a student evaluation component as appropriate to the
6. Incentive and reward structure
o Faculty will work to ensure that incentives and rewards for
distance learning course development and delivery are clearly
defined and understood
o Expectations regarding workload will be defined
o Impact of establishing limits to class size on student learning,
workload determination, and economic viability of the course
o Expectations regarding compensation will be defined (apart of
o His/her promotion and tenure opportunities
7. Assessment of student outcomes
o Course outcome assessment activities are integrated components
of the assessment plan
o Assessment integrate a complete cycle of the following general
Measurable objectives or standards
Valid, reliable assessment measures
Course curricular reference(s)
Time frame for implementation
Plan for collection and analysis of results
Action plan for change or improvement
Budget and/or planning implications
o Content developed for distance learning courses will comply with
o Attention will be paid to the rights and privileges regarding
transmission of materials
o Faculty members involved in content development will be aware of
their institution’s policies with regard to content ownership
o The whole or partial ownership of course content, the length of
ownership, copyright transferability, faculty relocation, derivatives
works, and profits from distribution or sale of course materials
o Faculty members come to agreement on content ownership with
the institution and all developers prior to course development
10. Support for faculty development and training
o It is important to provide the appropriate developmental
experiences for faculty who are engaged in the delivery of distance
o The institution provides opportunities for its faculty
o The institution provides ongoing training and technical support
o The institution ensures that the faculty understand and observe
the institution’s policies regarding intellectual property and
11. State approval and regional accreditation
o The institution complies with state policies and maintains regional
accreditation standards in regard to distance learning programs
• Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge. Knowledge may be
acquired and stored merely for information or may help in developing
any skill or technique of doing various things in life
• Some of the primary and biological needs for existence and security
are met by instinctive behaviour which is difficult to understand.
o For example a baby which was growing as a foetus in the womb
knows how to suck the breast of the mother as soon as it is born
and put the breast of the mother
o How did the baby know that it would get milk by sucking?
o The nervous mechanism is able to receive stimuli and impulse and
perception enables the acquisition of knowledge which in other
words is learning
• It must be appreciated that learning does not stop with acquiring
• It is active process of transformation of ideas, translation of meaning,
formation of attitudes, skills and values
• As far as behaviour is concerned and learning for behaviour, the first
requisite is that a person wants to learn and improve
• Unless there is an inherent desire on the part of the individual or
group to acquire some knowledge for the sake of change of behaviour,
a learning situation will not obtain
A model of student learning
Intention/motivation Self and task
Context of learning to learn perception
held as e.g. linking, to be
image, Active acquired
facts, etc. & selection of restructuring, filter and and new
network, selection of links,
links, maps adapting, new inputs networks,
established automating, to be
Awareness of own Level of study skill
Preferred orientation learning
- knowledge seeking
2. Learning theories:
• According to Marton (1995), two distinctive approaches to study:
o Deep level
Active search for meaning
• It is associated with deeper understanding
• Even after a five-week interval the user of this approach had
a better recall of detail than those who used the surface
o Surface level
Try to memorize those parts of the article which they think they
might be questioned on
• According to Fransson (1977), there are four categories study
o Deep active
o Deep passive
o Surface active
o Surface passive
• Pask’s two strategies
Look closely at details and the steps in the argument.
They tend to make little use of analogies, metaphors or
It appear to be sophisticated surface approach
Begins with broad focus
They try to see the task globally
Relate it to previous knowledge and use analogies, illustrators
and other explanatory devices
• According to Conditional response theory (E. Throndike)
o Learning is a result of association forming between stimuli (S) and
response (R). Such association or habits become strengthen or
weakened by the nature and frequency of the S-R pairing
o Three law of learning
Law of readiness
• A learner willing and want to learn
Law of exercise
• In order to strengthen their knowledge or skill, learner have
to practice regularly with their knowledge or skill that they
Law of effect
• The knowledge or skill must have benefit to learner, and then
they will learn it.
• Kurt Lewin theory of learning
o Learning means doing something better than before
o Four stages in learning
Change in cognitive structures
Change in motivation
Change in group belongingness or ideology
Acquirement of the voluntary control of the musculature
• Operant conditioning (B.F.Skinner)
o Changes in behaviour are the result of an individual’s response to
events that occur in the environment
o When a particular Stimulus-Response pattern is reinforced the
individual is conditioned to respond
o A reinforcement is anything that strengthens the desired response
o E.g. experiment on the mouse which it must learn how to open the
door of the cage in order to get the foods
• Kalman theory of learning
o Three types of learning
Learning by compliance
• It means that learning by copying or following other order
e.g. a doctor prescribes medication to a patient. The patient
will learn how to take the medication
Learning by imitation
• It means that learning by following other behaviour or
example without understanding it e.g. a kid following his
• It means the learner wants to learn and the learning desire
came from his own.
• Constructivism theory (J.Bruner)
o Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas
or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge
o Four major aspects of the theory
Predisposition toward learning
The ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so
that it can be most readily grasped by the learner
The most effective sequences of material
The nature and pacing of rewards and punishment
• Contiguity theory (E.Guthrie)
o All learning is a consequences of association between a particular
stimulus and response
o Rewards or punishment play no role in learning since they occur
after the association between stimulus and response has been
o Forgetting is due to interference rather than the passage of time;
stimuli become associated with new response
It means that the new stimulus are the factor associate with the
forgetting not the time
• Drive reduction theory (C.Hull)
o Drive reduction or need satisfaction plays a much more important
role in behaviour then other
o Hull’s postulation
Organism possess a hierarchy of needs which are aroused
under conditions of stimulation and drive
Habit strength increase with activities that are associated with
primary or secondary reinforcement
• Dual coding theory (A. Paivio, 1986)
o Human cognition is unique in that it has become specialized for
dealing simultaneously with language and with nonverbal objects
• Adult learning (K. P. Cross)
o Factors of adult learning
Personal characteristics: aging, life phase, developmental stage
Situational characteristics: part time vs. full time, voluntary vs.
• Elaboration theory (C. Reigeluth)
o Instruction should be organized in increasing order of complexity
for optimal learning
• Social learning theory (A. Badura, 1977)
o Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the
behaviours, attitudes, and emotional reaction of others
• Stimulus sampling theory (W. Estes, 1950)
o The theory suggest that a particular stimulus-responses
association is learned on a single trial
o On any given learning trial, a number of different responses can be
made but only the portion that are effective form association
o Thus, learned responses are a sample of all possible stimulus
• Structural learning theory (J. Scandura, 1977)
o What is learned are rules which consist of a domain, range, and
o Steps in structural analysis
Select a sample of Identify a solution rule
problem for each problem
Convert each solution rule into a
higher order problem whose
solution is that true
• Subsumption theory (D. Ausubel)
o Ausubel theory is concerned with how individuals learn large
amounts of meaningful material from verbal/textual presentations
in school setting
o According to Ausubel, learning is based upon the kinds of
superordinate, representational, and combinatorial process that
occur during the reception of information
• Symbol system (G. Solomon, 1977)
o The symbol system theory is intended to explain the effects of
media on learning
o 1st – they highlight different aspects of content
o 2nd – they vary with respect to ease of recoding
o 3rd – specific coding elements can save the learner from difficulty
o 4th – symbol system differ with respect to how much processing
they demand or allow
o 5th – symbol system differ with respect to the kinds of mental
process they call on for recoding and elaboration
• Triarchic theory (R. Sternberg, 1977)
o Consist of three sub theory
The componential subtheory
• Outlines the structure and mechanism that underlie
The experiential subtheory
• Proposes intelligent behaviour be interpreted along the
continuum of experience
The contextual subtheory
• Specifies that intelligent behaviour is defined by the
• Condition of learning (R. Gagne)
o Five major categories of learning
o Nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive process
Gaining attention (reception)
Informing leaner of objectives (expectancy)
Stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval)
Presenting the stimulus (selective perception)
Providing learning guidance (semantic encoding)
Elicit performance (responding)
Providing feedback (reinforcement)
Assessing performance (retrieval)
Enhancing retention and transfer (generalization)