Coliseum Area Concept Plan

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					            Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan

                                       May, 2003

Introduction

The City of Oakland (City), in collaboration with the San Francisco Bay Area
Rapid Transit District (BART), has prepared the Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART
Station Area Concept Plan (Concept Plan). The Concept Plan provides a land
use vision for the area surrounding the Coliseum BART station (station area) as
well as an implementation strategy for making the vision a reality. The station
area is currently subject to blighted conditions and conflicting land uses.
However, the station area is ideally situated for the creation of a multi-modal
transit center and the development of transit-oriented uses. The development of
a transit-oriented development (TOD) that takes advantage of convenient
access to nearby mass transit will provide an attractive gateway to the City,
serve Citywide objectives for sustainable development, and will be a catalyst for
future investment in a key area of Oakland.

Land Use Vision

The Concept Plan envisions the station area as a residentially- and commercially-
oriented, compact, mixed-use TOD surrounding an intermodal transportation
center. The TOD will provide housing, an employment center, and retail and
entertainment opportunities to benefit residents and visitors alike.

Specific components of the Concept Plan vision include the following:

•   Intermodal Transportation Center: Development of a regional-serving
    intermodal transportation center to serve the local community as well as the
    entire San Francisco Bay Area. The center will include the Coliseum BART
    station (BART station), the Oakland Airport Connector (OAC), the Amtrak
    Capitol Corridor station (Amtrak station), Alameda County Transit (AC Transit)
    buses, and bicycle and pedestrian linkages;
•   Residential Transit Village: Addition of approximately 900 residential units to
    expand Oakland’s housing stock and provide a wide range of high-quality
    residential opportunities for Oakland residents;
•   Coliseum Gateway Commercial District: Office and research and
    development located to take advantage of transit access for employees;
•   Regional Retail and Entertainment: Retail and entertainment uses that serve
    Network Associates Coliseum and Sports Arena (Coliseum) patrons,
    employees working in the area, local residents, and regional customers;
•   Street and Safety Improvements: Local circulation and safety improvements
    to improve area accessibility; and
•   Improved Image and New Street Design: Development of an urban design
    theme that reflects the station area’s new transportation center prominence.




Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan                           1
Background

The Concept Plan is a response to recent trends and adopted policy for the
station area. The City adopted the Coliseum Redevelopment Plan
(Redevelopment Plan) in 1995, which includes a framework for eliminating blight
throughout the entire redevelopment area, including the station area. In
addition, the City adopted the Land Use and Transportation Element of the
General Plan (General Plan) in 1998. The General Plan is the guiding land use
policy document for Oakland and specifically designates the station area as a
Showcase District and Transit-Oriented District, as well as a Grow-and-Change
area. In summary, these designations encourage revitalization of the station
area with a focus on the accessibility of mass transit. In addition, the City is in the
process of updating the Oakland Planning Code to provide consistency
between zoning regulations and the General Plan.

In 1999, the City joined BART to conduct a station area planning effort for the
Coliseum BART Station in order to better serve Oakland and greater Bay Area
residents, employees and visitors by proposing conveniently accessible
residential, commercial and employment opportunities. At the same time, the
Oakland Housing Authority (OHA) proposed redevelopment of the Coliseum
Gardens housing development, located within the station area. Simultaneously,
a proposal was developed for the Amtrak station platform to be located across
San Leandro Street from the Coliseum BART station. In addition, the City
constructed streetscape improvements along nearby Hegenberger Road,
providing a visual gateway to Oakland from the Oakland International Airport.
Finally, BART and the Oakland International Airport are planning development of
the Oakland Airport Connector (OAC) to provide convenient access from BART
to the airport. These projects have resulted in a strong momentum for economic
investment and development in the station area. The intent of the Concept Plan
is to guide future revitalization and redevelopment of the station area in order to
build on these public investments.

Existing Conditions

The station area encompasses a 60-acre area surrounding the Coliseum BART
station in East Oakland. The station area is generally bounded by Hawley Street
to the east, 75th Avenue and Hegenberger Road to the south, Damon Slough to
the west, and 66th Avenue to the north (as shown in Figure 1). The station area is
in close proximity to Interstate 880 and the Oakland International Airport. Land
uses include a mix of industrial, low-density residential and transportation-related
uses, as shown in Figure 2. Existing conditions in the vicinity of the station area
include the following:

Land Uses

•   Coliseum Gardens Housing Project: This dated public housing facility is
    blighted, vacant, and scheduled for redevelopment.



Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan                               2
Figure 1




Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan   3
Figure 2a




Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan   4
Figure 2B




Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan   5
•   Industrial Uses: Property located immediately adjacent to San Leandro Street
    between 66th and 69th Avenues is developed with industrial uses. The
    Oakland Housing Authority is currently purchasing or negotiating the
    purchase of properties on the east side of San Leandro Street as part of
    redevelopment of the Coliseum Gardens housing project.
•   Single-Family Homes: The area to the east of the BART parking lot and
    Coliseum Gardens consists predominantly of single-family homes.
•   Acts Full Gospel Church: The Acts Full Gospel Church is located on 66th
    Avenue, immediately east of the Coliseum Gardens housing project.
•   Coliseum: The Coliseum, located immediately west of the station area, is a
    regional-serving sports and entertainment complex with two venues that can
    accommodate an audience of up to 50,000.
•   City Park: Coliseum Gardens Park is located along 66th Avenue, immediately
    north and west of the existing Coliseum Gardens site. The park consists of a
    baseball field on the southern portion of the site, and a passive park on the
    northern portion of the site. The two use areas are bisected by Lion Creek,
    which runs east to west from the Oakland Hills to Damon Slough. A
    pedestrian bridge over the channelized creek provides the only connection
    between the two use areas.

Transportation Facilities

•   Coliseum BART Station: The Coliseum BART station is located on the east side
    of San Leandro Street between 71st and 73rd Avenues. The station is directly
    accessible from San Leandro Street; however, passengers arriving from the
    east are required to use a pedestrian tunnel under existing at-grade railroad
    tracks (see below).
•   AC Transit Bus Stops: AC Transit bus stops are currently located along Snell
    Street (southbound) and San Leandro Street (northbound).
•   Union Pacific Railroad Train Tracks: The Union Pacific Railroad train tracks (UP
    tracks) run parallel to and immediately east of the BART tracks. The UP tracks
    prevent at-grade access from points east to the BART station within the
    immediate vicinity of the BART station. Approximately one freight train per
    day uses the UP tracks at that location.
•   Southern Pacific Railroad Train Tracks: The tracks are located west of San
    Leandro Street. The tracks run parallel to San Leandro Street, adjacent to the
    future Amtrak Intercity Rail Station (see description below).
•   Future Amtrak Intercity Rail Station: A future Amtrak station is planned on the
    west side of San Leandro Street at 73rd Avenue and across the street from the
    existing BART station.
•   BART Parking Lot: The existing 8.4-acre BART patron parking lot is located east
    of the Coliseum BART station. The parking lot accommodates 932 vehicles,
    and operates with a 20- to 30-percent vacancy rate.
•   Access from Hegenberger Road: Hegenberger Road, a major arterial
    providing connections to and from the Oakland International Airport, passes
    over San Leandro Street south of 73rd Avenue. On- and off-ramp facilities are
    provided between the two streets at 73rd Avenue.


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•   San Leandro Street: San Leandro Street is a four-lane arterial street that
    functions as a truck route serving the industrial areas of east Oakland. Within
    the station area, San Leandro Street includes a BART passenger drop-off and
    bus stops on the eastern side of the street. There are intermittent roadway
    medians and sidewalks in the station area.
•   Tunnel Connecting BART Station to BART Parking Lot: The existing BART parking
    lot and AC Transit bus stops located on Snell Street are connected to the
    BART station via an underground tunnel. This tunnel is necessary due to the
    at-grade Union Pacific railroad train tracks located immediately adjacent to
    the BART tracks.
•   Pedestrian Connection to the Coliseum: A pedestrian overpass is located
    between the Coliseum BART station and the Coliseum. The overpass crosses
    San Leandro Street south of 71st Avenue.

Key Issues and Opportunities

Key Issues

•   Blight: The existing Coliseum Gardens housing complex has a high vacancy
    rate, is unattractive and physically separated from the surrounding
    community. The existing Coliseum Gardens public housing complex is
    vacant, and is slated for demolition and redevelopment. Other properties in
    the area are underutilized and unattractive. Existing streetscapes have not
    benefited from urban design improvements.
•   Poor Pedestrian Connections: Access to the BART station is constrained from
    the east by the at-grade UP rail tracks (discussed above).
•   Safety: The station area is not perceived as safe. The eastern pedestrian
    tunnel access to the BART station has low visibility and is perceived as a crime
    magnet. In addition, the blighted conditions of the station area do not
    encourage a level of use that would deter crime.
•   Pedestrian Safety: The risk of pedestrian and vehicular conflicts on San
    Leandro Street presents additional safety concerns. There are no signalized
    crosswalks in the transit area, and large vehicles have difficulties slowing
    down to allow pedestrians to cross the street.
•   Land Use Conflicts: The existing residential and industrial uses are each seen
    as a detriment to the success of the other and jeopardize the potential for
    future investment in the area. In addition, neither land use takes advantage
    of proximity to the tremendous public investments in the area, including the
    BART station, Coliseum and Oakland International Airport.
•   Strong Desire for Neighborhood-Serving Retail Uses: Neighbors of the transit
    area have expressed a desire for grocery stores, and other convenient
    commercial uses in the area. Currently, residents must generally seek
    employment, grocery shopping and entertainment opportunities outside of
    the neighborhood.
•   Negative Image of San Leandro Street: San Leandro Street is a major arterial
    roadway in Oakland and is directly connected to Hegenberger Road, a
    major gateway to Oakland. San Leandro Street is void of landscaping, and



Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan                            7
    the most prominent visual feature of the street is the unsightly overhead
    power line running along the west side of the street.

Key Opportunities

•   Coliseum Gardens Redevelopment: The Oakland Housing Authority has
    received $34 million in Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HOPE VI funds
    to redevelop the blighted Coliseum Gardens housing complex. This project,
    described fully below, represents an opportunity to relocate and improve the
    existing Coliseum Gardens city park, provide improved site planning, and
    provide a catalyst for future high-quality development in the area (see Figure
    3).
•   Amtrak Intercity Rail Station: The future station will be completed by early
    2005 (see Figures 3 and 4).
•   Oakland Airport Connector: BART and the Oakland International Airport are
    currently planning a direct, high-speed rail connection between the
    Coliseum BART station and the Oakland International Airport. The Oakland
    Airport Connector (OAC) will provide convenient airport access and
    contribute to the strength of the intermodal transportation center.
    Construction of the OAC will be completed by 2008 (see Figure 3).
•   BART Parking Lot: BART and the City of Oakland are jointly exploring
    opportunities to relocate the existing BART parking lot and provide a
    residential and neighborhood-serving retail transit village on the site (see
    Figure 3).
•   AC Transit: AC Transit is currently planning to consolidate bus service in the
    station area on San Leandro Street. Existing bus stops on Snell Street will be
    relocated to San Leandro Street.
•   San Leandro Street: San Leandro Street is an important visual and physical
    gateway to Oakland. The City of Oakland, in conjunction with AC Transit
    and BART, has received over $1 million for streetscape improvements to
    improve the image of San Leandro Street, improve accessibility, and
    enhance safety and security in the station area (see Figure 5, and fully
    described below).
•   BART-to-Bay-Trail: Alameda County, in conjunction with the East Bay
    Regional Park District and the Association of Bay Area Government, is
    currently planning a pedestrian and bicycle connection between the
    Coliseum BART station and the San Leandro Bay section of the San Francisco
    Bay Trail, located within one mile of the BART station.
•   Damon Slough and Lion Creek: Two waterways, Damon Slough and Lion
    Creek, traverse the station area and provide direct access to the Bay. The
    City and Oakland Housing Authority (OHA) are exploring opportunities to
    enhance the aesthetic, recreational and natural aspects of the waterways
    to serve both residents and visitors.




Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan                         8
Figure 3




Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan   9
Figure 4




Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan   10
Figure 5




Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan   11
Concept Plan

The proposed TOD will provide a unique intermodal transit center for four major
transit systems, including BART, AC Transit, the planned Amtrak station, and the
planned OAC. The intermodal transit center will serve major destinations, such as
the Oakland International Airport, the Coliseum, increased development located
along Hegenberger Road, and the employment base of east Oakland. In
addition, the TOD will improve the connections between the intermodal transit
center and the surrounding neighborhoods. The confluence of transit modes
provides a unique opportunity for the development of high-density residential
land uses and increased employment opportunities in the transit area that will be
conveniently served by the intermodal transportation center. The Concept Plan
vision is shown in Figure 6, and described below.

BART Intermodal Transportation Center

The station area has already received tremendous public transportation
investment in the form of the existing Coliseum BART station, which serves the
greater San Francisco Bay Area. Additional planned and proposed investments
guarantee that the TOD will serve as a major intermodal transportation center
serving the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond. Specific improvements will
include the following:

•   Oakland Airport Connector: The Oakland Airport Connector (OAC) will be an
    elevated guideway traveling 3.2 miles along the median of Hegenberger
    Road from the Coliseum BART station to the Oakland International Airport.
    Completion of the Connector will provide a regional link to national and
    international destinations via the Oakland International Airport. In addition,
    the OAC will include two intermediate stations along Hegenberger Road,
    providing connections between the Coliseum TOD and other important
    commercial development nodes in the Coliseum Redevelopment Area.
    Construction of the Oakland Airport Connector is scheduled for completion in
    2008.
•   Amtrak Capitol Corridor: The City of Oakland and Capitol Corridor Joint
    Powers Authority are currently developing the Oakland Coliseum Intercity Rail
    Station to serve the Amtrak Capitol Corridor rail line. The new station will
    provide passenger rail connections between San Jose and Sacramento with
    convenient access to the Oakland International Airport, AC Transit, BART, and
    the Coliseum. The new station will be constructed by 2005.




Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan                        12
Figure 6




Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan   13
•   AC Transit consolidation of bus stops on San Leandro Street: AC Transit, the
    local public transit provider, will provide improved transit access on San
    Leandro Street adjacent to the Coliseum BART station. As part of the
    Coliseum Transit Hub Streetscape Improvements, bus stops surrounding the
    Coliseum BART station will be consolidated on San Leandro Street, where bus
    shelters, security cameras and new street lighting will provide a safe,
    comfortable and convenient transfer location between AC Transit and other
    transportation modes in the area. Improvements will be completed by 2005.

BART Parking Relocation

The TOD will include relocation of the existing BART parking lot to a nearby
location on San Leandro Street. Relocation will allow the required parking to
eventually be consolidated in a structure to make land available for residential
development, a key feature of all transit villages developed near BART stations in
the San Francisco Bay Area. Contingent on financial feasibility, the new BART
parking lot (or structure) will be located to conveniently serve BART as well as
provide overflow parking for other nearby uses (such as the Coliseum). Providing
residential development where the existing BART parking lot is located will
contribute to revitalization of the surrounding residential neighborhood and
provide attractive streets with residential and retail uses for neighbors walking to
BART.

Residential Development

The TOD will include over 900 new residential units located to the east of San
Leandro Street. Two development projects, redevelopment of the Coliseum
Gardens and development of a Transit Village on the existing BART parking lot
site, will provide a range of high-quality residential units. The new residential
development projects would exceed forty (40) dwelling units per acre, and
would be served by conveniently located commercial uses and by the
intermodal transportation center. New land uses will be most densely developed
adjacent to the BART station so that a large number of residents can take
advantage of transit access within walking distance of home. Residential
development will become less dense further east in order to provide a buffer to
and blend in with existing surrounding residential neighborhoods. The two
projects are described below:

•   Coliseum Gardens: OHA recently secured over $34 million to redevelop the
    existing 178-unit Coliseum Gardens residential complex with 480 units of
    affordable units, and improved site planning and accessibility to integrate the
    complex into the surrounding residential neighborhood. The high-density
    residential development will include 60 units of senior housing, the renovation
    and reconfiguration of an existing City park and the restoration of Lion Creek
    as it flows through the development. Redevelopment of the Coliseum
    Gardens will serve as a catalyst for improving the residential environment in
    the area.


Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan                           14
•   Transit Village: BART is willing to consider relocation of its existing 932-car
    surface parking lot located to the east of the Coliseum BART station
    (described above) and in its place develop a mixed-use residential and
    commercial neighborhood. This development would include between 300
    and 400 residential units as well as approximately 20,000 square feet of
    ground-floor neighborhood-serving commercial uses. The development
    would be physically integrated into the existing street grid and would include
    urban design features to provide an attractive visual identity for the area.

Coliseum Gateway Commercial District

The TOD offers an opportunity to create an exciting mixed-use commercial
district within close proximity to residential development and the intermodal
transportation center. The overall concept for commercial development is to
build on the Coliseum identity and employment base in the area, and to provide
convenient access to commercial development for residents of the area and
visitors alike. Future development in this area will complement the regional draw
of the Coliseum and will provide a land use transition between less intensive
residential uses to the east and the Coliseum to the west.

The TOD will include a range of commercial uses located throughout the station
area. Regional-serving commercial uses will be located on the western side of
San Leandro Street. This development will include approximately 640,000 square
feet of office and/or research and development space, and 140,000 square feet
of retail and entertainment uses, although the square footages are flexible.
These uses will provide employment opportunities close to the intermodal
transportation center. In addition, these uses will expand entertainment
opportunities for visitors to the Coliseum, enhancing the value of the existing
venue as a regional commercial destination.

Neighborhood-serving retail uses will be conveniently located adjacent to the
Coliseum BART station and within the Transit Village. These retail uses will reduce
reliance on the automobile and will promote a sense of community between
residents and businesses in the area.

Street and Safety Improvements

Planned and proposed street and security improvements in the station area will
result in a more attractive, safer community. The TOD will be a place where
residents and visitors can enjoy using public transit and strolling through the
neighborhood at any time of day. Improvements will include the following:

•   Pedestrian Crosswalk on San Leandro Street: A planned pedestrian crosswalk
    across San Leandro Street will provide improved pedestrian accessibility for
    public transit patrons as well as future employees of and visitors to the
    Coliseum Gateway Commercial District.
•   Connections Between BART and Surrounding Residential Neighborhoods: The
    San Leandro Streetscape Improvements, Coliseum Gardens housing


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    complex redevelopment and Transit Village will provide safe, attractive and
    convenient connections between the surrounding residential neighborhoods
    and the Coliseum BART station, making BART an asset to residents in the
    immediately vicinity of the station.
•   BART Access Tunnel Improvements: BART recently improved the existing
    pedestrian tunnel from the east to the BART station with new paint, security
    cameras and a new wheelchair lift.
•   Connection from Coliseum to Coliseum BART Station: There is currently a
    pedestrian bridge that provides access from the Coliseum BART station
    across San Leandro Street to the Coliseum. The San Leandro Streetscape
    Improvements will include a signalized, at-grade pedestrian crosswalk across
    San Leandro Street at the Coliseum BART station. This crosswalk will provide
    additional capacity and will serve future surface uses in the Coliseum area.

Improved Transit Area Image

•   Streetscape Improvements on San Leandro Street: The Metropolitan
    Transportation Commission (MTC) has granted the City of Oakland funding to
    provide streetscape improvements on San Leandro Street within the station
    area. Improvements will include improved access to the Coliseum BART
    station, expanded sidewalks, bus shelters, street trees, banners and lighting on
    San Leandro Street. These improvements are designed to provide a safe
    environmental with an attractive visual identity, and to expand upon the
    design theme of the previously constructed Hegenberger Road Streetscape
    Improvements (see above). The improvements will provide safe and
    convenient circulation for pedestrians, automobiles and large trucks that
    frequent the area.
•   Removal of Overhead Power Lines: Removal of the overhead power line on
    the west side of San Leandro Street is also under consideration. The unsightly
    power line detracts from the visual quality of the station area. Removal will
    decrease the blighted appearance of the area and will contribute to the
    value of planned streetscape improvements along San Leandro Street.

Phasing

The TOD is expected to be completely built-out within 20 years. The TOD will be
comprised of specific projects, as identified above. Phasing for the TOD will be
as follows (and as shown in Figure 6):

•   Phase 1: Redevelopment of the Coliseum Gardens is expected to be
    complete by late 2006. Coliseum Gardens will provide improved housing for
    residents and will be a catalyst for future development of the area.
•   Phase 2: The Coliseum Transit Hub Streetscape Improvements project is
    expected to be complete by 2005. This project will immediately serve
    residents of the Coliseum Gardens and patrons of public transit.
    Beautification of San Leandro Street and increased safety will demonstrate
    public investment in the area and will attract future private investment in the
    area.


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•   Phase 3: The existing BART parking lot will be relocated from the east to the
    west side of San Leandro Street.
•   Phase 4: Relocation of the existing BART parking lot will enable development
    of the Transit Village on the existing parking lot site east of the station, and is
    expected to occur within 10 years, depending on the availability of funding
    for land acquisition and development of a new parking structure.
•   Phase 5: Commercial development west of San Leandro Street will rely on
    the success of the other components of the TOD and will be actively
    marketed and developed following build-out of the other components of the
    TOD. Commercial development is expected to occur within a 10- to 20-year
    timeframe, between 2013 and 2023. By making this the last phase of
    development for the Concept Plan, land use development in the area can
    respond to land use changes that may occur over time at the adjacent
    Coliseum.

Implementation/Next Steps

The City of Oakland will guide and assist with the implementation of all
components of the TOD. Specifically, staff will undertake the following tasks to
make the TOD a reality:

•   Community Outreach: City staff will provide Oakland residents and business
    owners with information regarding the status of the Concept Plan and future
    projects in the area and will solicit input to key decisions at project milestones.
•   San Leandro Streetscape Improvements: The City of Oakland Public Works
    Agency is currently designing the San Leandro Streetscape Improvements
    project. Construction is expected to be complete in 2005.
•   Bicycle Access: The City of Oakland Public Works Agency is currently
    studying the feasibility of bike lanes and/or bike paths in the station area.
    Recommendations of this study will be incorporated in future projects in the
    station area.
•   Financial Feasibility Study: The City of Oakland Redevelopment Agency has
    received funding to conduct a number of studies to determine the financial
    feasibility of implementing Phases 3 and 4 (as described above). Staff will
    define and initiate these studies over the next year.
•   Zoning Update Process: The City of Oakland Planning and Zoning Division is
    currently updating the Planning Code to provide consistency between the
    zoning regulations and the newly adopted General Plan. Staff is currently
    developing Transit-Oriented Development zoning regulations to apply to the
    Coliseum Area. The City Council is expected to adopt an updated Zoning
    Code in 2004 or 2005.
•   Coliseum Gardens: The City is currently assisting OHA with the land use
    entitlement process for redevelopment of the Coliseum Gardens housing
    complex. Specifically, the City will act as the lead agency for environmental
    review, provide design review, and facilitate any required General Plan
    Amendments or rezoning requirements.




Coliseum/Oakland Airport BART Station Area Concept Plan                              17
•   Transit Village: The City will develop a memorandum of understanding with
    BART regarding relocation of the existing BART parking lot and
    redevelopment of the existing lot for the Transit Village.
•   Funding: The City will continue to seek grant funding opportunities to
    implement planning and capital projects in the area. In addition, some funds
    may be available from the Oakland Redevelopment Agency for public
    infrastructure improvements in the Coliseum area, such as undergrounding
    overhead power lines.




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