SOCIOLOGY 110 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
EXAM ONE, FALL QUARTER, 2008
Multiple Choice: Each question is worth 8 points.
1. In the article Preparing for Power, by Cookson and Persell, the authors suggest that the
benefits accorded to students who attend prep school in terms of elite college admissions can
best be summed up in terms of what?
a) Social Capital
b) Human Capital
2. According to Babbie in his article An Idea Whose Time has Come, assertions made by
sociologists and other scientists are different from opinions because:
a) They are made using critical thinking, a process where assertions made must
correspond to facts and make logical sense.
b) Opinions are made by laymen who are uninformed. Assertions are made by professionals
who have been educated to know the most on the subject.
c) They are made using inductive logic, a process where assertions made must correspond to
facts and make logical sense.
d) Assertions are made by groups of people where an individual person only has opinions.
3. A parent reads to their child every night. As a result, the child gets an A on their reading test.
This is an example of __________ helping develop __________.
a) human capital; social capital
b) social capital; cultural capital
c) cultural capital; social capital
d) none of the above are correct
4. You have recently joined a cult called the Movementarians. They believe that, one day, a
space ship will come to Earth to take true believers to a planet called Zebulon 5. However,
membership in your cult is very small. Since you care deeply about life on Zebulon 5, you
want to attract more members. According to lecture, which of the following methods would
be most effective in attracting people to your cult?
a) Putting on dinners and asking members to invite their friends.
b) Putting on dinners and advertising them door-to-door.
c) Printing leaflets with your message and putting them on cars.
d) Using TV and radio to get your message out to large audiences.
5. The STAR Project found that significant reductions in class size:
a) Increased students’ performance for one year; after that, they lost the advantage
b) Increased students’ performance into high school, well after they were placed back
in larger classes
c) Increased AP students’ performance, but did nothing for students not on the AP track
d) Increased AP students’ performance, but decreased non-AP students’ performance
6. In Some Principles of Stratification: A Critical Analysis, Tumin lists several ways in which
stratification is dysfunctional for society. Which of the following is not included in the
a) Distributing rewards across a society unevenly may cause feelings of disloyalty and
apathy in the lower classes.
b) Social stratification limits the creative potential and positive self-worth experienced by
people in less “functionally important” positions.
c) The majority of positions that are highly rewarded are dysfunctional for society and
waste important resources.
d) Social stratification can limit the discovery of skills and talents in the lower classes
because they are given limited opportunities to express them.
7. Which of the following best describes the findings of Baker and Velez in their article, Access
to and Opportunity in Postsecondary Education, and the implications of their findings for our
a) Since the 1970s, financial aid includes fewer loans and more grants, supporting
b) Since the 1970s, financial aid includes fewer loans and more grants, supporting Marxist
c) Since the 1970s, financial aid includes fewer grants and more loans, supporting
d) Since the 1970s, financial aid includes fewer grants and more loans, supporting
8. Little Johnny is in the sixth grade, and is reading at the fourth grade level. His self-esteem is
spiraling downward, and the other teachers don’t think much of his abilities. Using your
sociological imagination, which of the following questions would you ask to try to explain
a) How well was he reading in grades 1-5?
b) Does he have an undiagnosed learning disability?
c) Are his parents able to help him with his homework?
d) Does he lack the motivation to study?
9. Fifteen years from now, you hate your job and decide to start a cult. In your cult, people will
worship tape dispensers, and make a spaceship out of tape, which will take them to heaven. In
lecture, we discussed two means by which cults are formed. Your cult is an example of:
This cult is an example of innovation. (8 pts).
10. After a substantial amount of effort, you can’t get your cult off the ground. As a result, you
decide to run for President of the United States. To get elected, you’re going to need all the
resources you can get. Give one example of each of the following, and briefly explain how it
would help you win the election:
Example: Being a good public speaker. (1 pt).
How it would help: A charismatic leader does well in elections. (1 pt).
Example: Knowing about other cultures. (1 pt).
How it would help: Increase awareness of your campaign in a diverse society. (1 pt).
Example: Knowing other politicians. (1 pt).
How it would help: Provide you with important inside information about
campaigning. (1 pt).
11. In the article, Preparing for Power, Cookson and Persell give several factors for why prep
school students are more likely than public school students to gain admission to elite
universities. State two and why they are beneficial.
1: Academic counselors at elite prep schools have more resources at their disposal.
2: Parental legacy at a university increased the likelihood students attending that
12. Francisco and Ellie May are students at Paul Bunyan High School. Francisco is a C student,
participates in athletics and comes home to his parents, his dad sits on the board for his
company and his mom is a member of the PTA. In order to help his grades, they hired a
tutor. Ellie May, on the other hand, is an A student and comes home to an empty house
because her single mom is working her night job. Who has more human capital? Who has
more social capital? According to the definitions, why?
Human capital: Ellie May because she is a better student. (4 pts)
Social capital: Francisco because his parents are actively involved in the school.
13. According to the article Black Students at Predominantly White Colleges and Universities:
The Rhetoric and Reality, by Feagin et al., how does “misrecognition” affect the experiences
of African American students at white colleges?
African American students feel that they are out-of-place and devalued. (6 pts)
Which of the two theories we have discussed is supported by this article? Marxism (2pts)
14. Which of the two theories we have discussed considers the education system to be like a free
market? Functionalism (3 points) or Consensus (1 point) theory.
Kozol’s work supports/challenges this view. (circle one) Why?
Kozol’s work challenges this view (2 points) because access to education is not equal (3
15. How does a qualitative study differ from a quantitative study? Give an example of each that
you have seen during class or in the readings.
How they differ: Qualitative studies involve participant observation on the part of the
researcher whereas quantitative studies involve statistical comparisons among units in a
large sample. (4 pts)
Qualitative example: Kozol, Oprah Video (2 pts)
Quantitative example: Coleman, STAR, HEROS (2 pts)
16. As shown in the research done by Baker and Velez in the article, Access to and Opportunity
in Post-Secondary Education in the US, "the proportion of young women who entered college
increased from 38% in 1960 to 62% by 1989" (Intersections, 238). How would this change
affect other parts of society?
This change would mean than more women are outside of the home. This would delay
starting a family, or reduce the time that a mother spends with her existing family (8 pts.)
17. Baker and Velez give several suggestions of how to improve college graduation rates
(financial aid, flexibility, social-psychological support). Describe two other ways in which a
school can increase their graduation rates.
A variety of answers are accepted here. Each was worth 4 pts.
18. In the article, Some Principles of Stratification, Davis and Moore argue that stratification is
positive for society.
a. What is stratification’s main function according to the authors?
Place the most talented individuals in functional roles by rewarding sacrifice. (4pts)
b. Assume that functionalism is correct, what would happen in societies that are not
Positions that require great sacrifices would not be pursued (4pts).
19. Your good friend Mike Mallicule has recently become a high school science teacher. He tells
you that he has been assigned to teach an AP chemistry class. Based on the research on
tracking we’ve discussed, briefly identity TWO things that will most likely distinguish
Mike’s students from students in a non-AP class:
1. Students are more likely to have higher academic abilities, come from advantaged
homes. (4 pts)
2. Students are more likely to be white or from a higher SES. (4 pts)
20. In the article, Some Principles of Stratification, Davis and Moore state that some positions in
society yield higher rewards than others. In your own words, answer the following:
a. What are the characteristics of these positions?
These are positions that require sacrifices (2 pts).
b. Describe an example of a position that is highly rewarded, put does not have the
characteristics you have listed of a highly rewarded position.
A Professional Athlete receives a very high salary put does very little to promote a
healthy social system. (1 pt for example, 2 pts for describing).
c. Describe an example of a position that is not highly rewarded, but has the characteristics
of a highly rewarded position.
A stay at home mom socializes children, but does not receive compensation. (1 pt for
example, 2 pts for describing).
21. According to Parade magazine, in 2004 basketball player LeBron James earned $21 million,
while Emergency Room technician Tiffany Baker earned $24,000.
a. Which of the two theories of education we’ve looked at is most challenged by this
An EM technician is more important for society than a professional athlete (3
c. How might a theorist from that perspective respond to the challenge of this example?
EM technician does not require/manifest talents that are in short supply. (3pts).
22. Both Functionalist and Marxist theory acknowledge that there is significant inequality in our
society, but they disagree on whose interests that inequality serves. So who benefits from
inequality, and why, according to:
a. Functionalists: Everyone benefits. (4 pts)
b. Marxists: Those in power benefit. (4 pts)
23. The Coleman Report, a large scale study of students, teachers, and schools conducted in
1966, produced one very unexpected finding.
a. Briefly, what was it?
Differences in schools did not account for differences in academic abilities (2
b. Identify one reason you might be skeptical about that finding.
Restricted range problem, expecting incremental differences to produce
dramatic results, or controls for abilities are difficult to measure. (3 pts).
c. What evidence supports your skepticism?
Kozol, Oprah Video (3 pts).
24. Given what you’ve learned in this course, identify one thing you think should be done to
improve our education system (if you don’t think anything can be improved, have a good
A variety of answers are acceptable here. This questions is worth 8 points.
25. Identify one thing you can do beyond going to class and studying for good grades, and
besides studying abroad, to enhance the education you get from the UW:
A variety of answers are acceptable here. This questions is worth 8 points.