OCR GCSE IN ENGLISH _OPENING MINDS_ _1900_

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					Yr 11 revision guide




        Year 11 Revision
             Booklet:
        English Language
        English Literature
              2005

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Yr 11 revision guide



Contents:


     Page 3 ~ How will my work be assessed?

                 English Language

                 English Literature

     Page 5 ~ How Am I Going To Revise?

     Page 6 ~ Preparing for the Paper 1 Media and Non-fiction
      Examination

     Page 11 ~ Using quotations effectively

     Page 12 ~ Revising the Short Stories for Language

     Page 18 ~ Revising the Short Stories for Literature

     Page 22 ~ Preparing for the Poetry




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Yr 11 revision guide



                       How will my work be assessed?

English Language will be assessed in the following ways:


Unit 1: Non-Fiction, Media and Information (Written Exam 1 hr 45 mins 30%)

Section A requires you to do two tasks based on reading; at Foundation Tier, Task 1 may
be subdivided (response to unseen reading non-fiction 10%; response to unseen reading
media 10%)

Section B requires you to do one writing task that is linked to, but not based on the reading
in section A. (inform/explain/describe 10%)


Unit 2: Different Cultures, Analysis and Argument (Written Exam 1 hr 45 mins 30%)

Section A requires you to complete one task based on your reading and understanding of
two of the first 6 stories from the „Opening Worlds‟ Anthology ~ the A5 sized book. (it may
be a passage based task 10%)

 Section B requires you to complete two continuous writing tasks (analyse/review/comment
10% argue/persuade/advise 10%)


*Unit 4: Literary Heritage and Imaginative Writing Coursework (20%)

   Original Writing 10%
   Shakespeare ~ Romeo and Juliet 5%
   Poetry ~ „To His Coy Mistress‟ and „The Ruined Maid‟ 5%

*THIS HAS ALREADY BEEN COMPLETED AND SENT TO THE MODERATOR


Unit 5: Speaking and Listening Coursework (20%)

You will be expected to complete the following (don‟t panic! We have records of some of
the tasks from last year)

    Extended individual contribution
    Group discussion and interaction
    Drama-focused activity

*THIS HAS ALREADY BEEN COMPLETED AND SENT TO THE MODERATOR


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Yr 11 revision guide

                                  ENGLISH LITERATURE

English Literature will be assessed in the following ways:

Unit 1: DRAMA POST-1914 (45 mins Exam Open book 20%) NB: the majority of you
have already completed this unit in June 2004, where you wrote about ‘An Inspector
Calls’

Those of you who didn‟t, must answer one question on „Journey‟s End‟ (I will have spoken
to you about this already so don‟t panic!)

On each text, three questions will be set, including:
 Extract - based tasks (a question of this type will always be set);
 Tasks involving comment, criticism and analysis, (at least one question of this type will
  always be set);
 Imaginative/ „re-creative‟ tasks, for example in which the candidate writes „in role‟ as one
  of the characters. (Questions of this type will not necessarily appear on each text in
  every exam session.)


Unit 2: POETRY AND PROSE POST-1914 (1hr 30 mins Exam 50%Timetabled
consecutively with unit 1 ~ those retaking can do so in a 2 ¼ hr session)

You must answer two questions: one from Section A and one from Section B (ignore the
questions in section C)
Section C:

Section A: Poetry published after 1914 („Opening Lines‟ OCR Poetry Anthology)
Section B: Prose published after 1914 (all of the stories in the „Opening Worlds‟
Anthology)
Section C: Literary Non-fiction published after 1914

On each text, three questions will be set, including:
 Extract - based tasks (questions of this type will always be set on poetry);
 Tasks involving comment, criticism and analysis, including comparison where
  appropriate (at least one question of this type will always be set on each text).

All tasks set on poetry will require comparison between texts. Tasks set on prose and
literary non-fiction will invite reference to relevant contextual features.

*Unit 4: PRE-1914 TEXTS (CWK 30%)

Item 1 ~ Shakespeare
Item 2 ~ Comparative Poetry (Andrew Marvell and Thomas Hardy)
Item 3 ~ Prose (Edgar Allen Poe)

*THIS HAS ALREADY BEEN COMPLETED AND SENT TO THE MODERATOR

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Yr 11 revision guide

                                 How Am I Going To Revise?
General:
 Revise in small chunks – no more than 30 minutes at a time. Take a ten-minute break and then
   come back to it and test yourself. After an hour, change subjects.
 Think about revising with a friend.

English: Can be divided into three areas – reading, writing and poetry.
Reading:
       Try to read a tabloid and a broadsheet newspaper regularly. Make sure you know the difference.
       Find some examples of magazine adverts, which you think are effective: explain them to
        someone else, explaining how the advert works.
       Revise key terms such as: onomatopoeia, pun, metaphor, simile, hyperbole (the exaggerated use
        of language for effect), alliteration, emotive language …
       Make sure you can write about the effects of the language used.
Writing: (Both English papers will have writing on them, so this is very important)


       Revise the rules of paragraphing. Remember that you cannot gain a C grade without them!
       Make sure you can use apostrophes properly.
       Be prepared to use P.E.E. Your use of Point Evidence Explanation could be key in gaining the
        „C‟ grade.
       Remember to assess the audience and purpose of every piece you are asked to write. Who is
        the piece for? What is it designed to do? How will this affect your language use?
       Follow the timeline:     BRAINSTORM IDEAS  PLAN (organise the ideas into an introduction,
        the main body and the conclusion)  WRITE  CHECK
       Practise writing for between 35 and 40 minutes – this is how long you will get in the exams. Make
        sure your writing is neat and leave a few minutes to check and correct.
       Poetry “Opening Lines”:
         Re-read the poems and organise them into pairs, which seem similar.

         Compare the poems in more detail – look for connections and comparisons. Use quotes to

            support your ideas.
Literature:
Can be divided into two areas – poetry “Opening Lines” and the short stories “Opening Worlds”.
Poetry:
       Re-read the poems, remembering that you have to look at your named poets AND the pre-1914
        poems.
       Make a list of the similarities and differences between the poems. Fill in the grids to help you
        chart the main themes across the poems.
       Make sure you know, understand and can use poetic terms and explain the effects of the
        language (e.g. “the writer uses the image of the butterflies as a metaphor for the
        relationship between the father and his son. They may drift apart at times, but inevitably
        come together again”).
       You MUST be able to compare at least 2 poems …

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Yr 11 revision guide

The Short Stories:
       Re-read the stories.
       Find themes, which run across the stories. Draw a mind-map, or fill in the tables, to show these
        themes.
       Write descriptions of the key characters – use quotes to support your ideas and learn them. You
        will be given clean copies of the texts in the exam hall as you are not allowed to take your
        annotated copies in to the hall.
Before you go on study leave:
       Know what skills you need to achieve your target grade. Talk to your teacher about your main
        areas for development before you leave on the 13th May (get in early and won’t miss your hair
        appointment for the ball!)
       Make sure you have your revision guide ~ it will help to guide you through the Papers (if you are
        reading this, you probably have it!)
       If you don‟t know, ask …




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                Preparing for the Paper 1 Media and Non-fiction Examination

Section A

In the exam you will be asked to read a text and write about the layout, presentation
and the language used – you will do well if you pick out the effects – you will do even
better if you comment on the effect on the reader – how is the text working?

You will be asked to look at facts and opinions. You should remember that:

    Facts can be proven = they must be true. Facts are both powerful and strong – these
     can be used to inform, convince or persuade people of a certain situation.
    Opinion = is someone‟s personal belief – they think or feel it.
    Watch out for opinions that seem like facts – i.e. “It is a fact that…” – this is a way of
     tricking you the reader into believing an opinion.
    Opinions can be convincing – they might be used in text to persuade you of a point of
     view.

You will also be asked to focus on presentational devices:

As a useful revision tip in the exam hall, on the paper, at the top of the page you should
write the letters: PALL –

PURPOSE
   AUDIENCE
        LANGUAGE
           LAYOUT

These are the headings that can help you make notes on your text.

1    Purpose:
       To inform
       To entertain
       To explain
       To persuade
       To convince
       To instruct

Ask yourself: what is the text trying to do? Think how is it doing this?

2    Audience – this is who the text is aimed at:
       Young
       Old
       Mixed audience
       Adults
       Children/ teens?
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Yr 11 revision guide


Think about the layout and the language, this will help you to work out the intended
audience in the text.

3    Language – the words and sentences and style that has been chosen:
        Formal
        Informal
        Chatty
        Complex/ serious
        Alliterative/ descriptive

ALWAYS comment on the language that has been used – this is the hardest part but will
get you higher grades because it is a challenge.
Read the text thinking about the choice of words – look out for: similes/ metaphors/
alliteration/ catchphrases/
Think about the tone of the words chosen; are they – positive or negative?
Look for adjectives – descriptive words – are they over the top? Are they vivid – do they
make things come to life?
Or is the language mostly factual and informative?


                  A I M to pick out language details when you are reading through the text –
                  highlight words and phrases that stand out.



4    Layout – this is the presentation – there is so much to comment – but remember
     always explain the effect on a reader.
        Alliteration – makes the text catchy – quick to read – grabs attention
        Bullet points – good way to organise a text
        Captions can help readers understand a picture
        Colour – there are lots of connections and links – colours reinforce messages –
         blue= crisp/cold/clean. Red= passionate/dangerous/sex/roses
        Columns – a way of organising text – and helping the text to be clear to the reader.
        Fonts – classic/ formal/ old-fashioned/ modern etc – Fonts are chosen to impact on
         different audiences - and to grab attention.
        Graphs/ diagrams – help make difficult info easy to grasp
        Headings – important as a way to organise the text
        Images - Similes – like/as or metaphors – direct comparisons – these work to create
         images in words – so you can see the thing being described
        Italics – emphasises information
        Logos – symbol of a company – represents things
        Maps – helpful in giving people info – finding or showing a place


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Yr 11 revision guide

        Paragraphs – organising text – comment if they are small – short/ easier to read or
         longer and more detailed- this makes a difference to a text and to the reader –
         connects with AUDIENCE
        Pictures/ images bring the text to life and grab attention – they can also break up
         the text, which is useful.
        Underlining emphasises points made.
        Always comment on the first impression the text has – what do you notice when
         you look at the text on the page?


MAKE SURE YOU HIGHLIGHT THE TEXT AS YOU READ IT.




Section B will ask you to complete a writing task.

ONE task will be set.

You will be asked to produce a piece of continuous writing to inform, explain, describe, on
a topic broadly linked to the reading material provided. You will be encouraged to develop
your own ideas. You may refer to the reading materials in Section A, if you wish; however,
you do not have to!

The points on the following page are useful when producing structured responses to the
writing task as well as the essays in response to the short stories and the poetry (if you are
taking the Language and the Literature papers)


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Writing an Essay – Linking Words and Statements


Introduction:
Firstly
Primarily
Chiefly
Importantly
The writer/author introduces …
We are introduced to …

Main Body:
The reason for this is …
From this, we can note that …
Secondly. Thirdly etc.
Moving on …
The reader can see from this that …
The author writes … because …
Another …
Also …
Therefore …
Significantly …
We can see from this that …
The writer then moves on to …
Next
Obviously, this shows that …
This shows that …
Following this …
Then …
This then means that …
Penultimately (last but one)
Later …
It can be noted/said that …

Conclusion:
In summary
In conclusion
It is important to conclude with …
Weighing up the evidence, we can see that …
Finally …
Lastly .
The message conveyed is therefore …
Summarising, we can see that …




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       Yr 11 revision guide

       You will need to use quotations when referring to the articles in Paper1, the short stories in
       Paper 2 and the stories and poems in the literature Paper. How should you go about it?
       Read the following section for ideas:


                                         Using Quotations Effectively

       What is a quotation?

        Quoting simply means repeating what someone else has said or written. When a
        character says something in a play or novel s/he is speaking but when you repeat
       what the character says in your writing or in oral work you are quoting the character.
        When you do this you must use quotation marks (also known as speech marks or
                        inverted commas) to show that it is not your work.




       Why use quotations?

        Quotes and examples work like evidence in a court case – they convince the
       examiner that what you‟re saying is true. They are used to support your own ideas;
       they should not take the place of your ideas or be used to tell the story. Quotes are a
       useful way of exploring how theme, character and language are used in a play or
       novel or a particular part of it.

       How to use quotations:

                              Using a quote is like building a sandwich or burger.
The quote is the burger
in the middle of the                                                           The first bit of bread is like
sandwich. It might be                                                          your introduction for your quote.
good but it tastes                                                             After making a point, give some
better between two bits                                                        context for the quote and
of bread!                                                                      explain how it illustrates your
                                                                               argument




                                                                  The second piece of bread is like your
                                                                  comment on your quote. Why is it
                                                                  interesting? What does it reveal
                                                                  about character/language/plot etc?




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Yr 11 revision guide

                       Revising the Short Stories for Language

For the Language examination you will be asked to compare two of the first six short stories
from the Anthology „Opening Worlds‟. How well do you know them? Try answering the
following questions to test your knowledge:

Read through each quotation and decide which story it is from:

1. “Creaking, jerking, jostling, gasping, the train filled the station.”

2. “Be a good Wife! Be a good Wife!”

3. “ „Only two kinds of daughters,‟ she shouted in Chinese. „Those who are obedient and
   those who follow their own mind! Only one kind of daughter can live in this house!
   Obedient daughter!‟ ”

4. “They have the strange sensation that there is a big empty space under that umbrella, a
   vacuum that nothing on earth can fill.”

5. “She was seventeen centimetres taller than he.”

6. “I soon found out why Old Chong had retired from teaching piano. He was deaf.”

7. “What luck! You sure have good luck, Nak. One more day and you‟d have been out two
   hundred baht.”

8. “She threw the lion onto the seat.”

9. “ „This is going to be a modern wedding.‟ ”

10. “What I say is: let the hawk perch and let the eagle perch.”

11. “A cobra spread its hood, hissing.”

12. “My mother believed you could be anything you wanted to be in America.”

13. “Heavy sticks were planted closely across the path at the two places it entered and left
    the school premises.”

14. “She seemed dried up and scrawny with a face like an unvarnished ping-pong bat.”

15. “At her own home Neo was waited on hand and foot. Outside the home nasty remarks
    were passed. People bitterly disliked conceit and pride.”

You may it find it helpful to complete the following chart to help you cross-reference themes
across the stories:


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Yr 11 revision guide


Comparing the short stories: Themes
Add quotations to the correct theme box for each story. An example has been done for you.
                                                                                                                             ‘The Tall Woman
Story /                                   ‘Snapshots of a         ‘The Train from           ‘The Gold Legged
                 ‘Dead Men’s Path’                                                                             ‘Two Kinds’     and Her Short
Theme                                       Wedding’                 Rhodesia’                    Frog’
                                                                                                                                 Husband’


Culture
Clash



                “A high standard of
Education       teaching was
                insisted on”




Authority




New Ways
v Old Ways


                “Our dead relatives
                depart by it. But
Religion        most important, it is
and Beliefs     the path of children
                coming into this
                world”

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Yr 11 revision guide

                       (Contd)




Poverty




Ceremony /
Traditions /
Customs




Community
and Family
Life




Conflicts
and
Divisions




Luck and
Fortunes



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Yr 11 revision guide

You may find it helpful to complete a summary of each of the stories to remind you of the
main points. You should aim to include the following:

Title of story:

Author of story:

Country of origin:

Characters involved? What are they like?

Plot: What happens in the story?

Cultures and Traditions: What do you learn about this culture / society?

Themes:

Language / Techniques:

Structure: (Any flashbacks?)

Useful quotations:




Another useful way to revise is by looking at past questions. What have other candidates
been asked to do in the past? You could used the following tasks to form part of your
revision programme:


1. Remind yourself of the following extract from „Dead Men‟s Path‟ by Chinua Achebe,
   then answer the question that follows:

      Three days later the village priest of Ani called on the headmaster. He was an old man
      and walked with a slight stoop. He carried a stout walking-stick which he usually tapped
      on the floor, by way of emphasis, each time he made a new point in his argument.
      “I have heard,” he said after the usual exchange of cordialities, “that our ancestral
      footpath has recently been closed…”
      “Yes,” replied Mr Obi. “We cannot allow people to make a highway of our school
      compound.”
      “Look here, my son,” said the priest bringing down his walking - stick, “this path was
      here before you were born and before your father was born. The whole life of the village
      depends on it. Our dead relatives depart by it and our ancestors visit us by it. But most
      important, it is the path of children coming in to be born…”
      Mr Obi listened with a satisfied smile on his face.
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Yr 11 revision guide

         “The whole purpose of our school,” he said finally, “is to eradicate just such beliefs as
         that. Dead men do not require footpaths. The whole idea is just fantastic. Our duty is to
         teach your children to laugh at such ideas.”

Think about ‘Dead Men’s Path’ and ONE OTHER story from the ones you have
studied, where someone experiences a clash of cultures.

How do the writers‟ descriptions of these different cultures, in which these two stories are
set, emphasise this clash?

Support your answer by referring to and quoting from the stories.

Remember to put quotation marks round any words and phrases you use from the stories.


2. Choose TWO stories that describe the ceremonies and traditions of other cultures. For
   each story write about:
   - what the ceremonies and traditions are and how they are described
   - how the writer describes the characters‟ reactions to these ceremonies

Support your answer by referring to and quoting from the stories.

Remember to put quotation marks round any words and phrases you use from the stories.

3. Remind yourself of the following extract from „Snapshots of a Wedding‟ by Bessie
   Head, then answer the question that follows:

         “This is going to be a modern wedding.” He meant that a lot of the traditional courtesies
         had been left out of the planning for the wedding day; no one had been awake all night
         preparing diphiri or the traditional wedding breakfast of pounded meat and samp; the
         bridegroom said he had no church and did not care about such things; the bride was six
         months pregnant and showing it, so there was just going to be a quick marriage ceremony
         at the police camp.

         “Oh, we all have our own ways,” said one of the bride‟s relatives joked back. “If the
         times are changing, we keep up with them.” And she weaved away ululating joyously.

Think about ‘Snapshots of a Wedding’ and ONE OTHER STORY from the ones you
have studied, where the central character is trying to move away from their old
traditions and cultures and into a more modern society.

Write about:
     -     How the characters behave towards their cultures and traditions
     -     Why they are trying to change


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Yr 11 revision guide

Support your answer by referring to and quoting from the stories.

Remember to put quotation marks round any words and phrases you use from the stories.


4. Choose TWO STORIES that show divisions or conflicts within communities. For each
   story write about:
     -   What these actual divisions / conflicts are
     -   How the divisions / conflicts occur
     -   How the writer describes the effects on the people involved.
Support your answer by referring to and quoting from the stories.

Remember to put quotation marks round any words and phrases you use from the stories


Finally, here is a list of important things to remember when writing your essay on the
short stories for Language:

    Use quotations to support your points
    Put quotation marks / inverted commas around quotes
    Capital letters for character names
    Inverted commas around names of stories / titles e.g. „Dead Men‟s Path’
    Have a short introduction
    Have a conclusion to sum up your ideas
    PLAN using a spider diagram before writing
    DON‟T re-tell the story; I already know it!
    Comment on themes, symbolism, style
    Use PEE: Point – Evidence – Exploration / Explanation
    Stick to what the question is asking, don‟t waffle
    Use paragraphs!
    Don‟t copy the question out
    No sub headings
    Leave a couple of minutes at the end to check for errors in expression, spelling etc.
    Formal expressions




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Yr 11 revision guide

                       Revising the Short Stories for Literature

The style of the examination questions:

The Language paper asks you to focus on the first six stories. For the Literature paper,
however, you will be able to refer to any of the twelve. The style of the question may be as
follows:

           The question will require you to refer to two of the twelve stories you have
            studied.

           All questions will focus on the social, historical and literary contexts of the
            stories (how does society shape our ideas and opinions at any one time or in any
            one place?)

           You will have a choice of three questions and should spend 45 minutes on
            your answer (instead of 40minutes in Language)

           Questions may used an extract from one of the stories as a starting point




What the examiner is looking for:

The examiner will be looking for a number of qualities with your work:

       Your response must be relevant. It must answer the question that has been set
        rather than the one you‟d prepared for in advance!

       You must provide a personal response to the stories, expressing your views of the
        stories in relation to the question.

       You must support your points with evidence from the text. You must remember to
        use Point Evidence Explanation if you are to gain the grades you are capable of.

       You must try to evaluate the ways in which the stories have been written. How does
        the writer‟s use of tone, setting, characterisation, plot imagery and structure affect
        our understanding of the story?

       You must consider your expression. 5% of your mark in literature will depend on the
        quality of your spelling, punctuation and sentence structure.

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Yr 11 revision guide

Planning your answer:

       Underline the keywords in the question: ‘Explore the ways in which the writers of two
        of the stories in the collection make you feel sympathy for a parent. Remember to
        support your answer with detail from each story.’

       Look at what the key words are expecting you to do: ways (what the writer does with
        language and structure to affect our understanding), parent (the character as a
        parent), sympathy (pity, understanding, respect, admiration, empathy), detail (refer
        directly to the texts with the use of quotations)

       Use 10 minutes to produce a plan. You could mind map some ideas first and then
        number them in the order in which you are going to address then in your essay. This
        will cut out the need for waffle and hesitation in your work.

       Use 30 minutes to produce your answer, remembering to use P E E to support
        your ideas throughout. This answer would require an introductory paragraph that
        named your chosen parents and their situations. You should suggest why we feel
        sympathy for them without going in to too much detail at this point. Your main body
        would look in detail at the ways in which the writers have encouraged us to feel
        sympathy for their characters. Each paragraph should start with an explicit point
        that relates directly to the question ~ ‘Srinawk encourages the reader to sympathise
        with Nak by highlighting his physical exhaustion and concern for his ‘little’ son at the
        beginning of the story’

       Your conclusion should refer back to both characters but you should use this
        opportunity to state which character you feel most sympathy for. You should try to
        end on a new point that adds to your essay rather than merely repeating it.

       You should allow 5 minutes to check your technical accuracy so that you don‟t
        lose precious marks.




Revision task ~ complete the essay outlined below; looking at the idea of the
reader feeling sympathy for the parent figures in these stories.

     ‘Explore the ways in which the writers of two of the stories
      in the collection make you feel sympathy for a parent.
      Remember to support your answer with detail from each
      story.’

You may find the following table useful in cross-referencing the themes of the stories.


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Yr 11 revision guide



Comparing the short stories: Themes
Add quotations to the correct theme box for each story. An example has been done for you.
Story /                ‘The Pieces of                               ‘The Young                                 ‘Games at
                                          ‘The Red Ball’                                    ‘Leela’s Friend’                ‘The Winter Oak’
Theme                     Silver’                                     Couple’                                   Twilight’


Culture
Clash




Education




The cruelty
of officials




Feeling left
out




Religion
and Beliefs




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Yr 11 revision guide


                       “As soon as we did
                       have a li‟l money
Poverty                save we have to go
(and class             and get a …‟ (lines
divisions)             172-173)




Growing
up/
Childhood



Family
relation-
ships/parent
and child



Conflicts
and
Divisions




Suffering
and
hardship



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Yr 11 revision guide

                                  Preparing for the Poetry

In the exam, you will be asked to compare two or more poems. You should be able to
comment on aspects of content, structure and style. What message is the poet trying to
convey and how effective are they in doing so? Is the imagery exciting? Powerful? Which
words do you find most interesting? Which poems share themes and ideas? Which poems
contrast in showing different attitudes to the same subject (e.g. parenting)?

The activities that follow are designed to build your knowledge of the poems whilst drawing
you in to the importance of the poets‟ choices of words and images.




'Anseo' by Paul Muldoon

Glossary
                                                    Droll - amusing in an odd or quaint way
   Anseo - here and now in Irish
                                                    Ward-of-court - a child placed under
   Ledger -a book normally used for
                                                                  the protection of a court
          book-keeping. Here used as a
          register.

After reading

Stanza 1
  1. What impression do you get of the primary schooling that is described?
  2. What are the typical responses when Joseph's name is called?
  3. What do these responses imply about Joseph and the teacher's attitude towards
   him?
Yr 11 revision guide

Stanza 2
  4. What does the teacher do to Joseph when he returns to school?
  5. Why do you think he does this?
  6. What is Joseph's response to this?
  7. What do his actions suggest about a) his character and b) his attitude to discipline?

Stanza 3
  8. How has the focus changed in this stanza?
  9. What is Joe Ward doing at the time of his encounter with the speaker?
  10. What did he achieve in the army?
  11. What impression are we given of his leadership qualities?
  12. How do the final lines take us back to the beginning of the poem? What is the
         purpose of this?

The message of the poem
  13. How far do you agree that the poem illustrates the following statements:
                Childhood experiences shape the lives of adults
                Suffering and cruelty can make a person stronger
                A person who is treated cruelly or oppressed will eventually fight back

Can you add a statement to this list?

   14. Which words would you use to sum up the speaker/ poet's attitude towards Joe
        Ward:
                Admiring
                Sympathetic
                Curious
                Mocking


   15. What techniques does the poet use in order to create a conversational tone and style
        in the poem?



The following page invites you to complete a planning grid to
help you to organise your ideas in preparation for an
examination type question
Yr 11 revision guide
                       Compare the ways in which the two poets write about the past in these two poems.

  Poem                        „I Remember, I Remember‟                         „The Tune the Old Cow Died Of‟
Speaker          First person speaker. An adult is reflecting on his own
                 past.



Trigger for      A train journey which happens to go through Coventry,
memories         the place of the speaker‟s birth.
of past



How past is The speaker‟s thoughts show a childhood that „was
described   unspent.‟ A series of disappointments and negatives
            are contrasted with idealised images.


Effects of       A sense of bitterness, disappointment and resentment
past on          is shown.
speaker/         In dialogue at the end, speaker seems resigned about
character        the situation.



Techniques Poem uses a regular stanza structure, ten syllable
used to    lines (using iambic pentameter) which give a formality
reinforce  to the poem.
meaning
           Enjambement is used between lines and stanzas to
           reflect the speaker‟s thought process.
           The last line is deliberately separated from the rest of
           the poem and sums up the speaker‟s attitude to the
           past, „Nothing.‟
Yr 11 revision guide


Poem                       Generations     What the poem is         Speaker and    Mood or tone of     Style features
                              involved            about               audience           poem
'You're'               A pregnant woman   The excitement and The woman is         Joy, excitement,   Imagery - similes
                       and her unborn     mystery of the baby addressing the      anticipation and   and metaphors to
                       child.             as it develops in the child directly.   wonder.            describe the baby.
                                          womb.                                                      The poem is like a
                                                                                                     riddle.
'Babysitting'




'To Edwin, at Eight
Months'


'I Remember, I
Remember'


'Anseo'


'A Short Film'



'The Tune the Old
Cow Died Of'
Yr11 revision guide

Imagery chart

Image                  Technique                        Effect created
Mute as a turnip
from the Fourth/ Of
July to All Fool's
day,

Bent-backed Atlas     Metaphor     The baby is compared to the Greek god Atlas who had
                                   to carry the world on his shoulders. This illustrates the
                                   shape of the baby in the womb.
Jumpy as a
Mexican bean



As she rises
sobbing from the
monstrous land


Insurrectionary
beetle



My dangerous
hands/ scarper like
scout cubs



Now it is a
dangerous weapon,
a time-bomb



The whole mad
town/ seemed fit to
blow its lid off




                                                                                      26
Yr11 revision guide

'Poem' by Simon Armitage

This poem is a sonnet. Sonnets are traditionally written in the following way:

               14 lines long
               Lines of 10 syllables in iambic pentameter
               Three quatrains (sets of four lines) and a couplet which are shown by a rhyme
    scheme
               Ideas are generally summed up in the couplet.



1. List all the good things the man did in his life in your own words.
2. List all the bad things the man did in his life in your own words.
3. What is your opinion of this man as a father, husband and son?
4. Who might 'they' be at the end of the poem? When are they rating or judging him?
5. How far does this poem obey the rules of the sonnet form?
6. What sort of language is used in the poem and why might this be?
7. What is the effect of the repetition of 'And' at the start of lines?
8. The poet uses assonance at the end of each line, for example in 'drive', 'side' and
      'night.' What other examples of this technique can you find and why do you think
      they have been used?

Exam practice:

Compare the ways in which Armitage and Heaney present a man and his
relationship with his family in 'Poem' and 'Follower.'


                                                                   'The Flowers' by Selima Hill

1. Who is speaking in the poem and what experience is she describing?
2. What impression do you get of the relationship between the mother and daughter from
     the first stanza?
3. How have the daughter's actions been described in stanza two?
4. What do her actions suggest about her relationship with and feelings towards her
     grandfather?
5. How does the final stanza 'round off' the ideas in the poem?
6. How do the mother and daughter handle the experience of bereavement differently?
7. What is the effect of enjambement used throughout the poem?

                                                                                            27
Yr11 revision guide


Exam practice:

Compare the ways in which Hill and Harrison present the effects of
bereavement in 'Flowers' and 'Long Distance.'
Try to complete as many of the activities as possible in preparation for the
examinations. You will be given a new copy of the anthology in the exam hall as you
are not allowed annotated texts in the exam. However, for the purposes of revision,
you may annotate the copy you‟ve been using in school as much as you‟d like.




Good luck in all of your examinations…

Remember to use Point Evidence
Explanation and to ensure that your work
is paragraphed and punctuated
effectively.




Many thanks to Teachit.co.uk where a number of the resources within this pack were found



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