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Four Design Principles for Industrial Ecology

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Four Design Principles for Industrial Ecology Powered By Docstoc
					On complexity theory, exergy, and
      industrial ecology
           James J. Kay
                        Content
•   Industrial ecology and its evolution
•   Self-organizing hierarchical open systems
•   Ecosystem as SOHO
•   Sustainable livelihoods
•   Ecological-societal system interface
•   Four design principles of industrial ecology
•   Application
•   Conclusion
     Ecosystems Engineering
• A new branch of engineering
  – in line with the basic premise proposed by Kay
    (1977)
  – bring together ecology, economics, engineering
    design, systems theory, and thermodynamics
  – provide methodology for designing,
    implementing, and maintaining eco-compatible
    systems
   Defining Industrial Ecology
• The concert of industrial system and surrounding
  systems (Graedel and Allenby 1995)
• Multidisciplinary study of industrial and economic
  systems (IEEE 1995)
• Industrial infrastructure as interlocking manmade
  ecosystems interfacing with global ecosystems
  (Tibbs 1992)
• Merging systems thinking w/ system engineering
  and economics (O’Rourke et al. 1996)
       Ecosystem Approach
• “The application of systems thinking to the
  analysis and design of biophysical mass and
  energy transformation systems.” Kay (2001)
• Basis for this chapter
  – exploring an ecosystem approach for industrial
    ecology
                 Situation
• Industrial ecology (IE) is failing to reform
  industry because:
  – Society did not see the need
  – We do not grasp how to analyze mass-energy
    flow systems
  – We do not understand how ecological systems
    work
                Challenges
• Recasting of economics
  – ecological economics
• Appropriate application of thermodynamics
  – describe mass-energy flow systems
  – the quality of flow and effectiveness
• Understanding ecosystem
  – crucial to our survival
      Kay Proposes the Following 4
           Design Principles:
1   . Interfacing
2   . Bionics
3   . Biotechnology
4   . Non-renewable Resources as Capital
   Four Design Principles for
      Industrial Ecology
• First published in 1977
• Explicitly derived from systematic
  application of system theory
• Deal with the Second Law of
  Thermodynamics, hierarchy, and attractors
      First Design Principle:
            Interfacing
• The interference between man-made
  systems and natural ecosystems must reflect
  the limited ability of natural ecosystems to
  provide energy and absorb waste before
  their survival potential is significantly
  altered, and that the survival potential of
  natural ecosystems must be maintained.
• This is referred to as the problem of
  interfacing.
      First Design Principle:
        Interfacing (cont.)
• There can be a substantial change in
  context, from which the system can buffer
  itself, and hence there will be no change in
  the system’s state
  – Ex. Phosphorous in a lake has little effect until
    a threshold is reached. Once the threshold is
    reached, there is a dramatic reorganization in
    the lake, a flip between attractors, and a
    massive change in context is needed to return
    the system to it’s original state
     Second Design Principle:
             Bionics
• The behavior and structure of large-scale
  societal systems should be as similar as
  possible to those exhibited by natural
  ecosystems.
• This is referred to as, by Papanek, as the
  principle of bionics (mimicry)
     Third Design Principle:
         Biotechnology
• Whenever feasible, the function of a
  component of a societal system should be
  carried out by a subsystem of the natural
  biosphere.
• This is referred to as using appropriate
  biotechnology.
     Third Design Principle:
      Biotechnology (cont.)
• Examples
  – The use of natural landscapes for storm water
    management in place of concrete channel
     • This has shown a lower capital costs and operating
       costs
  – Replacement of turf grass with natural
    communities that are self-maintaining
     • Reduces cost of maintaining landscapes
     Fourth Design Principle:
 Non-renewable Resources Used as Capital
                 Expenditures

• Non-renewable resources are used only as
  capital expenditures to bring renewable
  resources in line.
• Resources are not inherently renewable, it is
  how we use them that makes them
  renewable.
     Fourth Design Principle:
 Non-renewable Resources Used as Capital
                 Expenditures
• When a resource is used at a rate that is less
  than the rate at which it can be replenished
  by natural systems, then the use of the
  resource is renewable
• Replenished
  – The natural system is producing stock of the
    resource at a rate such that the stock of the
    resource in the natural system does not
    decrease.
   Lesson from Past 30 Years
• When dealing with environmental issues,
  the complexity of the relationship between
  societal and natural ecosystems requires a
  significantly more sophisticated approach
  than that of normal scientific method
  analysis and evaluation.
  – Example:
Challenge in Industrial Ecology
• We do not have the sufficient understanding
  of the the cause and effect relationship
  when it comes to the natural ecosystem
• We do know the questions to ask, but not
  how to answer them
   Complex Adaptive SOHO
• SOHO- Self-organizing hierarchical open
  systems
• Spontaneous coherent behavior and
  organization occurs in open systems
• Open systems are processing an enduring
  flow of high-quality energy (exergy)
• Behavior can change suddenly when system
  reaches a “catastrophe threshold”
  – a point of discontinuity
           Second Law of
          Thermodynamics
• Non-equilibrium
  – nature resists movement away from equilibrium
  – open system responds with new structure
  – more exergy: more organization emerges to
    dissipate exergy
                      Example
• Vortex in bathtub water as it drains
  –   exergy is potential energy of the water
  –   raw material is the water
  –   dissipating process is water draining
  –   dissipating structure is the vortex
       • vortex does not form until height of water in bathtub
         reaches a certain level
 Characteristic of Ecosystem as
            SOHO
• Open to material and     • Exhibit chaotic and
  energy flow                catastrophic behavior
• Non-equilibrium          • Dynamically stable
• Thermodynamics           • Non-linear
• Propensities             • Internal causality
• Feedback loops           • Window of vitality
• Hierarchical
• Multiple steady states
 Ecosystems as Self-organizing
           systems
• Viewed as biotic, physical, and chemical
  components of Nature
• non-equilibrium, dissipative systems
• develop in a way that systematically
  increases their ability to degrade the
  incoming solar exergy
• more processes of material and energy -
  greater possibility for exergy degradation
Expected Changes in Maturing
         Ecosystem
• More exergy capture-the more exergy flow, the
  more there is to utilize
• More energy flow activity within the system
• More cycling of energy and material
• Higher average trophic structure
• Higher respiration and transpiration
• Larger ecosystem biomass
• More types of organisms
 Effective Exergy Degradation
• Surface temperature measurements
  – function of the temperature difference between
    the captured solar energy and the energy re-
    radiated by the ecosystem
  – consider five different surfaces:
     •   mirror
     •   flat black surface
     •   artificial grass carpet
     •   natural grass lawn
     •   rainforest
                 Complexity Theory
•   The complexity theory is a theory of non-equilibrium Nonlinear systems
    related to Chaos Theory.
•   Chaos Theory:
     – the theory of non-linear functions, such that small differences in the input of the
       function can result in large and unpredictable differences in the output.
     – A theory of systems that includes a number of specific parts, such as the "strange
       attractor" (an orderly pattern in seemingly disordered conditions), "reliance on
       initial conditions" (the so-called butterfly effect - that the weather in Utah can be
       affected by the flapping of a butterfly's wings in Brazil), fractals, the genetic
       algorithm, and entropy.
•   Sustainability examined with broader context
     – systems embedded in systems
•   complex systems viewed from different perspectives and scale
     – self-organizing
     – function of positive and negative feedback loops
     – organized about attractors (operating states)
    Industrial Ecology

 Activity of designing and managing
   human production-consumption
systems, so they interact with natural
    systems, to form an integrated
   ecosystem which has ecological
integrity and provides humans with a
        sustainable livelihood.
   The Normative Foundation
• The two notions that are the normative basis
  for the practice of industrial ecology are:
  – Sustainable Livelihood
  – Ecological Integrity
      Sustainable Livelihoods
• People’s capacity to make a living by
  surviving shocks and stress to improve their
  material condition without jeopardizing the
  livelihood options of other peoples, either
  now or in the future.
• Sustainable Livelihood is important because
  it is one basis for the practice of industrial
  ecology
  Three Aspects of Sustainable
          Livelihood
• Economic efficiency- use of minimal inputs to
  generate a given amount of outputs.
• Ecological integrity- livelihood activities do not
  irreversibly degrade natural resources within a
  given ecosystem.
• Social equality- livelihood opportunities for one
  group should not foreclose options for other
  groups, now or in the future.
         Ecological Integrity
          (Three facets of self-organization)

• Current well-being
  – Ecological health of the system
• Resiliency
  – Stress response capability of the ecosystem
• Capacity to develop
  – System’s potential to continue to self-organize

                                   (Kay and Regier 2000)
The Ecological-Societal System
          Interface
• Ecological communities provide the energy,
  materials, and information required for
  human societies to sustain themselves. In
  other words, they provide the biophysical
  surroundings that are required by the self-
  organizing processes of the social system.
The Ecological-Societal System
       Interface (cont)
• The societal system depends on the flow of
  energy, materials, and information from the
  ecological system to support its processes
  and structures. These flows, along with the
  biophysical environment provided by the
  ecological systems, are the context for
  social systems.
    Two Strategies to Address
   (Discussed more in Module Five- Gary Peterson)

• Adaptive Management
  – Assuming one’s design is at best a temporary
    transient solution to a situation, one must build
    into one’s design the ability to change and
    adapt to changing circumstances
• Precautionary Principle
  – Whenever possible, we should limit the affluent
    from societal systems (both waste materials and
    energy) flowing across the interface into natural
    systems
   Efficiency Vs. Effectiveness
• Efficiency
  – How well the quantity of flow is used
• Effectiveness
  – How well the quality of flow is used
     • Measured in exergy
• Sub-optimization
  – Assumption that individual subsystems are
    made efficient
      Two Broad Themes in
       Self-Organization
• Coping with a change in the environment by:
  – Taking control of the environment
  – Isolate the system from the environment
  – Adapt the environment to the changed
    environment
• Making good use of available resources
  – Efficiency
       Construction Ecology
• Adapting / Evolving   • Scale
  structures              –   Rooms
• Static Structures       –   Offices
• Self Organizing         –   Buildings
                          –   Groups of Building
• Solid Waste Stream
                          –   Natural Ecosystems
   Mimicry of Specific Systems

• Rainfall collection
• Copying the radioactive characteristics of
  forest canopies for the purposes of heat gain
  or the avoidance of, whenever appropriate.
Incorporation of Natural Systems
          in Buildings

• Systems that can transform wastewater into
  drinking water.
• Rooftop gardens to insulate and cool
  buildings
• As air purifiers and climate control aids
         The Design Process
• Identify major Players: stakeholders, actors,
  users, etc.
• Identify the issues each of the above have
  regarding the project
• Discuss Trade-offs
• “In an Ecosystem approach, design must
  become about developing dynamic
  processes rather than static structures”
      Man’s Alternative to the
         Resource Crisis
•   Continue our present behavior and depend
    on technology to save us.
•   Continue our present behavior and count
    on expanding into space as Earth becomes
    inhabitable.
•   Assign dollar values to current practices of
    resource usage and dumping of wastes in
    the environment.
     Man’s Alternative to the
    Resource Crisis (continued)
• Man recognizes he is part of the natural
  environment and not external to it. He
  must integrate himself into this
  environment. His behavior must take into
  account the limitations of the natural
  environment.
 According to Kay, “The last alternative
  seems to offer the best chance for man’s
  survival.”
               Conclusion

• Construction Ecology is about constructing
  built environments which have integrity and
  the ability to adapt.
• Design processes need to be about setting in
  motion an evolutionary process within the
  built environment.

				
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posted:2/27/2010
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