A Introduction to Motivation Lecture
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A Introduction to Motivation Lecture The word motive comes from the Latin word movere. Motive is a specific need or desire that arouses the organism and directs its behavior toward a goal. All motives are triggered by some kind of stimulus: a bodily condition, such as low levels of blood sugar or dehydration; a cue in the environment, such as a ―Sale‖ sign; or feeling, such as loneliness, guilt, or anger. When a stimulus induces goal-directed behavior, we say it has motivated the person. Emotion refers to the experience of feelings such as fear, joy, surprise, and anger. Like motives, emotions also activated and affect behavior, but it is more difficult to predict the kind of behavior that a particular emotion will prompt. If a man is hungry, we can be reasonably sure that he will seek food. If, however, this same man experiences a feeling of joy or surprise, we cannot know with certainty how he will act. The important thing to remember about both motives and emotions is that they push us to take some kind of action – from an act as drastic as murder to a habit as mundane as drumming our fingers on a table when we are nervous. Motivation occurs whether or not we are aware of it. Instincts Early in the twentieth century psychologists were inclined to attribute behavior to instincts- specific, inborn behavior patterns characteristic of an entire species. For example, it is agreed that infants instinctually know certain reflexes such as sucking, swallowing, grasping, smiling and so forth. Can you think of other behaviors that are motivated by instinct? Drive-Reduction Theory Another view of motivation holds that bodily needs (such as the need for food or the need for water) create a state of tension or arousal called a drive (such as hunger or thirst). According to drive-reduction theory, motivated behavior is an attempt to reduce this unpleasant state of tension in the body and to return the body to a state of homeostasis, or balance. According to drive-reduction theory, drives can generally be divided into two categories. Primary drives are unlearned. Not all motivation stems from the need to reduce or satisfy primary drives, however. Humans, in particular, are also motivated by secondary drives, drives that are acquired through learning. For example, as people learn to associate money with the ability to buy things to satisfy primary drives for food, shelter and so on, having money may become a secondary drive. Arousal Theory Still, humans and animals often go to great lengths to do things that do not appear to reduce any drive. Consider curiosity. Most of us cannot resist checking out whatever is new and unusual. We go to the mall, surf the Internet, and travel the world just to see what there is to see. Some psychologists suggest that motivation might have more to do with arousal or state of alertness. Arousal theory suggests that each individual has an optimum level of arousal that varies from one situation to another and over the course of the day. According to the theory, behavior is motivated by the desire to maintain the optimum level of arousal for a given moment. Incentive Theory Instinct, drive-reduction, and arousal theories of motivation all focus on internal processes that prompt people to behave in certain ways. In contrast, incentive theory emphasizes the role of external stimuli that motivate behavior. According to this view, people are pulled toward behaviors that offer positive incentives and pushed away from behaviors associated with negative incentives. Achievement It is the desire for achievement for its own sake that leads psychologists to suggest there is a separate achievement motive. Some researchers discovered three separate but interrelated aspects of achievement-oriented behavior: work orientation, the desire to work hard and do a good job; mastery, the preference for difficult or challenging fears, with an emphasis on improving one’s past performance; and competitiveness, the enjoyment of pitting one’s skills against those of other people. Psychologists have developed a profile of people with a high level of achievement motivation. These people are fast learners. They relish the opportunity to develop new strategies for unique and challenging tasks, whereas people with a low need for achievement rarely deviate from methods that worked for them in the past. Driven less by the desire for fame or fortune than by the need to live up to a high, self-imposed standard of performance, people with a high level of achievement motivation are self-confident, willingly take on responsibility, and do not readily boy to outside social pressures. Although they are energetic and allow few things to stand in the way of their goals, they are also apt to be tense and to suffer from stress-related ailments, such as headaches. However, the negative side of achievement motive can manifest as the perfectionist type and/or the ―workaholic‖ or someone who is obsessed with always ―doing‖ and can’t relax. Work motivation is one of the key areas of organizational psychology. Organization theory is frequently described as an interdisciplinary study that examines the structure and functioning of organizations and the behavior of the people within organizations. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor (1960) summarized two possible views of management in worker motivation Theory X is the traditional view of direction and control. It states that the worker dislikes work and tries to avoid it. The function of management therefore, is to force the employee to work, through coercion and threats of punishment. The worker prefers in most cases to be directed and wants to avoid responsibility. The main motivator for the worker therefore, is money. Theory Y is the humanistic/self-actualization approach to human motivation. Sometimes called the human resources model, it states that work is natural and can be a source of satisfaction, and that when it is the worker can be highly committed and motivated. Workers often seek responsibility and need to be more fully involved with management to become motivated. Theory Y is most likely to be used when management utilizes worker participation in organizational decisions. Organizational psychologists have become interested in devising strategies to help workers enhance their quality of work life (QWL). Lawler (1982) suggested several strategies for raising job satisfaction and QWL, including improving work conditions and security, increasing worker responsibility, and providing financial stability. Other strategies include enhancing the worker’s sense of self-worth and providing opportunities for social relationships to develop within the organization. Job satisfaction is an area of organizational psychology that will continue to be important in the future. Equity Motivation We want fairness in our lives, whether it is in our social relationships Affiliation For one thing, the affiliation motive is aroused when people feel threatened. Cues that signal danger, such as illness or catastrophe, appear to increase our desire to be with others—the feeling of being part of a sympathetic group—is critical among troops going into a battle, just as a football coach’s pregame pep talk fuels team spirit. Both are designed to make people feel they are working for a common cause or against a common foe. Finally, it is believed that evolutionary factors have played a role since social groups can help in food, shelter, reproduction and so forth. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation provided by an activity itself. Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that derives from the consequences of an activity.