IT Essentials PC Hardware and Software - DOC

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					               IT Essentials 1 V3: PC Hardware and Software
                     Module 2 Study Guide – How Computers Work
1. The operating system (OS) is the software that controls _______________ and provides

   _____________________________ for application programs. Most operating systems provide

   functions to __________ and __________ data to files. An operating system translates requests for

   operations on files into operations that the ____________________ can perform.

2. List and describe the four basic operating system functions.

   __ _______________________________________________________________________________

   __ _______________________________________________________________________________

   __ _______________________________________________________________________________

   __ _______________________________________________________________________________

3. Where is the “bootstrap” located? ______________________________________________________

4. What are the primary functions of the “bootstrap”? _________________________________________

   __ _______________________________________________________________________________

5. During the execution of the BIOS firmware routines, three sets of operations are performed. What are
   these?

   a. ______________________________________________________________________________

   b. ______________________________________________________________________________

   c. ______________________________________________________________________________

6. What is the Power-on Self Test (POST)? ________________________________________________

   __ _______________________________________________________________________________

   __ _______________________________________________________________________________

7. Once a computer has passed POST it will _______________________________________________

   __ _______________________________________________________________________________

8. What device does the POST check first? ________________________________________________

   __ _______________________________________________________________________________

9. Who are the major manufacturers of BIOS chips? _________________________________________




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10. What happens once the bootstrap finds the operating system (OS)? ___________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

11. How does a user perform a cold boot? __________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

12. What keystrokes are required to perform a warm boot? _____________________________________

   _ ________________________________________________________________________________
Complete the following chart:




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13. Power supplies convert _____ from an outlet to _____ used by the computer system.

14. Power supplies are rated in __________. A typical computer has a __________ watt power supply.

15. The power supplies vary in size and design. The more common types are known as the _____ and
    _____ power supply form factors. Newer computer systems use _____.

16. The devices that attach to the power supply use +_____, +_____, and +_____ DC power. Older
    devices also use –_____ and –_____ DC power.

17. What is the purpose of the power supply fan? ____________________________________________

18. What devices do motherboards house?

    a. ______________________________________________________________________________

    b. ______________________________________________________________________________

    c. ______________________________________________________________________________

    d. ______________________________________________________________________________

    e. ______________________________________________________________________________

    f.   ______________________________________________________________________________

    g. ______________________________________________________________________________

    h. ______________________________________________________________________________

    i.   ______________________________________________________________________________

    j.   ______________________________________________________________________________

19. Motherboards are sometimes described according to the type of microprocessor interface, or the socket
    they present. Motherboards can be described as _______________, ______________, and so on.
    Slot 1 is first generation ATX. Single Socket 370 is second generation ATX.

20. The motherboard chipset determines the compatibility of the motherboard with several other vital
    system components. It determines the ______________________ and limitations of the motherboard.
    The chipset consists of a group of microcircuits contained on several integrated chips or combined into
    one or two very large scale integration (VLSI) integrated chips. VLSI are chips that have over 20,000
    circuits.

21. The chipset determines the following:
    a. ______________________________________________________________________________

    b. ______________________________________________________________________________

    c. ______________________________________________________________________________

    d. ______________________________________________________________________________

    e. ______________________________________________________________________________

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Complete the photozoom activity to identify parts of a motherboard.

22. Complete the following chart listing CPU socket types:

            Socket Type                          AMD                  Intel

 Socket 1


 Socket 2


 Socket 3


 Socket 4


 Socket 5


 Socket 6


 Socket 7


 Socket 8


 Slot 1


 Slot 2


 Slot A


 Socket 370


 Socket A


 Socket 423


 Socket 478


 Socket 603



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23. The CPU contains two basic components, a __________ unit and an
    _____________________________(ALU).

24. What is the control unit’s job? ________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

25. What is the arithmetic/logic unit’s job? __________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

26. What are three main types of buses?     __________________________________________________

27. The CPU speed is not controlled by the microprocessor itself. What is the CPU speed controlled by?

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

28. Generally, three factors determine how much information can be processed at any given time:

    a. ______________________________________________________________________________

    b. ______________________________________________________________________________

    c. ______________________________________________________________________________

29. Some examples of ROM chips that can be found on the motherboard are:     _____________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

30. The basic input/output system (BIOS) contains the _______________________ and ____________ in
    the ROM chip that control the boot process and the computer hardware. BIOS is sometimes called
    _____________.

31. List the BIOS ROM functions: (List 8)

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________




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32. List the three most common types of expansion slots on a motherboard and the speeds associated with
    each.

     _________________________________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

33. What is a riser card?   _______________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

34. What is an AMR card? ______________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

35. What is a CNR card? _______________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

36. The basic components of the computer are connected together by communication paths, called
    ____________. The system bus is a parallel collection of conductors that carry data and control
    signals from one component to the other. Common data bus sizes are 8-bits or 16-bits for older
    systems and 32-bits for new systems. 64-bit data bus systems are currently being developed.

37. The most common control signals in use today are as follows:

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

38. __________ __________ __________ (RAM) is the place in a computer where the OS, application
    programs, and data in current use are kept so that they can be quickly reached by the processor.

39. The __________, pronounced CASH, is a place to store something temporarily. For example, the files
    automatically requested by looking at a web page are stored on the hard disk in a cache subdirectory
    under the directory for the browser.

40. COASt stands for __________ on a stick. It provides cache memory on many Pentium-based systems.

41. RAM is __________, which means it loses its contents when there is no power provided to it.

42. Describe SRAM. ___________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

43. What is SRAM used for? ____________________________________________________________


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44. Describe DRAM. ___________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

45. SIMMS must be installed in __________________________________________________________ .

46. What does parity mean? ____________________________________________________________

47. SIMMS are available in _____-pin and _____-pin versions. DIMMS have _____ pins.

48. Complete the following chart:




                                                                                          7
49. RAMDAC is designed _______________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

50. Video RAM (VRAM) and Windows RAM (WRAM) are currently the best memory for _______________.

51. _______________ memory stores frequently used information and transfers it to the processor, which
    is much faster than RAM.

52. L1 cache is located ________________________________________. L2 cache is located _______

     _________________________________________________________________________________ .

    Which is faster? ___________________________________________________________________

53. Describe the following monitor-related terms.

    Pixels ___________________________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

    Dot pitch _________________________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

    Refresh rate ______________________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

    Color depth _______________________________________________________________________

    __ _______________________________________________________________________________

    Video RAM _______________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

    Resolution ________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

54. What three colors do pixels consist of? __________________________________________________

55. Some video cards even include a graphics coprocessor for performing graphics calculations. These
    adapters are referred to as _______________ _______________. A newer form of VRAM is
    __________ RAM (WRAM).

56. AGP is an expansion slot on the ___________________ for installing a video card. AGP is designed
    exclusively for _____________ cards. An AGP card allows game and 3D applications to store and
    retrieve more realistic textures in system memory rather than video memory without incurring any
    performance problems.

57. A significant advantage of the AGP is that the PCI bus is relieved of
    _______________________________. Therefore, the PCI slot can concentrate on other demanding
    duties. AGP also ________________ the PCI transfer speed.

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58. What type of ports are COM1 and COM2? _______________________________________________

59. Serial ports are sometimes called the ___________ ports because they use the RS-232C standard as
    defined by the Electronics Industry Association (EIA).

60. A serial port serially transmits data bits _____ after the other over a single line. USB 2.0, the most
    recent version, will run at a speed of _________ megabits per second (Mbps).

61. What type of port is a 9-pin male connector? _____________________________________________

62. What type of ports do printers generally use? _____________________________________________

63. The _____________________ interface offers 8-bit parallel data words and nine I/O control lines at a
    DB-25 socket, or 25-pin female connector.

64. Parallel ports can be configured as ________, ________, or ________.

65. Avoid using a parallel cable longer than _____ ft. (4.6 m) when connecting an external device such as a
    printer to the computer parallel port. A shorter cable will reduce the chance for errors and will ensure
    data integrity.

66. What are the two types of keyboard connectors? _________________________________________

67. What kind of devices can be connected via USB? _________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

68. USB is an emerging technology. It offers a data transfer rate of up to _____ Mbps. The latest version,
    USB 2.0, is much faster and transfers data at a rate of _____ Mbps. _____ USB devices can typically
    be connected directly to the computer using the standard USB four-pin connector. By using external
    hubs, each of the seven devices can be connected to the others, creating a daisy chain of _____
    devices.

69. Describe hot-swappable. ____________________________________________________________

70. USB devices are classified as _____-speed or _____-speed devices based on their communication
    capabilities. A cable serving a full-speed device has a length limit of _____ ft. 5 in. (5 m). The length
    limit for cables used between low-speed USB devices is _____ ft. 10 in. (3 m).

71. _______________ is a high-speed, platform-independent communication bus. The FireWire
    interconnects digital devices such as digital video cameras, printers, scanners, digital cameras, and
    hard drives. It is also known as i.LINK or _______________.

72. FireWire can support up to _____ devices using cable lengths up to _____ m (14 ft.), the length limit for
    cabling. Like USB, these devices can be hot-plugged. FireWire is much faster than the original version
    of USB, transferring data at rates up to _____ Mbps.

73. The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) interface is officially known as the _____ _______________
    (ATA) specification. ATA Packet Interface (ATAPI) defines the IDE standard for _______________ and
    tape drives. ATA-2 (Fast ATA) defined the faster transfer rates used in Enhanced IDE. ATA-3 added
    interface improvements, including the ability to report potential problems.

74. Currently, _____ Enhanced IDE (EIDE) sockets are built onto the motherboard. Each socket connects
    to _____ devices through a _____-pin ribbon cable. Starting with ATA-66 drives, the cable uses _____
    wires and _____ pins. It plugs into the same socket with one pin removed.

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75. IDE drives use Programmed Input/Output (PIO) mode for data transfer. This mode uses the registers
    of the CPU for data transfer. This is in contrast with ________, which transfers directly between main
    memory and the peripheral device.

76. __________, also called the ATA-2 disk drive, is the newest version of IDE. The EIDE interface can
    handle up to _____ GB, more than the 528 MB of data with the IDE.

77. The IDE can support only _____ drives. EIDE can support up to _____ devices using _____ IDE
    cables that have _____-pins and a maximum length of _____ in. (5.5 m). Additionally, EIDE supports
    non-disk peripherals that follow the ATAPI protocol.

78. The EIDE interface is often described as an AT Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI), or a Fast AT
    Attachment (Fast ATA) interface. __________ is the protocol used by enhanced IDE devices such as
    IDE CD-ROM drives, and IDE external tape backup drives.

79. Each disk drive that is attached to an IDE/ATA, EIDE/ATA-2, or EIDE/ATA-3 disk controller must have
    a __________ set on the back of the disk drive. The jumper set specifies the role the disk will perform
    in relationship to the other disk on the same channel.

80. A single IDE or EIDE disk is usually set to the __________ role. A second IDE or EIDE disk attached
    to the same channel must be set to the __________ role. The disk hardware on the Master disk drive
    controls both the Master and Slave disk drives.

81. An option called __________ __________ (CSEL) will allow the IDE adapter to select which IDE or
    EIDE disk drive will function as Master and which IDE or EIDE disk drive will function as Slave. If both
    IDE and EIDE disk drives are on a single channel and both are set to Master, the disk subsystem will
    not work. The same is true if both are set to Slave.

82. Ultra ATA disk drives are typically much faster than the older ATA and ATA-2 disk drives. These disk
    drives are installed and configured the same way that ATA-2 disk drives are configured, __________,
    __________, or __________.

83. However, the faster versions, ATA-66 and ATA-100, require the use of a special ribbon cable to
    connect the disk drives to the ATA adapter. This special cable contains _____ conductors. However, it
    still uses the same _____-pin connectors used by earlier ATA disk drives. Failure to use these special
    cables for these high-speed disks can result in disk system problems and possible data loss.

84. What is SCSI ideal for? _____________________________________________________________

85. How many devices may be connected to one SCSI adapter or controller on a standard SCSI interface?

     _________________________________________________________________________________

86. What SCSI ID number is given to the controller card? ______________________________________

     What SCSI ID number is given to the boot device? ________________________________________

87. Describe the three types of SCSI termination:

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________


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 88. What are the three major versions of SCSI? _____________________________________________

 89. Which SCSI standard has a maximum cable length of 6 m? _________________________________

 90. SCSI-2 uses the same _____-pin connector on the internal SCSI cable that is used by SCSI-1 devices.

 91. Which SCSI standard uses a 68-pin connector? __________________________________________

 92. Which SCSI variety reduces the bus length from 6 m to 3 m? __________________________________

 93. Which SCSI standard supports up to 15 devices and can use a 12 m cable? ____________________

 94. Ultra SCSI-3 and Ultra2 SCSI-3 both use _____-pin connectors. The wide variants, Wide Ultra SCSI-3
     and Wide Ultra2 SCSI-3, use _____-pin connectors. Ultra3, Ultra160 SCSI-3, also use _____-pin
     connectors. All versions of SCSI-3 require __________ termination.

 95. List the components shared by all hard disk drives:

      _________________________________________________________________________________

      _________________________________________________________________________________

      _________________________________________________________________________________

      _________________________________________________________________________________

      _________________________________________________________________________________

      _________________________________________________________________________________

      _________________________________________________________________________________

      _________________________________________________________________________________

 96. A CD-ROM drive consists of a spindle, a laser that flashes onto the uneven surface of the disc, a prism
     that deflects the laser beam, and a light-sensitive diode that reads the flashing light. Currently, there
     are many choices. They include the CD-ROM, the __________, the __________, and the __________.

 97. Up to _____ MB of text, audio, video, and graphical data can be written to a CD-R.

 98. The CD-ROM speed is indicated by a number with an "_____" after it. For example, a 12-speed CD-
     ROM is labeled as a __________. The larger the number, the faster the disc can spin.

 99. DVDs can provide up to _____ times the storage capacity of CDs.

100. Flash drives using USB 2.0 are capable of read speeds of up to _____ MB/s and write speeds of up to
     _____ MB/s.

101. A modem is a device that converts the __________ data used by computers into ___________ signals,
     suitable for transmission over a telephone line, and converts the analog signals back to a digital signal
     at the destination. The word modem is actually an acronym for _______________________________.

102. What type of connection does a modem use? ____________________________________________

103. What type of jack does a modem use? _________________________________________________

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104. The modem card handles all the data transmission on the computer serial port with the help of a special
     chip called the universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (UART) chip. Almost every PC sold today
     will have a __________ UART chip inside.

105. What type of jack does a NIC use? ____________________________________________________

106. System resources prevent two or more devices from communicating ___________________________.
     System resources also enable the ________ to identify the hardware device that is making a request.

107. What are the IRQs for the following devices?

      Keyboard _________________________________________________________________________

      COM1 & COM3 ____________________________________________________________________

      COM2 & COM4 ____________________________________________________________________

      Floppy disk controller _______________________________________________________________

      LPT1 ____________________________________________________________________________

      System timer ______________________________________________________________________

      Real time clock ____________________________________________________________________

108. Which two IRQs are the default free IRQs? ______________________________________________

109. How many IRQs do modern computers have? ____________________________________________

110. What is Direct Memory Access (DMA)? _________________________________________________

      __ _______________________________________________________________________________

111. List four examples of devices that use DMA channels. ______________________________________

      __ _______________________________________________________________________________

112. What is the IO address for the following devices?

      COM1 ___________________________________________________________________________

      COM2 ___________________________________________________________________________

      COM3 ___________________________________________________________________________

      COM4 ___________________________________________________________________________

      LPT1 ____________________________________________________________________________

      LPT2 ____________________________________________________________________________

113. Originally notebook computers used what kind of battery? __________________________________

114. What kind of battery is typically found in modern notebook computers? ________________________


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 115. The __________ is a special expansion card designed primarily to accommodate the needs of the
      portable computer market.

 116. There are three types of PCMCIA slots and cards:

      a. ______________________________________________________________________________

      b. ______________________________________________________________________________

      c. ______________________________________________________________________________

 117. The newer Mini-PCI card is used primarily for notebooks, Web pads, Internet appliances, and other
      mobile data applications:

      a. ______________________________________________________________________________

      b. ______________________________________________________________________________

      c. ______________________________________________________________________________

 118. The standard _____________________________________________________________ (SODIMM)
      is used most often in notebook computers.

 119. A __________ __________ is a device that allows the portable PC to operate with hardware devices
      associated with desktop computers. It is also called a __________ __________.

 120. An __________ port allows infrared devices to communicate with each other.

 121. Infrared Radiation (IR) is used for __________ transmission between computer devices and in remote
      controls for television and stereo systems.

Take the Module 2 Online Quiz and record your score here: __________




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