Lack of social_ economic and political development may lead to

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					Key Idea 6
Migration reflects inequalities in    1. Lack of economic, social and political development may lead to
levels of development                 migration. Not all social groups seek to migrate. This should be illustrated
                                      by reference to 2 contrasting migrant groups to illustrate their effect on the
                                      development process.
                                      2. Internal and international migration may help or hinder development at
                                      local or national scales. This should be illustrated by reference to at least
                                      one named example.

Lack of social, economic and political development may lead to migration.
Not all social groups migrate.

2 contrasting groups to illustrate their effect on the development process.
Group 1: Young rural urban migrants in China. Internal migration

People leave when push and pull factors over-ride the desire to stay
Rural-urban migration in China. The young migrate.
Reasons for rural urban migration:
1. In 1970s China changed its economic policies and development strategy.
     ‘Open Door’ policy opened up China to foreign trade, investment and technology transfer.
     1979 the government created 4 Special Economic Zones, mostly on SE coast. These focused
        investment and led to economic development accompanied by social development; living
        conditions and educational standards comparable to MDCs.
     Intensified disparities between the underdeveloped rural areas which received little or no
        investment and these SEZs.
     The Harris Todaro model identifies income disparity (nearly 4x more in urban areas) as one of
        the main causes of rural-urban migration and certainly the employment opportunities in the
        SEZs led to large numbers leaving the countryside.
2.There are too many farmers, 600m, when only 170m are needed. This is due to:
     Population growth
     Mechanisation
     Increased efficiency resulting from the dismantling of the communal farming system.
3. The government reformed the Hukai system (This system meant that people were required to register
in the neighbourhood they were born in. They were given food coupons for the area they lived in only
so people couldn’t move away). People could now move to other areas.
4. Conditions in rural areas were, and still are, difficult. People live in poverty. They see the only way
to survive is to work in the cities.
In Xunfeng village, four hours away from Nanchong city, I got a glimpse of the villagers' lives through the prism
of Zhou Pinfang, a 32-year-old farmer. Zhou is married with two school-age children and has an elderly father. In
this hilly part of the countryside, farmers grow a combination of grains, corn and yams. Grain production is just
about sufficient for self-consumption; there is little reserve. Corn and yams are mostly used as feedstock for pigs
and chickens. The remoteness of this village means there is no market for cash crops such as fruits and
vegetables. Were it closer to the county seat or a major township, where large numbers of non-farming
households reside, the villagers could be involved in lucrative cash cropping. It is not. Zhou has four pigs and a
dozen chickens - about the average asset level in Xunfeng, where livestock are considered assets, investments
and cash cows for the villagers. But Zhou's assets, or those of an average villager, aren't enough for him to
make a decent living.
Zhou's wife works in a shoe factory in Guangdong, a prosperous coastal province in southeastern China. She
has been away from home for close to two years. She and her husband take turns at being the breadwinner:
Zhou was a construction worker in Beijing in the years before his wife left for the factory. While she's away, he
becomes the homemaker. He farms as well as takes care of his two children and his 55-year-old father. His wife
is among the county's 230,000 migrant workers who work in other parts of the country, as far as away as Beijing
and Xinjiang, to support their remaining family members in the hinterland. Migrant workers account for half of the
county's total workforce of 470,000, and remit a total of 1 billion yuan annually back to the villages.

The remittances make up more than a third of the county's total income of 2.8 billion yuan, without which many
residents in the countryside could not sustain their livelihoods. The haemorrhage of labor is certainly not unique
to this county - many poor areas in the western part of China export labor to industrializing coastal provinces,
helping to stimulate the growth of industries and the country's economic progress as a whole. Relaxation of the
household registration system, or hukou, that once tied rural residents to their places of birth has allowed people
to move to where they can obtain higher returns for their labor and, through remittances, improve the standard of
living of the remaining rural populations. That said, rural-urban migration is still hampered by lack of information
flows about the urban job market, as well as institutional discriminations against rural residents in education,
health care and other social services in the cities. Rural residents, or nongmin, are not entitled to the numerous
state subsidies on social services provided to China's urbanities.

Back in Xunfeng village, Zhou seems content with his life, though he and his children only get to see their wife
and mother once every few years. "I consider myself lucky that my wife is working in Guangdong. We miss her,
but she helps to support the family," Zhou said. His wife brings home about 4,000 yuan annually, most of which
is used for the children's education and medical costs, as well as farming and animal husbandry expenditures -
fertilizers, seeds, piglets and chickens. In this part of the world, where kinship and guanxi (human relationships)
matter as much as formal ties, hongbaixishi, or gifts for auspicious occasions such as weddings and birthdays,
can also burn a big hole on one's pockets. Many even turn to the informal credit market - borrowing from friends,
relatives and rotating credit associations - to finance this expenditure, which they consider an essential part of
rural community life.

Education is largely on a user-pay basis in the countryside. Zhou pays about 500 yuan a year for his daughter,
who goes to a local primary school, and 1,000 yuan for his son, who attends a secondary school. That aside,
there are other miscellaneous fees for examinations and textbooks. Nine-year compulsory education exists only
in name. Many children in China's rural areas have been forced to quit school simply because their families are
not able to afford tuition fees. In the hinterland, basic education is supposed to be funded by the local
governments - township and county - but local authorities' fiscal stress has caused them to rationalize education
expenditures. Most of them can only afford to pay for teachers' salaries, leaving other school expenses to be
funded by the users.

Across the black-and-white screen of their television, the material lives of the city dwellers flash before the eyes
of Zhou and his children. "I want my children to be well educated and get jobs in the big cities - that's the only
way for us to live like they do," Zhou said.

Asia Times online: Lynette Ong is a researcher in China's political economy. She can be reached at

How migration has affected development in rural areas:
   Remittances (case study - see above.) benefit individuals, local communities and contribute to
     China’s GDP. It has been estimated that the average migrant sends home US$555 pa which is
     enough to lift their families above the poverty line. They can also be an enabling factor in the
     economic development of rural areas, especially if they are used to set up small businesses.
   Migrants return to their villages with new skills, capital and social networks which enable them
     to set up businesses and benefits the community. They provide the human capital to develop
     local economies. Anhui Province, one of the main sending areas with large-scale migration
     since the early 1980s, has witnessed the return of a large number of migrants who created their
     own enterprises there. Research (Ma Zhongdong 2001, 2002; Murphy 2003) has shown that
     many returning migrants not only set up businesses but have become local leaders and have
     played a significant role in the development process. Amongst 400 thousand migrant labourers
     of Wuwei County, ten thousand had returned and created around 1000 enterprises in 2004. In
     Bangpu Prefecture of Anhui Province, about 4,000 migrant labourers returned and created some
     1,000 enterprises, employing around 20,000 local rural labourers .
   Migration and gender. Migration is selective; it is young men and women and slightly older
     men who tend to go. Women, the elderly and children are left behind – ‘the feminism of
     agriculture and poverty’. There has been research and debate over the extent of the feminisation
     of labour but it is clear that women take on more agricultural tasks, however they would be
     working on the land anyway. The main issue for the development of the local economy through
     agriculture, is that in some areas eg          they do not have the same access to credit as men.
     However China is implementing rural development initiatives which give women equal access
        to credit and training. 30% of Agricultural Extension Agents are women and 40% of those are
        young. The Chinese government has teamed up with foreign organisations and they are working
        with some of the more traditional agricultural communities teaching them new techniques and
        promoting the role of women in the development process. Example: the ministry of agriculture
        is working with the Canadian department of Agriculture and Agri-Food on the China Canada
        Agriculture Development Programme - sustainable development projects involving gender

Migration can be seen to benefit the development process in rural areas by:
    Bringing money into the local economy
    Lifting poverty levels and enabling education
    Promoting gender equality
    Providing the workforce needed for the economic development of China (GNP) which is
       enabling government investment in rural China/agriculture.

The impact of returning migrants on rural development due to the present recession.

Officials in the central province of Hubei estimate that they've also had 300,000 laid off workers come home just
in the past two months. In Hubei's capital, Wuhan, officials estimate that the number will eventually total 600,000
in their city alone.

In Fuyang, the city nearest to Shuangfu, officials tracking returnees note that it's not easy for industrial workers
to return to country life or work. "These aren't the same peasants like the peasants of yesterday," says an official
from the city's Human Resource and Labor Bureau, stamping his foot one recent cold morning during a 12-hour
shift outside the train station. "They don't raise crops, they have skills." He and other officials work to interview at
least 200 migrants a day to find out their plans, where they're coming from and which they are returning to. The
government also has had the chief local party official of each village conduct a regular head count of returnees.

Minutes after stepping off the train in Fuyang, 18-year-old Liang Wenzheng, just laid off from his job of three
years on an electronics assembly line in Dongguan, shoulders his bags and surveys the future. "If I can't find a
job, I'll have to farm at home. I don't want to do that -- I'm just 18," he said.

Migrant workers left their villages over the years because there was too little land for them to earn a decent
living. China has roughly the same amount of farmable land as the U.S., where only 2% of workers are
employed in agriculture. But China has some 730 million rural residents -- more than twice the entire American

Between 80 million and 100 million rural residents are either completely landless or don't have access to enough
land for subsistence, estimates Joshua Muldavin, professor of geography and Asian studies at Sarah Lawrence
College. "The increases right now with the large-scale return of peasants could add tens of millions to that," he
says. "Its importance can't be exaggerated in China and internationally."

Impact of rural urban migration on the development of urban/industrial areas.
    China’s economic growth is down to government policy opening up China for Trade and
      investment – export processing zones.
    Business and Industry have benefited from cheap migrant labour which meant that China had
      the capacity to give it a competitive advantage. The economy is one of the fastest growing in
      the world (9.8% 2008)
    There has been investment from the Government but also foreign investment has been
      encouraged and
    Areas which were agricultural with low levels of development are now prosperous industrial
      and commercial regions. In one of the main industrial Provinces Guangdong, Shenzhen City is
      in one of the designated SEZs on the south coast. In late 1970s it was an agricultural area –
      paddi fields (rice), small villages and low levels of technology including buffaloes pulling
Shenzhen City is now:
    It is a city of 4m people
    Major manufacturing centre – particularly high tech and hassome of China's most successful
      high-tech companies, such as Huawei, Tencent and ZTE A number of foreign IT companies
      also have facilities in the city eg Taiwan's largest company Hon Hai Group has a manufacturing
      plant based in Shenzhen which makes most of the iPods, iPhones and notebooks for Apple.
    It has a financial sector, China Merchants' Bank, one of the largest banks in China, has its
      headquarters in Shenzhen.
    Wal-Mart China are also based in the city.
    In 2008, the GDP reached a record high of 780.65 billion yuan, an increase of 12.1% over 2007.

There are 3 types of people:
     Rural urban migrants who supply the semi/unskilled labour.
     Highly educated Chinese people
     Foreign immigrants who have been brought in by TNCs
The average age is 30.
Rural migrants work in 4 key areas:
    1. labourers on building sites – construction has been fuelled by the economic boom.
    2. factory workers
    3. service industry – restaurants and hotels
    4. domestic workers for the new middle class
The rural migrants have fuelled economic development because they have traditionally provided cheap
labour, worked long hours, have not been entitled to welfare benefits including health care and
education and have little social protection. This is because they still belong to their rural area – they are
regarded as outsiders.
The government has recently recognised the value of rural urban migrants and conditions are
improving so social development is following economic development in these industrial areas. They
are receiving equal status and better working conditions. In additional they have access to health care
and education. NGOs have been set up to help migrants and provide housing and support services.
UNESCO is involved in managing the migration flow. The largest migrant community is on the
outskirts of Beijing – Zhejiang houses 100 000 migrants and provides health care and schools.

In the SEZs
     Migrants have provided the human capital for economic development.
     Social development has lagged behind but is now catching up.
     The economic development of China has enabled the government to instigate initiatives in rural
Group 2: The Brain Drain of professionals from South Africa. International migration

       South Africa is one of the most developed nations in Africa
       It is characterised by the legacy of Apartheid. The separateness of black and white people which
        prevailed until 1994 when Nelson Mandela was released from 27 years in prison and became
        the first black president.
       Since then there has been a steady out migration of educated South Africans. They leave
        because the social, political and economic conditions in South Africa do not meet their needs :
South Africa produces about 2 500 new nurses a year. A 2006 study by the Centre for Global Development
found that more than 5 000 South African nurses were employed abroad. The same study indicates that there
are at least 12 000 South African health workers -- pharmacists, radiographers, nurses, doctors and midwives --
employed abroad. The report also notes that a fifth of South African-born doctors work abroad.
Other groups who migrate are teachers, engineers and IT specialists. London had 5 000 South African teachers
in 2006.
This movement of skilled labour is part of a global phenomenon that sees up to 20 000 of the continent of
Africa’s most skilled and educated minds going to Europe and the United States every year. The result is that
Ethiopia, for example, has only 2 000 doctors, which works out to one doctor for every 100 000 patients, and
seriously hampers its healthcare system.

What are the social, economic and political conditions which make them migrate?
   • Cited by 60%
   • S Africa now ranks with Russia and Columbia as one of the most dangerous countries in the
   • In 1990s         250 000 murders (10x Higher than USA )
                      750 000 violent crimes were reported annually

The economy
    • Cited by 10% of migrants
    • Rising unemployment – 30% in 2001- a mismatch between skills and opportunities
    • Huge devaluation of Rand
    • High rate of income tax
    • High interest and inflation rates
    • Instability discourages foreign investment
Provision of services
    • People felt that there were declining standards in health care and education
Concerns about contracting HIV/Aids and the ability of the country to deal with the huge numbers
    • South Africa has one of the highest prevalence rates in the world. It is estimated that 10.8% of
        all people are infected with HIV.
    • This puts pressure on already stretched health care and impacts on the quality of life in both
        urban and rural areas.
Concerns about the political situation
    • The policy of employing a black South African if possible – President Mbeki’s two nation
    • Political instability
    • Fears that the situation in neighbouring Zimbabwe will spill over into South Africa.

How do South African professionals benefit the countries of destination?
They provide the human capital necessary to fill skills gaps.
They come ready trained – the country of destination benefits from their skills without having to pay
for the training.

Industrialized countries are in growing need of two types of immigrant labour-- those willing to do poorly paid,
dirty and dangerous jobs that their own nationals scorn, and highly specialized professionals, such as software
specialists, engineers, doctors and nurses. The US has 126,000 fewer nurses than it needs and government
figures show that the country could face a shortage of 800,000 registered nurses by 2020. Because of such
shortages, industrialized nations have embarked on massive international recruitment drives. South Africa
recently had to appeal to the government of Canada to desist from recruiting its medical professionals. In the
rural province of Saskatchewan, Canada, more than 50 per cent of doctors are foreign trained and at least 1 in 5
of the 1,530 doctors there earned their first medical degree in South Africa.

What has been the impact on South Africa?
Negative affect on development
    Loss of human capital – the highly skilled and educated.
    The cost of training these professionals which then benefits the country of destination. It costs
        1m rand to train a doctor.
    For each professional who leaves it is estimated that 10 other people lose their jobs and so the
        ability to support their families.
    Skills shortage affects services
Positive affect on development
   • Historically Disadvantaged Population groups (HDPGs) are able to take advantage of the gaps
        created – social and economic mobility
   • Migrants move in from other African countries and from places like Cuba to fill the skills gaps
   • Returning Migrants bring with them honed skills and expertise and money which they can
        invest in the development of South Africa.
   • Building networks

Because many people are reluctant to return to politically or economically unstable countries, some countries are
now trying to find other ways to tap the knowledge and skills of their professionals based overseas. This
approach is popular because it does not require participants to relocate to their home countries.

The South African Network of Skills Abroad (SANSA) is an example. Through its website, it invites professional
South Africans to sign up. It reports that at least 22,000 graduates from five major South African universities
resident abroad remain in touch with the universities. SANSA estimates that about 60 per cent of the country's
expatriate graduates are located in six countries, with Australia, the UK and the US accounting for more than half
of them. Looking at the nature of their skills, the group estimates that about 30 per cent of the University of Cape
Town's contactable doctoral graduates are living overseas. They comprise significant proportions of the
university's graduates in medicine, commerce, education and engineering, all areas in which South Africa has an
acute shortage of skills.

Once professionals join SANSA, they may offer to train their South African counterparts or assist them to
conduct research. They could facilitate business contacts and transmit information on research results not
available in South Africa. SANSA members may also help to transfer technology to their home country, such as
providing computers and software. This is already being done in other African countries. The Africast
Foundation, for instance, collects and refurbishes "retired" computers in the US for use in schools and poor
communities in Ghana.

Rather than blame departing professionals for the shortage of skills on the continent, SANSA views
"these highly skilled South Africans located abroad as a potential asset," note Mr. David Kaplan and
Mr. Jean-Baptiste Meyer. In a report for SANSA, they however stress that the success of networks
depends largely on the commitment of expatriates

How does the migration of South African professionals affect the development of South Africa?
          Migrating because of concerns about crime and political instability, the economic
             situation, declining services and HIV/aids.
          Affect the development of South Africa because the country has paid to educate and
             train them but does not get the benefit of their skills. There are severe shortages,
             particularly in health.
              On the other hand, HDPGs can fill the skills gaps and so aid their development and that
               of South Africa
              South Africa benefits from the help of south Africans abroad through the SANSA
              South Africa benefits from returning migrants – but there a fewer of those.

With reference to two different social groups, examine how their migration has had an impact on the
development process.

With reference to one named example explain how migration has helped or hindered the development

Examine how lack of economic, social and political development may lead to migration by comparing
two contrasting social groups.

Other examples:
Kerala        Remittances from migrants support social development but do not stimulate economic
Lake District Rural urban migration results in declining and ageing population. Lack of development
              in most remote places that do not benefit from tourism.
Galapagos     Migration from mainland Ecuador gives the social capital for the development of
              tourism but conflicts are damaging the environment and so the development is not
Nepal         Everest trail has prevented young leaving and attracted others.