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					                                                                     Cooperative Extension Service as a Delivery System
                                                                     for Prevention Programming
                                                                       Laura Griner Hill & Louise A. Parker, Washington State University

Background                                                         Method                                                                           Results
                                                                   Procedure                                                                        Perceived Need for Prevention Programming                                                      Strengths and Resources
    The county-based Cooperative Extension Service (CES) of
                                                                      Mail surveys were sent to all 4H and Family Living faculty and
    land grant universities is a widely distributed national          staff, as well as to county chairs. All participants received a                 A majority (62%) of faculty and staff in 4H and Family Living                                           Most CES personnel perceive themselves as having high levels
    system, with personnel in nearly every county or parish of        SASE and $2 token of appreciation with the survey. Responses                    program areas agree that “Traditional Extension activities                                              of knowledge about risk and protective factors (73%), and
    the United States (n counties = 3141)                             were confidential. The survey procedure was approved by the                     may need to be supplemented by programs addressing                                                      nearly all feel comfortable using interactive teaching methods
                                                                      Internal Review Board of Washington State University.
                                                                                                                                                      specific topics (such as substance abuse or pregnancy                                                   (92%). A considerable number also feel able to identify (47%)
    The historical mission of land grant universities includes                                                                                        prevention) in order to fulfill our Extension system’s vision for                                       and implement (49%) prevention programs.
    outreach, and specifically the application of research-based
                                                                   Participants
                                                                                                                                                      children, youth, and families.”
    knowledge to meet the needs of communities statewide                                                                                                                                                                                                      Perceived knowledge and competence were significantly related
                                                                      109 (83%) of all eligible respondents returned surveys:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              to adoption of prevention programming (p < .05).
                                                                        • 33 County chairs          (82% of all county chairs)
    CES personnel have a long history of collaborative work with        • 34 Faculty                (87%)
    community agencies in identifying community needs and
                                                                        • 42 Program staff          (76%)
    delivering programs to meet those needs

    Although CES has traditionally developed and delivered its        By program area:
    own curricula to youth and families, effective research-            • 60 4H                            (78%)
    based programming is now available                                  • 22 Family Living                 (82%)
                                                                        • 10 Family Living/4H              (90%)
    CES would appear to be a natural, in-place delivery system          • 17 Other (chairs)                (90%)
    for research-based prevention programming nationwide
                                                                                                                                                      The majority of Extension personnel perceive community
    CES effectiveness as a delivery system will depend on the      Measures                                                                           needs for programming to address the specific issues of teen
    extent to which CES personnel perceive community needs                                                                                            substance abuse, dropout, pregnancy, suicide, and aggression.
    for prevention programming, believe in the need for CES to     Perceived need for prevention programming
                                                                                                                                                      Belief in the necessity for CES delivery of prevention programs
    conduct research-based programming, and are competent               • Perception of need for change in current CES                                                                                                                                         A majority (55%) of CES personnel reported extensive
                                                                                                                                                      and perception of community need were significantly (p < .05)
    and have resources to carry out prevention programming              programming practices                                                                                                                                                                  collaboration and coalitions with community agencies, and an
                                                                                                                                                      associated with adoption of prevention programming.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               additional 33% reported moderate levels of collaboration.
                                                                        • Awareness of community needs
Research Questions                                                 Perceived role congruence                                                        Role Congruence                                                                                Barriers
  To what degree do CES personnel in Washington State                   • Perception that delivery of prevention programs targeting                  A substantial number, though not a majority, of Extension                                                A strong majority (73%) reported having inadequate financial
                                                                        specific issues is consistent with Extension’s role                          personnel feel that it is part of Extension’s role to provide                                            resources to match programming decisions to community
    • perceive a need for prevention programming in their
    communities?                                                   Resources                                                                         programming that addresses the specific issues of teen                                                   needs. A smaller percentage (46%) reported that they
                                                                                                                                                     substance abuse, dropout, pregnancy, suicide, and                                                        lacked resources to conduct program evaluations.
    • perceive their role as consistent with delivery of                • Knowledge of risk & protective factors                                     aggression.
    prevention programs?                                                • Perceived competence in interactive teaching methods                                                                                                                                      Adequacy of Resources Needed to Conduct Programs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     and Evaluations
   What are the strengths and resources of CES as a delivery            • Ability to identify/implement research-based programming                                                 Extension Role in Prevention Programming

system for prevention programming?                                      • Relationships with community organizations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              100

                                                                                                                                                                   100                                                                                        80

  What are the barriers to delivery of prevention programs?        Barriers to implementation of prevention programming                                                                                                                                                               73




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Percent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              60                                                       agree
                                                                                                                                                                   80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40                                                       disagree




                                                                                                                                                         Percent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           46
                                                                        • Resources for matching programming to community need                                     60                                                                agree                    20                                30
                                                                                                                                                                   40                                                                disagree                            12
                                                                                                                                                                         50           49
                                                                      • Resources to conduct evaluations                                                                                                                                                       0

Hypotheses                                                         Adoption of prevention programming
                                                                                                                                                                   20
                                                                                                                                                                              17           18
                                                                                                                                                                                                  39
                                                                                                                                                                                                       20
                                                                                                                                                                                                             39
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           programs              evaluations


                                                                                                                                                                    0
                                                                        • Attendance at one of several in-state Extension trainings for                                  substance     dropout   pregnancy    suicide   aggression              Summary and Conclusions
• Perception of community need for prevention programming,              a research-based model prevention program (Strengthening                                            use
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Infrastructure and strong relationships with community partners
• Knowledge of risk and protective factors                              Families 10-14)                                                               Perception of role congruence was not significantly                                          provide an ideal environment for CES delivery of prevention
• Competence to identify and implement research-based                                                                                                 associated with adoption of prevention programming                                           programming
  programs                                                         Selected References                                                                                                                                                          2. Beliefs, attitudes, perception of community need, and knowledge
• Belief in value and need for CES prevention programming, &
• Perception of role congruence
                                                                    Betts, S. C., Peterson, D. J., Marczak, M. S. & Richmond, L. S. (2002).          Contact Information                                                                           of CES personnel predict adoption of prevention programming in
                                                                       System-wide evaluation: Taking the pulse of a national organization                                                                                                         Washington State
                                                                       serving children, youth, and families at risk. Children's Services: Social
                                                                                                                                                     Laura Griner Hill                              Louise A. Parker
  will all be associated with adoption of prevention                 Policy, Research, and Practice, 4, 87-101.                                                                                                                                3. Resources for professional development and to support education
                                                                                                                                                     PO Box 6236                                    7612 Pioneer Way E.
programming                                                         Molgaard, V.K. (1997). The extension service as key mechanism for research                                                                                                     about research-based programming can be effectively devoted to
                                                                                                                                                     Washington State University                    WSU Puyallup Research & Extension
                                                                        and services delivery for prevention of mental health disorders in rural
                                                                        areas. American Journal of Community Psychology, 25,515-544.
                                                                                                                                                     Pullman, WA 99164                              Puyallup, WA 98371-4998                        developing CES capacity as a delivery system for prevention
                                                                                                                                                     laurahill@wsu.edu                              parker@wsu.edu                                 programming
                                                                                                                                                     (corresponding author)

				
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