Leadership & Faculty Development

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					  DR SAIFUL’S
   NOTES ON
   MEDICAL &
ALLIED HEALTH
  PROFESSION
  EDUCATION:
 LEADERSHIP &
   FACULTY
DEVELOPMENT


Dr. Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
            MD, MScMEd
Content

FACULTY DEVELOPMENT – DEFINITION & RATIONALE .........................2

NEW & EMERGING THEMES IN THE STUDY OF LEADERSHIP................7

PLANNING, RUNNING & EVALUATING A FACULTY DEVELOPMENT

PROGRAM................................................................................................ 11

PERSUADING COLLEAGUES TO CHANGE............................................... 18

BUILDING & SUSTAINING PARTNERSHIP IN HEALTH PROFESSIONAL

EDUCATION ............................................................................................. 23

GUIDELINES FOR NEGOTIATION & CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN A

PARTNERSHIP ......................................................................................... 33

LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN AN ACADEMIC SETTING.................... 40

  Topic 1: Influence of nature on leadership behavior......................... 40

  Topic 2: ‘Whole Brain’ Leadership and the ‘Glocal’ Leader ................ 50




                                                                                                        1
         FACULTY DEVELOPMENT – DEFINITION & RATIONALE




1. Definition:
    •   Faculty development in its broadest sense encompasses all those
        activities that help faculty members to improve their capacity to
        become more effective instructors, as well as to perform other parts
        of their multifaceted tasks such as conducting research,
        contributing to administrative activities and writing publishable
        materials (Jason, 1990).
    •   It is a tool for improving the educational vitality of our institutions
        through attention to the competencies needed by individual teachers
        and to the institutional policies required to promote academic
        excellence (Wilkerson, Irby, 1998).


2. Three level of Faculty Development:
    •   Improved teaching-learning process and mechanics (techniques).
    •   Awareness raising and advising faculty governance
        o For example updating to the faculty regarding new innovative
           tools of assessment or curriculum.
    •   Continued improvement of total academic programme.


3. Principle and rationale for Faculty Development:
    •   There is a body of knowledge which is justifiably described as
        educational sciences;
    •   it follows logically that health profession educators should be
        familiar with that science and skilled in its application;
    •   since that science gives promise of increasing both educational
        effectiveness as well as economizing in the use of scare resources
        (particularly teacher time and student time), it is worthy of systemic
        application;




                                                                                  2
    •   There is widespread evidence of serious deficiencies in present
        educational practices, some of which can be corrected by training
        teachers in the sound application of educational principles;
    •   The growing interest of faculties of medicine and of other health
        professions in such training strongly suggests that individual
        teachers and administrators find the results personally satisfying or
        professionally rewarding. (E.g. in some medical schools, a medical
        training is now required to be included in accredited post-graduate
        training in a medical specialty.)
    •   The increasing array (numbers) of practitioners, auxiliaries and
        students who participate in the instruction of health profession
        students makes some kind of training programme essential.
    •   Changes at three level for successfully Faculty Development
        (figure.1):
        o Attitudes
        o Process
        o Structure


4. Role of Faculty Development: Old and New

                                                               HIPPOCRATES
     Risk and market force                                  Ethics of remuneration
                                                           and professionalism and
                                                           part of professional life

                                  Should enable
                             scholarship for everyone

    Seen as remedial
 (when there is problem                                   Not remedial but central
   then FD is needed)                                   (FD is a needs for everyone)
                              PROGRESSION

        The Old                                                   The New




                                                                                       3
    Figure 1. A MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE FACULTY DEVELOPMENT
                       (after Berquist and Philip, 1975)




       DEPARTMENTAL             INSTRUCTIONAL           FACULTY
        MANAGEMENT                EVALUATION           INTERVIEW
       DEVELOPMENT


C
O
M
P
       DEPARTMENTAL               CLASSROOM          LIFE PLANNING
O      TEAM BUILDING               DIAGNOSIS          WORKSHOPS
N
E
N
T

O                               MICRO-TEACHING      INTERSPERSONAL
F      DEPARTMENTAL                                 SKILLS TRAINING
         CONFLICT
        MANAGEMENT
F
A
C
U
L
T                               EDUCATIONAL
       DEPARTMENTAL             METHODOLOGY            PERSONAL
Y         DECISION               (SOFTWARE)             GROWTH
          MAKING                                      WORKSHOPS
D
E
V
E                                EDUCATIONAL
L                                TECHNOLOGY
O                                 (HARDWARE)

P
M
                                                     SUPPORTIVE AND
E                                                     THERAPEUTIC
                                 CURRICULUM
N                                DEVELOPMENT
                                                      COUNSELLING
T


       ORGANIZATIONAL           INSTRUCTIONAL            PERSONAL
         (STRUCTURE)               (PROCESS)            (ATTITUDE)


               DIMENSIONS OF FACULTY DEVELOPMENT




                                                                      4
5. A vision of Faculty Development:

       Central/core not peripheral                          Continuity in care reflected by
       (add-on) to Medical Education.                       continuity in education



 Softening the boundaries
 between community and
 medical school.                          FACULTY
                                                                           Provision in the new settings
                                        DEVELOPMENT
                                         OUR VISION
 Facing problems of the
     real workplace
                                                                           There is and must be a back-up
                               Redesigning the        Responsive to        from and marriage to the
                               role model and           students           old/traditional institutions
    Making faculty
 development desirable              their
                               responsibilities




                                   Viz-a-viz
                            Curriculum research and
                                  health care



6. Integration of CPD (Continuing Professional Development) with
competency assessment SSM (Sistem Saraan Malaysia):
   •   Competency of individual is an important criterion for promotion.
   •   The mechanism must be seen to facilitate the promotional prospect of
       individual – to address all possible bottlenecks
       o Timing and availability of induction course
       o Timing and availability of examination and courses
       o Close monitoring of vacant posts and efficiency in filling up the
            posts
       o Criteria for vacancy
   •   Some statistic:
       o Faculty Development Programme started in 1986 (21 years)
       o Involves 5 to 8 workshops/ colloquiums/ seminar per year
       o Each activity attended by an average of 40 participants
       o Total no. of FD activities to date: 98
       o Total no. of participants to date: 2910




                                                                                                            5
7. Faculty Development Activity Flowchart (School of Medical Sciences)



                          Assess Needs




                    Priorities Topics for FDP




                          Plan for FDP




                  Implementation FDP Activities




                   Evaluate the FDP Activities




                                                                         6
       NEW & EMERGING THEMES IN THE STUDY OF LEADERSHIP




1. There are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are
persons who have attempted to define the concept. (Bernard Bass, author of
the 1981 revision of Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership)

   •   The leadership literature: an overview
       o No one unified and commonly accepted theory of/on:
             What leadership is?
             What make a leader effective?
             How to help people develop leadership skills?
   •   Common agreement on leadership:
       o Leadership does not happen in isolation.
       o It is a group phenomenon.
       o Dependent on an interaction between two or more people.
       o Showing leadership means influencing a group in some way.


2. A shift in thinking
   •   Most studies of leadership agree that the non-negotiable tasks of a
       leader include:
       o Envisioning goals
       o Affirming and regenerating values
       o Motivating behaviour
       o Achieving unity and trust
       o Resolving conflicts
       o Explaining
       o Serving as a symbol
       o Representing the group
       o Leading by precept and example
       o Renewing the organization
3. Changing patterns of leadership:
   •   A focus on interaction:




                                                                               7
       •   A shift away from leadership studies that list and analyzes the
           attributes of great leaders, in favour of an approach that gives more
           emphasis to the interaction between the leader and his or her
           context, environment and constituents.
   •   Changing images of the leadership:
       •   A shift away from the view of leader as hero – a lonely figure at the
           top of a hierarchy – toward a view of leader as facilitator, servant or
           steward of the group.
   •   An increase in power sharing:
       •   A shift away from the notion that a leader leads by commanding
           and controlling, toward a new emphasis on power sharing through
           participative leadership and autonomous decision making.
   •   More collaborative structures:
       •   An interest in going beyond studying the interaction of the leader
           with individual roles and functions within an organization, to
           looking at the building of teams and more collaborative structures.
   •   A desire to value differences:
       •   A shift in emphasis from creating conformity and uniformity,
           towards a new understanding of the value of the diversity that
           characterizes most workforces.
   •   A new perceptive on renewal:
       •   A shift away from a concern with control and predictability, toward
           a new understanding of the role of disequilibrium and chaos as
           essential triggers for continual organizational renewal and growth.


4. Traits of successfully leaders?
   •   There is no traits that guarantee successfully leadership in all
       situation
   •   Successful leadership requires
       o Combination of a particular context and an individual with the
           appropriate qualities to lead in that context.
   •   Assumptions a leader needs to make about the right way to lead



                                                                                   8
       o Human nature
       o The way people function in organization
       o The work of leaders
       o The kind of activities that leads to outstanding results
       o An appropriate vision for him or herself and the organization
   •   Leaders cannot lead in isolation. A key aspect of the context is the
       people the leader’s follower


5. Leadership vs. Followership:
   •   In reality, followership and leadership are two separate concepts, two
       separate roles.
   •   They are complementary, not competitive paths to organizational
       contribution.
   •   Neither role concerns the market on brains, motivation, talent or
       action.
   •   Either role can result in an award-winning performance or a flop.
   •   The greatest successes require that he people in both roles turn in
       top-rate performance.
   •   We must have great leaders and great followers.


6. Followers’ take on fundamental qualities of leaders
   •   The ability to embrace exemplary followers as partners and co-
       creators by sharing information, co-creating the vision and mission,
       and sharing the risks and the rewards.
   •   The ability to demonstrate the value they add to followers’ productivity
       by creating environment where exemplary followers flourish, and by
       being less a hero and more hero maker.
   •   A leader must produce leaders.


7. Changing images of the leader
   •   The traditional image of a strong leaser that is hero – the lone figure at
       the top who alone carries the burden of responsibility.



                                                                                9
   •   Studies of “great man” and their strategies on the battlefield, in courts
       or in parliament are, however, giving way to effectiveness studies that
       look at what value the leader adds to the group
   •   Participation
       o Leadership is participative to the extend that it allows decision to
          be shared by a superior and a subordinate.
       o The participative leader shares decision-making power completely
          or partially – in a consultative, joint or delegative manner. He or
          she may:
             Present tentative decision and then ask for modification
             Present problems, get suggestions, but retain the right to make
             the final decision.
             Define limits and ask the group to make the decision within
             those limits
             Permit constituents to function automatically within agreed-
             upon limits.


8. Attributes of women leaders
   •   An attention to process instead of a focus on the bottom line
   •   A willingness to look at how an action will affect other people instead
       of simply asking, “What’s in it for me?”
   •   A concern for the wider needs of the community
   •   A disposition to draw on personal, private sphere experience when
       dealing in the public realm
   •   An appreciation of diversity
   •   An outsider’s impatience with rituals and symbols of status that
       divide people who together and so reinforce hierarchies.




                                                                                10
PLANNING, RUNNING & EVALUATING A FACULTY DEVELOPMENT
                       PROGRAM




    Faculty Development Activity Flowchart (School of Medical Sciences)


                              Assess Needs




                        Priorities Topics for FDP




                              Plan for FDP




                     Implementation FDP Activities




                       Evaluate the FDP Activities




  - Teaching &             1. Changing context:      Policies:
  learning methods                                       - National
  - Students                                             - University
                                                         - Faculty
                          - The teacher




                                                                          11
2. Changing learning models


           Teacher led                          Group led                   Learner led


       “Classic” curriculum                         “Problem based” curriculum

                              Teacher become ‘guides on the side



3. Changing teacher roles:
   -    Facilitator:
        o Mentor
        o Learning facilitator
   -    Role model:
        o On-the-job role model
        o Teaching role model
   -    Information provider:
        o Lecturer
        o Clinical or practical teacher
   -    Resource developer:
        o Resource material developer
        o Study guide developer
   -    Planner:
        o Course organizer
        o Curriculum planner
   -    Assessor:
        o Curriculum evaluator
        o Student assessor
                                     Harden RM, Crosby J. Medical Teacher 34: 334-347; 2000


4. Changing Malaysian Government Educational Policy:
   -    Government:
        o All teachers, except at the University, have to be certified.
        o Training programs are certified; teacher quality is one component.
   -    Universities:


                                                                                              12
       o Only recently, accreditation of program (1999).
       o MOH and MOHE are now proposing teacher qualification system (since 2002).


5. The Teacher:
   -   Teachers like teaching (sharing their experience with younger people) but…
       o They have heard providing information.
       o They have many other tasks.
       o Taking care of patient pays better.
       o Their career depends on publication.
   -   What do teachers want to learn?
       o Junior teachers express more need for training than experienced teachers.
       o Main needs:
           -   Learning how to intervene in group processes.
           -   Use of ICT in teaching.


6. Professionalization of teachers: different goals from different perspectives.
   -   Goals
       o Management:
               Sufficient teachers.
               Competence teachers.
       o Students:
               Teachers with content knowledge.
               Teachers with educational competences.
               Teachers as role models.
       o Teachers:
               Facilities and support to prepare and perform their educational tasks.
               Facilities and support to acquire and maintain educational competences.
               Recognition and career perspectives.
   -   How to achieve all these goal?
       o A teacher training program




                                                                                         13
                                               Objectives



                         Assessment                              Method



                                   The educational cycle
o The objective:
      Teachers that are competent to perform the required educational tasks:
      •    Knowledge
      •    Skills                  observable behavior
      •    Attitude


                           The teacher is able to…
             Description of competences: competence by domain


                      Organization                   Teaching (execution)




              Coaching                                         Development




                         Program                      student assessment
          Knowledge      evaluation

                                      Skills        Attitude

      •    Domains of educational competences:
           o Organization
           o Teaching (execution)
           o Development
           o Student assessment
           o Program evaluation



                                                                               14
                   o Coaching student
               •   Different context:
                   o Classroom vs. clinical
                   o Groups vs. individual students
                   o Teaching knowledge vs. skills
                   o Teaching students vs. teaching teachers.


7. Principle of training program:
   -   Teachers are ‘on-the-job-learner’.
       o Learn by experience (Kolb; Honey and Mumford)
       o Accountable for their own learning.
   -   Relation with objectives:
       o Knowledge
       o Skills
       o Attitude
   -   Integrated training program:
       o Self study
       o Lectures


       o Role play
       o Exercises
       o Working in practice


       o Feedback
       o Intervision
       o Discussion
       o Reflection
   -   A systematic review of faculty development initiatives design to improve teaching
       effectiveness in medical education: BEME guide no 8
                                    Y. Steinert, K. Mann, A. Centeno, D. Dolmas,
                                      J. Spencer, M. Gelula, D. Prideaux,
                                      Medical Teacher 2006
   -   Key features of effectiveness:
       o High overall satisfaction among trainees


                                                                                           15
       o Self reported positive changes in attitudes
       o Self-reported increased knowledge and skills
       o Self and student reported changes in teaching behavior
       o Experiential learning:
               Practice and feedback
               Immediate practicality and relevance
       o Peer relationships
               Roles models
               Mutual exchange
       o Adherence to principles of teaching and learning
       o Multiple instructional methods


8. Qualification and certification:
   -   Definition:
       o Standard that testifies that a teacher possesses a certain level of educational
           competences
   -   Competences:
       o Have been defined
       o Are assessable
       o Have been observed or proven
   -   How to make teaching of FDP more attractive and rewarding?
       o Different level of qualification
               Core vs. senior qualification
       o Selection of competences
               All domains?
               Different context?
       o Durability of acquired competences?
               Time?
               Practice?
       o Exchangeability?
               Can be change with other FDP if the participant feels certain FDP relate to
               his/her field or interest.
       o Other issues



                                                                                             16
9. Problems mentioned by teachers:
   -   Time pressure and competition with clinical and research activities
   -   Low status of teaching as compared with research
   -   Teaching is not measurable
   -   Teaching is not taken seriously


10. Suggestion for improvement:
   -   Include teaching in annual appraisal interviews
   -   Allocate more time for teaching and educational training
   -   Provide teachers with role models
   -   Match teacher awards (prizes) with those for research
   -   Make career opportunities in teaching explicit
   -   Make teaching measurable
   -   A teacher training program should be based on a proper needs assessment of the
       teachers
   -   A teacher training program should include:
       o Knowledge, skills, attitude
       o All domain of medical education
       o Include specific training for specific roles
   -   Teachers are accountable for their own learning
   -   A teacher training program should be based on learning by experience
   -   The emphasis in assessment for teachers should be on formative assessment
   -   Teachers themselves are to a large extent responsible for their own assessment
   -   Teaching portfolio will play an important role in assessment




                                                                                        17
                 PERSUADING COLLEAGUES TO CHANGE


An adaptation and summary from an essay by Emeritus Prof. Dr. Ken Cox,
University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, Education For Health, 12
(3), 2000.


1. Lesson 1:
   •   Readiness is a prior condition for change.


2. Lesson 2:
   •   Individual alone cannot achieve institutional change.


3. Lesson 3:
   •   Preparation for change can be facilitated by co-opting power at the
       top.


4. Lesson 4:
   •   Education must begin with what the learner is interested in learning.


5. Lesson 5:
   •   Adult learners respond to their own agenda, not those of others.


6. Lesson 6:
   •   Educational messages proposing change must be interesting and
       persuasive.


7. Lesson 7:
   •   Educational change requires long preparatory discussion among
       supportive group.
8. Lesson 8:
   •   Most support is needed when an innovation is tried out for the first
       time.



                                                                              18
9. Lesson 9:
   •   Spreading innovation is a slow process requiring patience and
       persistence.


10. Lesson 10:
   •   Colleagues vary in their attitudes toward innovation.


11. Lesson 11:
   •   The variety of attitudes among colleagues call for a range of different
       strategies
       o “It is remarkable how much you can get done if you don’t care who
          gets the credit.”


12. Lesson 12:
   •   Implementing an innovation demands a host of logistic and
       communication tasks/skills.


13. Lesson 13:
   •   Preparing graduate trainees as change agents is a long and difficult
       process.


14. Lesson 14:
   •   Change is local and complex. Outsider can help, but should not try to
       direct change in another’s setting.




15. Lesson 15:
   •   Individuals can change their own teaching. The message can spread
       by example.


16. Lesson 16:
   •   Change does not occur overnight and needs constant perseverance.



                                                                                 19
17. Lesson 17:
   •   Distinction between “tiredness” and “boredorm” of individual towards
       change is vital.


18. Effective collaboration:
   •   Create a vision
   •   Develop strategies
   •   Create the conditions for successful change
   •   Create the right culture
   •   Assess the need for, and type of, change
   •   Plan and implement change
   •   Involve everyone
   •   Sustain the momentum
   •   Commit to continuous improvement


19. Quality process
   •   Improving core activities (e.g. teaching and learning, research and
       creativity, professional and community engagement, and university
       service).
   •   Aligning activities, budgets and resources with the strategic plan.
   •   Demonstrating leadership, innovation and enterprise in all activities.
   •   Knowing the needs of students, other customers, stakeholders and
       markets.
   •   Valuing and investing in staff.
   •   Using data, information and knowledge to inform decision making.
   •   Improving outcomes




                                                                             20
                Plan
                Our activities and resources are aligned with our planning objectives

                                        Demonstrating leadership,
                                        innovation and enterprise
                                        in all our activities.

                                                 DO
                                              Core activities

            Using data,         -   learning and teaching                          Valuing and
                                -   research and creativity
            information and                                                        investing in
                                -   international and commercial
            knowledge to                                                           our staff.
                                -   professional and community engagement
            inform decision     -   academic support services such as:
            making.                 o learning & development services
                                    o research & innovation
                                    o library services
                                -   administrative support services such as:
                   PLAN             o financial services                       REVIEW
                                    o staff services
                                    o information technology services
                                    o student services                         Aligning our
            Knowing the             o facilities & services                    activities,
            needs of our        -   corporate governance processes             budgets and other
            students,                                                          resources with
            stakeholders and                 IMPROVE                           the ECU
            markets.                                                           Strategic Plan

Improve                                                                                    Do
We use the                                                                                 Quality is the
information from                                                                           responsibility of
the reviews to                                                                             the individual
improve our                                                                                doing the task
planning

                                        Improved ECU outcomes


                      Review
                      We engage outside expertise in the formal review process.
                      We use data, indicators and benchmark to inform reviews.

       Edith Cowan University’s Quality @ ECU Framework: Relationship of the seven principle




                                                                                                      21
20. In conclusion:
   •   Change take place in learner; change begin e=with what our
       colleagues think, NOT what we think!!!




                          Learning Contract:


             University Units


                                      Work-based Learning



             Learning Support




                                                                    22
 BUILDING & SUSTAINING PARTNERSHIP IN HEALTH PROFESSIONAL
                                     EDUCATION




1. Partnership definition:
   •   Partnerships are generally aimed at trying to promote collaboration.
   •   Arthur Himmelman (1999), suggests that partnership (coalition)
       building can have as its goal simply networking, which is often defined
       as exchanging information and creating activities for mutual benefit or
       cooperative, which involves sharing resources for mutual benefit to
       achieve common purpose. They are not always aimed at the most
       comprehensive form of partnership, which is defined as collaboration.


2. Stages of partnership:




                       COLLABORATION
                       - the highest form of partnership
           Lv. 4
                               COOPERATION
                               - sharing resources for mutual benefit towards a
           Lv. 3               common goal.

                                    COORDINATING
           Lv. 2                    - exchanging information & creating activities
                                    for mutual benefits.

          Lv. 1                          NETWORKING
                                         - exchanging of information.




3. Collaboration definition:
   •   The National Assembly of National Voluntary Health and Social
       Welfare Organization suggests that collaboration is “ the process by


                                                                                     23
       which several agencies or organizations make a formal, sustained
       commitment to work together to accomplish a common mission.
       Collaborations require a commitment to participate in shared decision
       making and allocation of resources related to activities responding to
       mutually identified needs.”
   •   Collaboration is a “voluntary, strategic alliance of public, private and
       nonprofit organizations to enhance each other’s capacity to achieve a
       common purpose by sharing risk, responsibilities, resources and
       rewards.”      - Arthur Himmelman, 1999 –


4. Coalition definition:
   •   Cheri Brown (1998) defines a coalition as “an organization of diverse
       interest groups that combine their human and material resources to
       effect a specific change the members are unable to bring about
       independently”.
   •   Ron Labonte suggests that coalitions are, “groups of groups with a
       shared goal and some awareness that ‘united we stand and divided we
       fall’.”
   •   Feigherty and Rogers differentiate coalitions three ways based on their
       membership:
       o Grassroots
       o Professional
       o Community based


5. Principle of Partnership
   •   Mission and Goals
   •   Inclusive Membership (ownership)
   •   Organizational Competence
       o Five key elements of organizational competence
                 Leadership
                 Decision making
                 Communication
                 Resources


                                                                               24
              Staffing


6. Key points on Partnership
  •     In order to succeed, partnership need to have a clear mission and
        inclusive membership
  •     Partnership, like all organizations, must be able to handle key
        organizational issues, such as: leadership, conflict, decision making,
        staffing and resources.
  •     Successful partnership must be committed to action and advocacy
  •     The partnership process is slow and require time and persistence,
        promoting hope and celebration
  •     Keeping members engaged and encouraged during the process


7. The University Partnership for Essential Health Research Programmes
(UPP)
  •     Started as a demonstration project under the NETWORK – TUFH from
        1990 – 1995
  •     Mission and objectives linked to ENHSR and COHRED and Alma Ata
        concept
  •     Involved two coordinating centers (McMaster and Suez Canal) and 18
        NETWORK institutions.
  •     Funded largely by IDRC and Rockerfeller Foundation
        (CAD$750,000.00++)
  •     Focused on partnership development for improving research capacity
        of Universities through students’ research work in and with
        communities.




                                                                                 25
26
8. Project Kampung Cherang Laut (July 1992 – Dec 1995)




The KCLD Programme of Universiti Sains Malaysia is one of the 18
demonstration project of UPP. It involves the adoption of a small coastal
village of 200 households by medical students who identify priority health
and related problems with the community, implement intervention strategies
and evaluate outcomes in close partnership with and involving the
community and relevant government and non government agencies.


9. Developing Community-Institutional Partnership
   •   Two Distinct Culture:
       o Communities have a culture unlike that of academia or any other
         organization – Henrie Treadwell (1994) –
   •   Community Culture
       o Communities and their leaders have a need for broad visions to be
         broken down into opportunities for mini-success to segment



                                                                             27
         sweeping changes into more manageable tasks or actions that can
         address immediate barriers and be completed in succession.
      o Communities tend to frame problems differently than institutions
         or other organization. Communities and their leaders do not
         typically describe problems in the abstract terms of health or
         clinical psychology. They define problem more concretely, because
         they see them from a different angle.
      o Communities and their leaders are more often motivated by what
         they believe to be right than by what other think. That which they
         know is “real”, based on their unique experiences and beliefs,
         drives their action.
  •   Community-Institution Partnership
      o The systems are academic. Each community partnership provides
         instruction and services and conducts comprehensive, community-
         focused research.
      o The systems are community-based. Each reflects new
         organizational partnership between communities and academic
         institutions.
      o The systems are a primary care focus. Community partnership
         systems strive to keep healthy, attend the sick, and help patients
         and their families maintain dignity and control by delivering
         multidisciplinary, comprehensive primary care.


10. Empowerment definition:
  •   There are many numerous definitions of empowerment.
  •   In its simplest form, empowerment is defined by Meredith Minkler as
      “The process by which individuals and communities gain mastery over
      their lives.”
  •   The Cornell Empowerment Group states that “Empowerment is an
      intentional, ongoing process centered in the local community,
      involving mutual respect, critical reflection, caring and group
      participation through which people lacking and equal share of valued
      resources gain greater access to and control over those resources.”


                                                                              28
  •   “Empowerment is a social action that promotes participation of
      people, organizations and communities toward the goals of increased
      individual and community control, political efficacy, improved quality
      of community life and social justice.”
  •   The term empowerment is usually used as an individual term, but can
      be expanded to include organizational and community empowerment.
      – Nine Wallerstein, 1999 –


11. Working with communities the four “right”
  •   The right to needed
  •   The right to be involved
  •   The right to understand
  •   The right to make a commitment


12. Lesson from University-Community Partnership
  •   Developing community trust takes time
  •   Communities must be given a legitimate role in the decision-making
      process
  •   Communities have great many more resources than they think they
      have
  •   Communities are willing to assume responsibility for health profession
  •   Community connections with policy makers are often superior to
      institutional connections, but they are underutilized on behalf of the
      community partnership
  •   Communities are often more optimistic partners than institutions.




                                                                               29
13. Partnership: What Makes It work?


                     A Review of Research Literature on
                 Factors Influencing Successful Partnership


                           Adapted from the work of
                              P.W. Mattessiach
                              And B.R. Monsey


  •   6 categories of Factors for Success
      o Factors related to the ENVIRONMENT
            History of collaboration or cooperation in the community
            Collaborative group seen as a leader in the community
            Political/social climate favorable
      o Factors related to the MEMBERSHIP characteristics
            Mutual respect, understanding and trust
            Appropriate cross-section of members
            Members se collaboration as in their self-interest
            Ability to compromise
      o Factors related to the PROCESS/STRUCTURE
            Members share a stake in both process and outcome
            Multiple layers of decision making
            Flexibility
            Development of clear roles and policy guidelines
            Adaptability
      o Factors related to the COMMUNICATION
            Open and frequent communication
            Established informal and formal communication links
      o Factors related to the PURPOSE
            Concrete, attainable goals and objectives
            Shared vision
            Unique purpose
      o Factors related to the RESOURCES


                                                                       30
            Sufficient funds
            Skilled convener


14. 10 Things You Need to Know About Creating Partnerships:
  •   Adding value:
      o Make sure that the partnership adds value to your project or
         program.
      o “Which resources those are not in-house do we need to achieve our
         goal, and in which organizations can we find then?”
  •   Casting a wide net:
      o Consider all sectors of society as potential partners such as
         communities, NGOs, local government, businesses, multinational
         corporations.
      o “What organizations have expertise and experience that I need to
         better manage my operational risks?”
  •   Due diligence:
      o Conduct a due diligence investigation
      o “Is this an organization that we would be proud to work with?”
  •   Extra capital:
      o Make extra financial and human capital available to the
         partnership to ensure that your organization will have the
         necessary resources to follow through with the partnership.
      o “Whose job responsibilities will be expanded, and which budget(s)
         will support this Partnership?”
  •   Power sharing:
      o Treat partners as equals so that all partners have shared
         ownership of the design and goals of the project/program.
      o “Is there a significant incentive for each partner to makethis
         partnership succeeds?”
  •   Joint decision making:
      o Make sure that all partners jointly agree on the problem to address
         and mutually define its solution.




                                                                           31
       o “Have all partners been included on defining the problem, its
          solution, and how to achieve this solution?”
   •   Good governance:
       o Make sure that you address governance issues early in the
          planning stage
       o “Do we have ground rules and mutually determined roles and
          responsibilities so that our partnership won’t fall apart in the face
          of differences of opinion or unexpected difficulties?”
   •   Measuring result:
       o Agree on how you will measure success of the partnership
       o “What indicators are we using to measure our impact?”
   •   Memorandum of Understanding (MOU):
       o Clarify your and your partner’s expectations by writing an MOU
       o “Am I clear on the purpose of this partnership, the desired impact,
          and each partner’s respective roles and responsibilities?”
   •   Institutionalizing the partnership:
       o Avoid making the viability of the partnership dependent upon one
          person
       o “If any one person were to leave the partnership, would the
          departure hinder the success of the partnership?”


15. Characteristics of Good Partnership:
   •   A collective vision for the new structure
   •   Strong leadership
   •   Effective managerial systems
   •   Control over resources
   •   A power base from which to operate




                                                                              32
   GUIDELINES FOR NEGOTIATION & CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN A
                                PARTNERSHIP


1. Definition of Conflict:
   •   Conflict is “an expresses struggle between at least two interdependent
       parties who perceive incompatible goals, scare resources, and
       interference from others in achieving their goals.” (Wilmot & Hocker,
       1998)
   •   Conflicts exist whenever incompatible activities occur.     (McGraw-
       Hill, 2001)
   •   A moderate level of conflict across tasks within a group resulted in
       increased group performance while conflict among personalities
       resulted in lower group performance. (Peterson & Behfar, 2003)
2. Recognizing conflict is the first step toward addressing it. Conflict can
occur in several levels within partnership:
   •   Between the coalition and its members over issues such as
       expectations and priorities
   •   Between the coalition members themselves around the turf, funds, or
       credit
   •   Between the coalition representatives and their own organizations
3. Type of conflict in partnership:
   •   Power
   •   Autonomy and accountability
   •   Unity and diversity
   •   Mixed loyalty
   •   Viewing the coalition as a mean or as a model
   •   Goals and strategies
   •   Division of labor
   •   Interpersonal conflict
   •   Underlying causes of conflict




                                                                               33
4. Typical type of negotiation in partnership
   •   Between the coalition members themselves around the turf, funds or
       credit
   •   Between the coalition representatives and their own organizations
       o Around commitments, resources utilization, and authority
5. Guidelines for conflict management
   •   Always define the issue as shared.
       o For example, say “we do not agree about the division of labour and
          don’t say “Azmi refuses to do his share of the work”
   •   Don’t polarize the conflicting positions by posting conflict in terms of
       mutually exclusive positions.
       o For example, say “we need to figure out how to reach the most
          people in the shortest time” not “Azman wants to go door to door,
          but Ali thinks doing a mailing will be better”
   •   Allow time to resolve conflict. If normal meeting discussion doesn’t
       seem sufficient to work out a conflict, set up a special, structured
       process for dealing with it.
   •   Points to remember:
       o Preserve the dignity and self-respect of all stakeholders
       o Listen with empathy
       o Disagree with ideas, not with people. Don’t accuse or blame. No
          personal attack
6. General approaches to dealing with conflict
   •   There are several general strategies that can help resolve conflicts:
       o Using gripe boards, special feedback meetings, or retreat to help
          people vent feelings, raise questions and clarify issues.
       o Finding areas of agreement and opportunities for cooperation and
          collaboration
       o Focusing on common ground and playing down differences
       o Arranging opportunities for the organizations involved to talk about
          their differences, remove misunderstanding, exchange information,
          and build relationships



                                                                                  34
       o Helping members to recognize the conflict and to express the
          reasoning behind conflicting opinions and alternatives
       o Deciding in advance on criteria for decisions, and using this
          criteria as a basis for conflict resolution
       o Discussing acceptable and unacceptable aspects of each position
          or solution
       o Breaking down broader conflicts into manageable elements and
          obtaining agreement incrementally
       o Working with facilitators or third party mediators who help create a
          safe environment, provide information, suggest processes for
          resolving conflicts, make sure each side is formally resolve issues
          themselves
7. The conflict resolution process
   •   Diagnose
       o Clarify critical issues
       o Identify stakeholders and their approaches to conflict
       o Assess likely sources of disagreement
   •   Plan/strategize
       o Put together your information
       o Recognize the conflict behavior
       o Practice
   •   Implement the process
       o Set the tone
       o Encourage dialogue
       o Reach agreement
       o Document agreements
   •   Evaluate the outcome
       o Evaluate the effectiveness pf the chosen solution
       o Follow up


8. Condition that should exist before problem solving
   •   The issue or conflict must be perceived/presented as a shared
       problem. All parties should recognize their common interests and need


                                                                                35
      for cooperation. There should be an understanding that everyone
      involved is part of the problem and there is no right or wrong
      perceptive
  •   People should know something about the problem solving process,
      with its consensus decision-making approach. Make sure they want to
      go through the process, and agree to abide by the decision or
      solutions reached
  •   All participants should enter the process with equal power,
      information, and support. This process does not work if one party is a
      scapegoat, or someone holds all the power to influence the outcome.
  •   Despite differences of opinion, there should be trust and good faith
      between the parties. Participants should agree to talk honestly about
      the problem and take process seriously.
  •   Develop the ground rules, agenda, and process that will be used.
  •   Allow enough time to go through the whole process. Do some pre-
      meeting planning, or start the process by giving participants questions
      or tasks in advance.
  •   Key points
      o Conflict is inherent in partnerships
      o It is useful to recognize different types of conflict and conflict
         behavior
      o Expression and negotiation of conflicts is healthy coalition behavior
      o There are various approaches to prevent, minimize and resolve
         conflict
9. The art of Professional communication
         •   Effects of poor communication skills – Walton et al 1980 –
      o Missed/wrong diagnosis
      o Rejected/wrong treatment & advice
      o Patient dissatisfaction
      o Complain/litigation
      o Economic cost
      o Patient seek alternative medicine
      o Human cost misery/death


                                                                             36
•   Three important exchanges in human communication
    o An exchange of information
      •   Listening
          •   The art of listening
              o L     Lead, don’t follow – anticipate what’s going to be said
              o I     Ideas, find them
              o S     Signals, watch for them
              o T     Tuned in (focus) and do not wander
              o E     Empathized activeness, not passive involvement
              o N     Notes, take them – organize
          •   Techniques for good listening
              o Maintain good eye contact
              o Signals that you are listening by nodding
              o Avoids raising irrelevant issues
              o Restates the speaker’s remarks from time to time
              o Asks relevant questions to encourage the speaker
              o Uses positive facial expression & body language
              o Avoids interrupting when the speaker pauses for thought
          •   Interaction
              o Interaction helps in creating bonds between members
              o When we understand people, we open the doors for
                 creative solutions and third alternatives. Our differences
                 are no longer stumbling blocks for communication and
                 progress. Instead they become the stepping stones for
                 teamwork.
          •   Communication skills
              o In working life, you will have to interact with a large
                 number of people on daily basis. To interact well, you will
                 need to develop good communication skills
              o A good communicator speaks and listens well. He is
                 sensitive to different situations, is able to understand and
                 is always polite and respectful.
          •   Techniques for good speaking


                                                                           37
          o Maintains good eye contact with the listener
          o Makes clear, precise and well organized arguments
          o Listens carefully to questions and answers them positively
          o Uses appropriate language and avoids jargon
          o Uses appropriate non-verbal behaviors
          o Clarifies and summaries arguments as the discussion
             progresses
          o Is assertive and positive but no aggressive
  •   Observing
  •   Questioning/responding
      •   Information retrieval/questioning
          o Limit amount of information asked
          o Start with the important facts first
          o Stress the importance of the information sought to
             student’s needs
          o Avoid Jargon
          o Relate questions clearly to the topic at hand
          o Use repetition/paraphrase for emphasis
          o Make instructions specific, behavioral and measurable
          o Tolerate silence to a certain extent
o An exchange of emotion
  •   Empathy
  •   Respect
  •   Warmth
  •   Concreteness
  •   Genuineness
  •   Self disclosure
  •   Commitment
o An exchange of meaning
  •   Understanding of experiences
  •   Discussing current expectations
  •   Respect differences in viewpoints



                                                                    38
•   Qualities of a good feedback provider
    •   Pleasant
    •   Confident
    •   Relaxed
    •   Patient
    •   Knowledgeable
    •   Encouraging
    •   Non-judgmental
    •   Empathic
    •   Trustworthy
    •   Genuine
•   Ground rules on providing feedback
    •   DO’s
        o Give immediate and frequent feedback
        o Allow student to evaluate him/herself prior to your own
           feedback
        o Focus on the positive followed by negative points
        o Be specific, succinct, objective and clear on point of fault
           for improvement (use checklists, likert-scales, etc)
        o Always be supportive and sincere
    •   DON’Ts
        o Be judgmental
        o Put down student in front of others
        o Preach or demoralized student on mistakes made
        o Over talk and under listen
        o Use feedback to your own advantage e.g. faculty votes, etc
        o Make use of formative feedback as basis for formal exams,
           scores




                                                                     39
            LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN AN ACADEMIC SETTING
                     (Exploring the influences of Nature and Nurture)


    Notes were taken from 2 days workshop at Royal Guest House, Kota Bharu, Kelantan


Workshop Objectives:
 • To understand how personality, gender and culture influence leadership styles.
 • To explore the concepts of charisma personality and natural style in leadership.
 • To define roles of academic leadership in a globalized world
 • To apply the concept of training, mentoring and coaching in relationship to leadership
   development.
                     Topic 1: Influence of nature on leadership behavior


“You cannot be anything you want to be but… it is possible to be all you can be.”
- Hamer & Copeland – “Living With Our Genes”


1. Personality Profiling:
 • One study identified over 2000 test.
 • Another study found around 18000 words to describe personality traits.
 • Even after reduction analysis there were still between 150 to 200 trait descriptions.
 • These can be conveniently grouped into several clusters.
 • Many popular or widely used profiling tools use similar cluster groups.
 • The one we have selected is called CPP (CREDO Personality Profile). We will learn
   more about personality traits through an abbreviated survey form.
 • The CPP clusters:
   o These include around 120 traits grouped into six clusters.
   o They are all worded in positive terms so that all differences are positive.
   o A high score would denote those traits as being strong in a person and a low score
       denoting they are less strong.
   o There are no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ or ‘good’ or ‘bad’ traits.
   o But there maybe strong preferences between people (personality clash) or a mismatch
       between person and job.




                                                                                            40
2. Personality definition:
 • Personality is the combination of various qualities and traits that are reflected in the
    person’s interaction with the environment to make them unique.
 • Personality can be defined as “The sum total of our mental, emotional, social and
    physical characteristics that distinguishes us from others, the core of which is those traits
    that remain stable for life, and that make us the unique person we are”.
   o It includes innate drives, temperament and talents/intelligences and natural
       preferences to think, feel and behave according to this genetic make-up – more than
       our environment.
 • Personality traits was defined as:
   o “Long term predisposition to behave in ways that satisfy our basic and innate or
       natural self”.
   o “A trait is a characteristic of a person that is enduring and generally remains stable
       after the age 25 to 30. Often described as consistent or repetitive patterns of
       behaviour”.
 • Just imagine you are totally invisible and no one can influence or judge you, how would
    you actually behave to satisfy your inner self?


3. Outcomes from personality profiling (CPP)
 • By knowing our strong traits, we can then discover which are:
   o Aptitudes, Talents and Intelligence.
   o Temperaments.
   o Drives and Motivational Preferences.
 • From this, we can:
   o Better understand what motivates us.
   o Better appreciate why others maybe more similar or different to us.


4. Can personality change?
 • The answer is both ‘yes’ – in some aspects – and ‘no’ in others. As many of our traits
   have a strong genetic influence, many of those that are very strong, will be difficult, and,
   in some cases – like physical traits – impossible to change. Weaker traits will be easier to
   modify.




                                                                                               41
• The core of personality is temperament, which occurs at the same strength as instinct.
  This unlikely to change much, unless a person wants very much to change – and such
  change is usually then – only to a slight degree.
• Character, which is the more flexible component of temperament, and formed partly by
  experience, and therefore learned, can be nurtured more.
• However, once our brain structure has matured and hormones sterilized – by around age
  25 personality tens to remain stable and predictable for the rest of our life.


                               Opposing Styles Preferences



     Blue (Cluster VI)                                  Yellow (Cluster II)

     -   Facts                                          -   Creative ideas
     -   Analytics                                      -   Imaginative
     -   Logical                                        -   Conceptual




     Green (Cluster V)                                  Red (Cluster III)

     -   Controlled feelings                            -   Expressed feelings
     -   Introverted                                    -   Extroverted
     -   More Kinesthetic                               -   Body Kinesthetic




                                                                                           42
                                     Striving For Balance




                          Cool, Calm and Controlled
                           ‘Strong’ and Definitive
                                   Thought




                                 Quiet, Receptive,
                              Empathic, A ‘Sensitive’
                              And Responsive Listener




5. Aptitudes
 • Sometimes called Talents
 • Also called Gifts
 • All intelligences are Aptitudes or Talents
 • They are more ‘Natural’, innate or inborn


6. Drives
 • Typical traits under ‘Drives’ includes:
   o Achievement motivation
   o Need for affiliation
   o Desire for ‘dominance’ or being in control
   o Sexual orientation
 • Social traits as Drives:
   o Sociable & Companionable
   o Achievement – the need to succeed at any cost
   o Teaching and empathizing
   o To move about/ to sit still/ to explore



                                                            43
   o Sensitivity
   o Likes to share feeling
 • More traits under Drives:
   o Easy to get along with
   o Co-operative ness/ helpfulness
   o Affiliation
   o To be in control (dominance)
   o Caring and supportive
   o Spiritual and religious
   o Pleasing/ agreeableness
   o Is a good listener


7. Temperament
 • Typical or common traits under temperament include:
   o Activity and energy level
   o Curiousness or inquisitiveness
   o Novelty seeking or variety
   o Risk taking, venturesome ness
   o Violence, aggression
   o Calm and short tempered
   o Talkativeness or quietness or passivity
   o Boldness or shyness, reserve, cautiousness
   o Stress absorption/tolerance
   o Optimism or pessimism
   o Spontaneity of behaviour
   o Sadness or brightness (‘happiness’)


8. Trait strengths or weaknesses
 • Traits can be intensified, modified or weakened but will rarely disappear or completely
   change
 • Some drives, values and behaviours may change, if needs change, but traits are unlikely
   to.




                                                                                             44
9. Trait strengths and behaviour
 • Deeply held religious values may take a friendly person become dogmatic and judgmental
    and intolerant of others.
 • Musical rhythmic or kinesthetic people may increase their openness to explore and
    experiment.


10. Interaction of traits
  • A trait must exist for a competence to exist. A trait can be a competence or several traits
    can equal a competency, but not all competencies are traits.
    o Example: an analytical, creative or strategic thinker
    o Each is different ‘Thinking’ trait and style. Each can be a Talent and Competency on
        their own or interact together.


11. The biology basis of personality
  • Traits tend to reflect the physiology activity of our brains neurological (chemical) arousal
    systems (Nature/Biology/Genes)
  • Nature requires nurture:
    o A trait (more nature) that is exhibited by behaviour (trait manifestation) first requires
        a stimulus or trigger from the external environment (more nurture).
    o It is not ‘Nature vs. Nurture’ but ‘Nature via Nurture’.


12. Traits & Behaviour
  • A trait can equally exert influence on our behaviour.
  • Traits like intelligence, calmness, flexibility, openness, etc, can strongly influence our
    behaviour.


13. Chemical produce behaviour
 • For example:
    o “External stressors can produce a brain chemical called “Cortisol”, but this still
        requires genes to switch it on, to release it into our brain. If we are genetically ‘built’
        to be calm and with a high tolerance to stress, less Cortisol will be released and we are
        less prone to stress”.




                                                                                                  45
14. Genes and behavioral traits
 • Genes are ‘contributors’ to traits rather than ‘dictator’.
 • Genes themselves don’t cause the behaviour, but are like ‘switches’ that control the
   production and release of hormones (chemicals). It is the flow and interaction of these
   chemicals that influence mush of our behaviour.
 • Genes influence on traits:
   o Physical traits (like eye or hair colour) are 100% genetic.
   o Some personality traits may be as high as 80% genetic
   o Other may range from 10% to 70%
   o Some genes mutate (change)
   o Some remain dormant and recessive
   o Some skip one or more generations
 • Average genetic inheritance
   o Genetic influence on behaviour is probably around 40-60% on average
   o Less than 10% is due to a shared environment
   o 25% is due to unique environmental differences
   o 25% is due to chance or random factors
   o On average we inherit about 50% from each parent
 • Degrees of genetic influence
   o IQ (also a Talent) – like all intelligences – overall may be around 60% to 70%
   o Genius of gifted are very strong intelligence or talent in specific areas possessed areas
       (like Da Vinci, Einstein, Michaelangelo, Mozart or Picasso) are more likely to be a
       genetic mutation in that small part of the brain, responsible for that type of behaviour
       (i.e. music, painting, physics, etc…).
 • Behavioral Genetics (sometime called Socio-Biology)
   o Strong genetic predisposition traits
           Introversion/extroversion
           Venturesome ness/ risk taking
           Imaginativeness/ curiosity
           Energy level/ exuberance
           Stress aversion
           Workaholic
           Achievement needs



                                                                                             46
          Intellectual intelligence (IQ)
          Affiliation needs
          Depression/ anxiety
          Health, metabolic rate
          Most other intelligences/talents – such as numeracy, musical, rhythmic, artistic,
          etc…
   o Moderate genetic predisposition traits
          Optimism/pessimism
          Cautiousness/conservativeness
          Spiritual ness/ religiosity
          Sexual orientation (hetro/homosexuality)
          Cognitive (thinking) styles
          Alcoholism
          Shyness/timidity
          Loneliness
          Emotional intelligence (EQ)
          Social disorder/intimacy problems
          Autism/ADHD
          Compassion/warmth or coldness
   o Plus biological traits of longevity, obesity and probably over 4000 disease


15. The power of the emotional brain
 • “Emotional hooks” buried in people’s experiences determine their future action. While
   “emotion” is still thought by some to be anathema in business, recent neuroscience
   discoveries revealing the biochemistry of the brain are stimulating a new appreciation for
   the role “emotion” plays in all aspects of our lives, especially business.   Main part of
   limbic system.




                                                                                               47
                                             Determinants of Personality




                                                INHERITANCE TRAITS

                                               • Genes inherited from parent
                                                 • Physical characteristics
                                                 (body shapes, hair color etc)
                                                • Physiological/Biological                          ZONE OF
                                                   (proness to some disease)
                                                     • Temperamental                                BEHAVIOR
                                                  (extroversion, introversion,
                                                       energy level, etc)




                           ENVIRONMENT

                           • Culture (values, norms)                       SITUATION
                           • Socialization (from parents,
                             schools, peers, employer,                      •    Secure
                             organization.                                  •    Dangerous
                           • Climate, geography,                            •    Peaceful
                             topography                                     •    Prosperous
                                                                            •    Poverty
                                                                            •    Competitive, etc




       16. Male-Female Brain Physiology

Logic/ Math’s Cortex
        $
(less active in female)

                                                                                                    Language Cortex
                                                                                                    (females use more of
                                                                                                    right side)
Language cortex
(larger with more
neurons in females)

                                                                                                      In females, the Right
The female Corpus                                                                                     Limbic is more active
Callosum is larger                                                                                    (empathizing &
and more dense (10-                                                                                   nurturing capacity)
12% more connective
tissues)
It matures in girls 2-3
                                                                                                Male Amygdala
years earlier.
                                                                                                enhances the right
                                                                                                visual cortex and its
                                                                                                visual-spatial ability
        Female Amygdala
        enhances frontal lobes
        to control temper
                                                                                                                           48
17. Gender differences in personality and learning


When learning, males generally tend to:         When learning, females generally tend to:
• Be less likely to ask or share                • Talk and relate more than others
• Be less interested in detailed work           • Be better with detailed work
• Be more easily distracted, especially by      • Be less easily distracted
  opposite sex                                  • Complete tasks or projects
• Not immediately complete tasks in             • Spend more hours studying or doing
  favour of doing things that ‘interest’          homework
  them – like playing sport (they will often    • Tend to be better in languages
  come back to complete tasks or projects       • Empathize more with fellow students or
  later)                                          even teachers/trainers
• Be better in math, science and work           • Conform more with social or cultural
  requiring visual-spatial ability.               norms – and rarely argue aggressively or
                                                  bully others




                     “It is not the strongest of the species that
                   survive, not the most intelligent, but the one
                 most responsive to change” – Charles Darwin –




                                                                                             49
                 Topic 2: ‘Whole Brain’ Leadership and the ‘Glocal’ Leader


1. Leadership is both science & art


                     Science                                           Art


• Theories of how to lead & motivate            • Personal qualities of the leaders
    people                                      • Getting to know employee
• Based on motivational theories/                   needs/drives/wants
    hypothesis. E.g. if leadership is more      • Selecting appropriate behavioral styles
    ‘inborn’ (personality) or more ‘learned’
    (culture).


                                      Leadership Defined


        “Articulating shared values, vision & goals, which are aligned, meaningful &
          inspirational, so employees feel empowered & motivated to achieve them”




2. Managing & Leading


                  Managing                                           Leading
-    Transactional                              -    Transformational
-    System & structure                         -    Inspirational
-    Mission & goals                            -    Vision & values
-    Dealing with complexity                    -    Dealing with change
-    More directive                             -    More consultative
-    More authoritarian                         -    More participative
-    More rational                              -    More emotional
-    Tactical                                   -    Strategic
-    IQ                                         -    EQ




                                                                                            50
3. Leaders: Born or Made?


          More ‘Born’ (Innate)                            More ‘Made’ (Learned)
 (more strongly predisposed in the genetic       (more likely to be developed or acquired
        make-up of a personality)                         given natural potential)


                                    -    Needs/Drives
                              o Power, influence & domination
                                        o Achievement


                                    -   Temperament
                                    o Energy & stamina
                               o Stress tolerance & calmness
                   o Adaptability, flexibility & tolerance for ambiguity


                                        -    Talent
                                  o Intelligence (IQ & EQ)
                                    o Conceptualization
                                 o imaginative (creativity)


                                    -    skills/process
                            o use of positive power & influence
                            o set challenging yet achievable goals
                  o manage own stress, exercise, diet, sleep & relaxation
                     o develop a higher level of flexibility over time
                o EQ can be strengthened but IQ less so Creative Thinking


     “Trying to learn skills in areas of no natural talent, can be a waste effort, money
                                            and time.”




                                                                                            51
4. Leadership & Personality


Leadership role demands                       requires these Personality Traits


- Be a visionary                              - To visualize & conceive a vision
- Lead change & innovation                    - Imaginativeness & creativity
- Ethical & of high integrity                 - Risk taking/venturesome ness
- Insight into people’s values/needs          - Emotional stability, EQ & empathy
- Be goal oriented                            - Achievement drives
- Manage self & stress                        - High stress tolerance, calmness
- Be an influencer                            - Assertiveness, power needs
- Cope with diversity                         - Warmth/cooperativeness
- Be a developer                              - Tolerance for ambiguity
- Work ‘hard & smart’                         - Flexibility, openness
- Have high mental & stamina                  - Mental energy & conscientiousness


5. Leadership & Culture: Asian vs. Western


              Asian Culture                                 Western Culture
1. More Collectivistic (‘We’)                 1. More Individualistic (‘I’)
2. Larger Power Distance                      2. Smaller Power Distance
3. More Holistic                              3. More Compartmental
4. Taller Hierarchy                           4. Flatter Hierarchy
                         Communication Patterns (tend to be more)
5. Indirect                                   5. Direct & Frank
6. Non specific                               6. Specific
                                       Core values
7. Relationships                              7. Task Achievement
8. Face Saving                                8. Competitive
9. Harmony                                    9. Control




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6. Leadership & Gender


Differences          Female Leaders                   Male Leaders
                     - Corpus Callosum larger         - Visual Spatial & Gross Motor
                     - Right Limbic more active       Skills superior
Brain anatomy &      (expressed emotional)            - Left Cerebral more active
physiology           - Use both language Cortices     (logic-maths-facts)
                     (more linguistic)                - Left Language Cortex only


                     - More Estrogen (more            - Less Estrogen (more
                     collaborative)                   competitive)
Hormonal             - Less Testosterone (less        - More Testosterone (more
                     aggressive)                      aggressive)


                     - More empathic/sensitive        - More confrontational
                     - Relationship/ Networking       - More task/problem focused
                     - More ethical (socially)        - More self-oriented (alone)
                     - Less easily bored by detail    - More easily bored, wants
Behavioral
                     (will complete tasks earlier &   variety (may not complete some
                     better in detail)                tasks sometimes)
                     - Leadership style more          - Leadership style more
                     transformational                 transactional


7. Leadership: some key dimensions
• Leadership is both science & art
 o There is theories and practice
• Leadership is whole brained
 o Both rational (cerebral) & emotional (limbic)
• Leadership & motivation are inseparable
 o Great leader develop highly motivated teams & individuals
• Leading & managing differ
 o Managing is more left brained & leading is more right brained
• Leadership is about



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  o People & shared values
  o Shared vision and goals
  o Alignment & empowerment
  o Making sense & painting a meaning


8. Leadership values & ethics: the 888 model


                      Asian                                       Western


1. Integrity (implied)                         1. Integrity (visible)
2. Justice/fairness                            2. Justice/fairness
3. Hard work/ discipline                       3. Hard work/ discipline
4. Caring culture (compassion)                 4. Respect for people
5. Respect elders/authority                    5. Egalitarian/ consensual
6. Knowledge/wisdom                            6. Competence/ ability
7. Harmonious relationship                     7. Task achievement
8. Respect for dignity                         8. Gender equity




                                    Global/Universal


1. Quality products, process & services        5. Prosperity & profit (wealth creation)
2. Customer delight & responsiveness           6. Safe & clean environment
3. innovation & ‘Kaizen’                       7. Continuous learning & development
4. Creativity                                  8. Efficiency/ resources conservation




                                                                                          54
9. Leading versus Managing


                                                                   Cerebral or Thinking Mode
                                             -   Directive                      -   Open & entrepreneurial
                                             -   Authoritarian                  -   Visionary & strategic
                                             -   Smart goals                    -   Dealing with change




                                                                                                                      Leading is more ‘Right’ Brained
             Managing is more ‘Left’ Brain




                                             -   Technical                      -   Innovative & creative
                                             -   Fact based & logical           -   Conceptual & holistic




                                                                                                                                                        Right Mode
Left Mode




                                                                      WHOLE BRAINED
                                                 Transactional                                  Transformational
                                                                         LEADERSHIP
                                             -   Mission                        -   Values
                                             -   Administrative                 -   Caring
                                             -   Traditional                    -   Intuitive
                                             -   Stable                         -   Personable
                                             -   Conservative                   -   Responsive
                                                                    Limbic or Feeling Mode


10. Developing Leadership Effectiveness
            Leadership Talent                                  +    Leadership Experience       = Leadership Effectiveness


                     Strong Talent                             +    Strategic Development       = Leadership Confidence




             Must be                                  Must be nurtured         Learning
                                                                                                = Leadership Development
identified earlier                                        continuously       opportunities
                                                                              must exist
Clear development
experience & career                                                  Challenges overcome        = Increased Confidence
path provided


Increase confidence                                                Higher challenges            = Positive result & rewards
                                                     Topic 3: Influence of nurture on leadership behavior
                                                     Continuous Learning & Development

                                                                                                                                                                     55
1. Key attributes of the Global Leader


Communicates a global vision and facilitates organizational change toward this vision


Builds and manages relationships and strategic alliances through communication and
collaboration
Leverages technology to support a global workplace


Demonstrates versatility, flexibility, and adaptability


Creates and promotes learning systems – including coaching and mentoring – to develop
and enhance competencies in oneself and others
Recognizes complex systems and business processes and applies a systems thinking
approach to resolve issues and conflicts
Understands and values cultures and                 Leads cross-cultural and virtual teams;
cultural differences; exhibits culturally-          promotes diversity in the workplace and
appropriate behaviors                               derives benefits from diversity


Sources: Dalton. M, Ernst. C, Deal. J, and Leslie. L, (2002). Success for the New Global
Manager, How to Work Across Distances, Countries and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. Inc


2. Why study culture?
 • Culture controls our lives and defines reality for each of us, with or without our
    permission and/or intentional awareness.


3. Understand culture
 • In studying culture we can use the analogies of the tree and iceberg
 • At the conscious level we see the symbols, ritual and role models while at the
    unconscious level we focus on values and underlying assumptions.




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                          Conscious Symbols, rituals and role models




                                                                   Roots (akar)




                      Unconscious Values and underlying assumption


• The 3 layers of Cultural analysis (imagine as iceberg)



                                                                         - Behavior
                                                                         - What you see
                                    The                                  - Cultural stereotype
                                    Water                                - Ways of doing business
                                    level


                                             - System & operation
                                             - How business is
                          Shallow            organized
                          Water              - Management
                          level              philosophy & style
                                             - HR strategies/personnel
                                             management


             Deep
             Water                           - Cultural bedrock
             level                           - Beliefs & Values
                                             - Political influences
                                             - Socio-economic framework



• You learn culture by:
  o Being born into a particular setting



                                                                                                57
              o Assimilating its values and practices
              o Immersing in a particular setting for period of time while at the same time retaining
                  your own values


           4. Patterns of Behavior




                                  Individually
                                  Derived                                             Peopleware
                                                                                      unique
                                                                Loving
                         Siti loves chocolates                  Creative
                                                               Ingenious


              Collectively                                                                                      Software
              Learned                                                                                           laws and
                                                                                                                patterns
   Chinese eat with chopsticks
                                                Religion, values, clothing, architecture,
                                            language, rituals, communication style, eating
                                              styles etiquette, education, ways of mating,
                                               technology, way of organizing economy.


                                                                                                                           Hardware
Human                                                                                                                      common
Genetics                         Instincts, sense of survival, sexuality, hunger, need for love, hope, joy,
                                 anger, fear, five senses, sense of playfulness, is born, is social, must die



 Everyone needs to eat




               C. Kluckhorn & H.A.Murray. (eds). 1984. Personality in nature, culture and society. New York: Knopf


           5. Defining culture
            • Generic
              o The collective programming of the body, mind and spirit which distinguishes
                  members of one group (nation, ethic group, company or category) of people form
                  another. (born into, assimilation, acculturation, immersion)
            • Organization/Corporation



                                                                                                                       58
      o That complex interrelated whole of standardized, institutionalized and habitualized
           behavior that characterizes the firm and that firm only (internalization,
           institutionalization, externalization)
                                                    - James O Toole, 1985 –
 • Other definition of culture
      o The values, beliefs and behaviors of a group of people forming a Bell Curve, or
           general tendencies
      o Determines how we make decisions, who and what we listen to and believe we act
      o Our mental models, ways of looking at the world
      o Comprised of observable words and actions and deeper, often hidden or subconscious
           values and beliefs.
 • Our “culture sense” determine what we believe is the right or only way to behave; assume
      others share.


6. Key Elements of Culture

                                                         SYMBOLS
                           What we can see and hear… language, objects, jargon, objects, ways of dressing


                                                          RITUALS
                                            How do we do things… meetings, celebrations


                                                     ROLE MODELS
                                                     Who is our heroes/heroin?



            PRACTICES                                     VALUES                                     PRACTICES
     Over behavior to demonstrate values       What we believe in… should, ought &         Over behavior to demonstrate values
                                                 must inferred from our behavior


                                           UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS
 •                                Ways of perceiving, thinking, and evaluating the world around us




 • We need to know the symbols
      o What we can see: buildings, artifacts, objects we use, dance, logos, costumes, dressing
      o What we can hear: the languages we speak, jargon and terms used, songs
 • We need to know the rites and rituals
      o The way things are done in a particular culture – like the way we pray, speak, eat,
           greet others, celebrate special events, etc.
 • We need to know the role models specific to the culture



                                                                                                                                 59
   o Individuals who have contributed to the growth and development of members in a
       particular culture and personify its values
 • We need to know the values
   o Which are the ‘should’, ‘ought’ and ‘must’ of thinking and feeling given to us early in
       life to guide our day to day behavior.
   o Values act as an informal control system
   o Defining values
           Values are standards which people try to uphold or stand by and influence the way
           people behave.
           Values are learnt. They are copied early in life from one’s family, school or
           religious.
           They are collectively expressed, upheld and protected through family structure
           and organization
           Values also form the basis for all cultural activities, practices which with the
           passing of time may become traditions
           They are actualized via ceremonies. If we know a person’s values we can predict
           that person’s behavioral implications.
 • Underlying assumption
   o Are the internalized beliefs of members in a particular society at the unconscious level
       which are often hidden and implicit to shape the way they perceive the environment,
       believe, think and evaluate the world, self and other and determine the values
       considered critical to pass on to succeeding generations.


7. 16 cultural dimensions


HARMONY                     Gauges the individuals relationship with nature    CONTROL
                        Measures the importance placed on relationships        TASK
RELATIONSHIP
                                with others vs. tasks accomplishments
                            Gauges the emphasis placed or rank, status and     EQUALITY
HIERARCHY
                             other ascribed attributes over equality issues
                            Verifies if shame (outer driven) or guilt (inner   GUILT (inner driven)
SHAME (outer driven)
                              driven) is the principle that guide behavior
                        Measures the extend to which cultures depend on        LOW CONTEXT
HIGH CONTEXT                the external environment, situation, non-verbal
                                        signs to communicate



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                              Verifies is the principle that guides behavior is    MONOCHRONIC
POLYCHRONIC
                                           circular or sequential
                            Measures the preference for interdependence with       INDIVIDUALISM
COLLECTIVISM
                                                other people
                                Verifies the degree in which religiosity, as       SECULAR
RELIGIOUS                      opposed to secularity, is considered in work
                                               related issues



 • An understanding of the hidden dimensions of culture is a starting point for learning more
   about ourselves and others as individuals are influenced by multiple cultures.
 • Values and assumptions do not allow us to predict behavior; they are starting points for
   observation, dialogue and cultural exchange


8. Malaysian Ethnic Values


                                                       Chinese:
                                                       Food, education, achievement, hard work,
Malays:                                                success, perseverance, diligence, gambling,
Deference for elder, harmony, cooperation,             risk taking, entrepreneurship drive, wealth,
being non-confrontational, indirectness,               prosperity, thrift, family, filial petty,
faith in God, humility, being apologetic &             respect, hierarchy, position, status,
compliant, tact politeness, courtesy,                  harmony, face, modesty, being
friendliness, generosity, caring, being                pragmatic/practical.
accommodating, tacit system of reciprocal
obligation, loyalty, family orientation,               Indian:
trustworthiness, fairness, sincerity, honesty, Loyalty, sense of belonging, participation,
self-respect (hormat diri), discipline,                brotherhood, harmony, respect, family,
patience.                                              filial petty, fear of God, karma, hard work,
                                                       security, face, modesty, being champion of
                                                       cause



    Source: Asma Abdullah, Understanding the Malaysian Workforce, Malaysian Institute of Management, 2000




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 • Malaysian concept of self
   o Malay
          A related concept as described in “anak siapa tu?”
          Focus more on affective relations rather than cognitive skills
          A member has to function in a cooperative framework where patron-client
          relationships are still important
   o Chinese
          The concept of jen which translate as a person who believe in transactions with
          fellow human beings to enhance interpersonal adjustment.
          Focus is on practical ethics “situation centered” and socially controlled.
          There is mutual dependence n family members rather than self-reliance and
          independence
          Filial petty is mutually exchanged in a cycle of reciprocity
   o Indian
          The concept of KARMA means that the personality of a particular individual
          extends before birth till after death.
          The process of identity extends beyond many generations.
          The focus is on discipline of a spiritual religious character.
          Goal of maturity is achievement of a satisfying and continuous dependency of
          “bandha, sambandha, bandharya” bond, kindship and bondship.
 • Types of cultural interface at the Malaysian workplace


      Intra Cultural                  Inter Culture                   Cross Culture


Within one ethnic group        With difference ethnic          Between two difference
                               group within a country          cultures
                               e.g. Malays, Chinese,           e.g. Malaysian and
                               Indian, and others              America/Australia/Germans/
                                                               Canadians/British


 • Malaysian themes effecting business relationship
   o Preserving face (jaga maruah)
   o Language of character (jaga bahasa)



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    o Consensus-seeking and cooperation (mesyuarah & gotong-royong)
    o Member system (kawan)
    o To help one another (tolong-menolong antara satu sama lain)


9. Qualities of successful leaders (sources: The Economist as quoted in the Australia, Nov 12, 2003)
 • A sound ethical encompass… they must be anchored in strong values
 • The ability to take unpleasant decisions… risk making enemies and make up minds
    without data
 • Clarity and focus… able to screen out unnecessary noise and focus on what matters
 • Ambition… create something that outlast them
 • Effective communication skills… can talk convincingly with media, analyst,
    shareholders… the ability to judge people… who will work best in which slot
 • A knack for developing talent… learn from a good mentor
 • Emotional self-confidence… allows people to admit to weaknesses
 • Adaptability will prove invaluable when things go wrong
 • Charm… not taught in business school
                                 6 LOCAL CULTURAL DIMENSIONS

                                                                          Shared
                                                        AMAL             Practices




                                                                               Intelect, wisdom &
                                                        AKAL
                                                                                  understanding



                                                                                      Sensing, feeling,
                                                        RASA                             sensitivity



   Spirit,                                                                                             Acquired &
                           IMAN
meaning, faith                                         AKAR                          ILMU               revealed
   energy                                                                                              knowledge

                                                  Roots, values,
                                              underlying assumptions


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