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					                                 Test       One
Ⅰ. Match the words and expressions on the left with the explanations on the right: (5%)
          (         )1. indemnity A. the total annual income of a state
          (         )2. revenue B. compensation for loss
          (         )3. cost-effective C. an official group of persons who direct or supervise some
          activities of a firm
          (         )4. board D. producing the best result for the expenditure
          (         )5. consensus E. general agreement
Ⅱ. Translate the following words and expressions: (10%)
       (ⅰ) From English into Chinese:
          6. economies of scale
          7. documentary collection
          8. Electronic Data Interchange
          9. insurance policy
          10. preferential customs tariff
          (ⅱ) From Chinese into English:
          11.无形贸易
          12.保兑信用证
          13.运输标志
          14.商品交易会
          15.资本市场
Ⅲ. Make brief explanations of the following terms in English: (20%)
          16. clean bill of lading
          17. Incoterms
          18. balance of payments
          19. revolving credit
          20. MFN
Ⅳ. Fill in each of the following blanks with an appropriate word from the list (You can only
choose 10 from the following 12 words in the square): (10%)
              through   between         which     parent      how         international
          The       with      domestic      in     into     subsidiary
          Successful multinational corporations eventually must learn (21)________ to inter-relate
their subsidiaries with the (22)________ company, how to delegate decision-making authority,
and how to develop satisfactory methods of control and supervision. (23)________ most
traditional organizational structure is the international division structure, in (24)________
communication (25)________ the parent company is channeled (26)________ an international
division. In the global structure there is no international division for overseas activities; instead,
the entire top management becomes involved (27)________ international as well as (28)________

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matters. The global approach unifies domestic and international divisions (29)________ one
global division. It therefore eliminates the danger of competition (30)________ an international
division and a domestic one.
Ⅴ. Translate the following into English:(25%)
          31.比较利益理论已成为现代国际贸易思想的基石。
          32.配额或者说数量限制是最常见的非关税壁垒。
          33.如果投保的险别不是造成损失的直接原因,保险公司将不予赔偿。
          34.已装船提单表明货物已实际装上开往目的地港的承运船只。
          35.尽管有很多好处,反向贸易可能是风险很大的事。
Ⅵ. Translate the following into Chinese: (15%)
          36. The transferable credit is designed to meet the requirements of international trade. It
enables a middleman who is receiving payment from a buyer under a documentary credit to
transfer his claim under that credit to his own supplier.
          A transferable credit may only be transferred once. The second beneficiary may not
further transfer it unless there is an express provision to this effect in the original credit. This limit
on transferability is intended to prevent abuse. On the other hand, the first beneficiary can transfer
fractions of the original credit to several suppliers, provided that partial shipments are allowed.
The aggregate of these partial transfers constitutes one transfer.
Ⅶ. Answer the following questions in English: (15%)
          37. What are the three major functions of the bill of lading?
          38. What does“insurable interest”mean? Why insurable interest is a very important
principle of insurance?
                           Test two
Ⅰ.Match the words and expressions on the left with the explanations on the right:(5%)
   ( )1. assets A. working together
   ( )2. option B. organization structure
   ( )3. framework C. total resources of a business, as cash, accounts
   receivable, fixture, real estate, etc
   ( )4. collaboration D. power of being productive
   ( )5.productivity E. choice
Ⅱ.Translate the following words and expressions:(10%)
   (i)From English into Chinese:
   6. business line
   7. airway bill
   8. CFR
   9. counter trade
   10. offset
   (ii)From Chinese into English:
   11.股东
   12.套期保值
   13.贸易保护主义

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      14.关税壁垒
      15.即期汇票
Ⅲ.Make brief explanations of the following terms and give the full name of the following
abbreviation in English:   (20%)
      16. barter
      17. clean-credit
      18. intermediate products
      19. confirming bank
      20. SDR
Ⅳ.Fill in each of the following blanks with an appropriate word from the list(You can only
choose 10 from the following 12 words in the square)(10%) :
      devalued repaid performed traded made suffer
      interest rise standard decline valuable stable
      Money is a medium of exchange and as such is continuously being (21)______ for
countless commodities. It is highly desirable that the value of money should remain (22)     ______
over the years, otherwise its functions cannot be (23)     ______ properly. This is particularly true
of its use as a (24)   ______ for deferred payments. For example, if money falls in value over the
years, a person borrowing money is (25) ______ better off because the money with which the
person (26) ______ later is less (27) ______ than the money borrowed. The person from
whom the money was borrowed receives back the devalued currency and has therefore lost on the
transaction. To overcome this (28) ______ in the value of money, interest rates (29)         ______
in such times, so that those who lend money receive in interest some of the capital losses they are
inevitably going to (30) ______ when repayment time comes.
Ⅴ.Translate the following into English:     (25%)
      31.配额或者说数量限制是最常见的非关税壁垒。
      32.我们通常所说的五种主要运输方式是:水路、铁路、公路、管道和航空运输。
      33.已装船提单表明货物已实际装上开往目的地港的承运船只。
      34.在国际贸易结算中通常使用跟单信用证付款。
      35.国际货币基金组织旨在向那些在付款方面有困难的基金会员国提供中期贷款。
Ⅵ.Translate the following into Chinese:     (15%)
      36.The exporter is separated from the foreign consumer by a long chain of middlemen. One
should ask which is the most effective medium in getting a specific message to the customer
abroad. The exporter, instead of relying only on personal selling, resorts to promotion
campaigns to stimulate demand.
      The exporter must select from a variety of possible advertising and publicity media which are
available for export communications. The use of available media such as ads, export catalogues,
trade fairs, even the size of the column, and the use of color are minutiae(细节) or technical
details of export promotion.
      Export communications are the same all the world over because people in every land respond
to the same general kind of stimuli(刺激) and react to the same visual appeals and to the same
economic motives. The exporter must create repeat effects and make use of promotion stunts(促
销手段) in order to accomplish the desired result.
      Exporting has already made the promotion and marketing communications a “must”。
Without it, the goods cannot be put into the foreign market successfully.


                                                 3
Ⅶ.Answer the following questions in English: (15%)
   37. What is a sight credit and a usance credit Name one difference between them.
   38. What is a multinational enterprise Name some of the identical features of MNEs.

                        Test Three
Ⅰ.Give the English equivalents to the following abbreviations:(10%)
1. GNP
2. C/O
3. ISO
4. ETD
5. FOB
Ⅱ.Put the following phrases into English:(9%)
1. 互购
2. 寄售协议书
3. 营业执照
4. 清洁提单
5. 运费待收
6. 友好协商
Ⅲ.Fill in the blanks with the words or phrases from the box.(15%)
in      from        at    to
for       of     with      up
1. Shippers are requested to note particularly the exceptions and conditions of this B/L with
reference ________ the validity of the insurance upon their goods.
2. Mr.Jones has consulted ________ his partners before he makes a counter-offer.
3. We wish to assure you ________ our best cooperation at all times.
4. Sales targets shall be arranged ________ accordance with the production objectives contained
in the Joint Proforma.
5. The leasing rate of the land shall be ________ a rate of Yuan 15 per square meter per year for a
minimum period of ten years.
6. The Customs Office exempts him ________ taxation for samples.
restrictions       due to     submitted     At any rate
committed         in dispute     possession     Up to date
prior to      With respect to      hear cases    in violation of
7. You are ________ to open a sight L/C.
8. The Arbitration Tribunal shall ________ in open sessions.
9. ________ quality, nothing can be said against.
10. We hope that the matter ________ will soon be settled.
11. The commercial department places ________ on the sales of cigarettes and alcohol.
12. It is your side that acted ________ the agreement.
13. ________, you have neither actively pushed the sales of our products, nor regularly forwarded
us market report. How could we be satisfied with your work?
14. Your claim, in our opinion, should be ________ to the insurance company as the liability rests
with them.
15. It is important that you time the shipment to arrive here ________ the expiration of the import


                                                4
licence.
Ⅳ. Reading Comprehension:(16%)
A. Read the passage and answer the questions.
1. Please choose a suitable title for the passage:________.
A. Inspection Certificate                    B. Insurance
C. Claims                                        D. Disputes
2. When should the Buyers make the claim?________.
A. 30 days after shipment
B.30 days after the arrival of the goods at destination
C.60 days after shipment
D.60 days after the arrival of the goods at destination
       Within 60 days after the arrival of the goods at destination, should the quality, specifications,
or quantity be found not in conformity with the stipulations of the Contract, the Buyers shall, on
the strength of the Inspection Certificate issued by the Commodity Inspection Organization(the
inspection charges shall be borne by the Buyers), have the right to claim.
B. Read the passage and answer the questions.
3. What is this paragraph about? ________.
A. Shipment                                B. Insurance
C. Payment                                 D. Letter of Credit
4. According to the passage, which is not indicated?________.
A. The L/C should reach the Buyers before 20th September.
B. Both partial shipment and transshipment are allowed.
C. The L/C remains valid 15 days after the date of shipment.
D. This contract could be cancelled if the Sellers fail to effect shipment.
       By confirmed, irrevocable L/C without recourse in favour of CNCIEC Shanghai Branch for
the total value of the contracted goods in Pounds sterling, payable at sight against presentation of
shipping documents to the Bank of China in the port of loading. The L/C must reach the Sellers
before 20th September and remain valid in China for 15 days after the date of shipment. Partial
shipment and transshipment are allowed. In the event either the sellers fail to effect shipment or
the Buyers fail to establish the L/C within the stipulate period, unless such failure is due to Force
Majeure, the complaining party shall have the right to cancel this contract or lodge claim for direct
losses sustained if any.
C. Read this passage and decide whether these statements are true(T) or false(F).
5. The passage is about the problem of shipment.(              )
6. The shipment usually lasts more than three months.(            )
7. It is suggested to change another shipping company with a speedy service.(             )
8. The shipment used to be via Guangzhou and Hong Kong.(                )
       There is another big problem which has to be solved. From Qingdao port your Corporation
ships the goods mostly on transshipment vessels via Hong Kong and Singapore from where the
goods arrive here in four/five months after shipment from Qingdao. A recent example is that a lot
of 285 cartons were shipped for us on vessel “Yatlung” from Qingdao on 19th November, 2001
and actually the goods reached us by the end of April, 2002 which means five months after
shipment was made. We enclose herewith copies of relevant documents showing this fact.
       In view of the above, we request you to urge your corporation to ship the goods on direct


                                                   5
vessels or ship the goods with such shipping companies who have a speedy service, so that dealers
can repeat their orders after receipt of a consignment. „‟

                            Test      Four
Ⅰ.Translate the following words and expressions(10%):
     1) From English into Chinese
     a. compound duties
     b.documentary collection
     c.sales confirmation
     d.preferred stock
     e.GDP per capita
     2) From Chinese into English
     a.保护主义
     b.无支付能力的
     c.交(货)
     d.到岸价
     e.股东
Ⅱ.Match the words and expressions on the left with the explanations on the right.There are
two additional choices on the right(5%):
     1) drawback              (   ) a.duties imposed on goods imported and exported
     2) terms of trade (        )    b.the right to collect from an endorser a payment of loss
     3) title           (     )      c.duties on imports that are refunded when reexported
     4) deposit      (      )       d.right to the possession of a position or property
     5) hyperinflation (        )    e.the relation of export and import prices
                                    f.soaring of prices beyond control
                                    g.money paid as part of the payment owed
Ⅲ.Make brief explanations of the following terms in English(20%):
     1.international trade
     2.transferable credit
     3.insurance
     4.MNC
     5.commercial invoice
Ⅳ.Fill in each of the following blanks with an appropriate word from the list(10%):
     economic            orders         speculative          protection
     risk              insurable       loss                 renewed
     transfer        financial        charged               policy
     Perhaps the most common method of dealing with risk is to shift,or 1)______,the risk to an
insurance company.An insurer (or insurance company) is a firm that agrees,for a fee,to assume
2)______ responsibility for losses that may result from a specific risk.
     The fee 3)______ by an insurance company is called a premium.A contract between an
insurer and the person or firm whose risk is assumed is known as an insurance
4)______.Generally,an insurance policy is written for a period of one year.Then,if both parties are
willing,it is 5)______ each year.It specifies exactly which risks are covered by the agreement,the
dollar amounts the insurer will pay in case of a 6)______,and the amount of the premium.


                                                6
       Insurance is thus the 7)______ against loss that the purchase of an insurance policy
affords.Insurance companies will not,however,assume every kind of risk.A risk that insurance
companies will assume is called an 8)______ risk.A risk that insurance companies will not assume
is called an uninsurable risk.
       In general,pure risks are insurable,whereas 9)______ risks are uninsurable.An insurance
company will protect a Ford Motor Company assembly plant against losses due to fire or
hurricanes.It will not,however,protect Ford against losses resulting from a lack of sales 10)______
for automobiles.
Ⅴ.Translate the following into Chinese(15%):
        How can more “Made in the U.S.A.”goods get into store shelves in China?Under current
trade restrictions,imports from the United States have barely flowed into that
nation.However,imports will flood in,if China,the largest emerging market in Asia,joins the World
Trade Organization.Although U.S. exports to China have increased over the past decade,the yearly
total is still only about $ 12 billion,a tiny piece of all U.S. exports.Meanwhile,the United States
has been a very good market for China's goods:U.S.imports about $50 billion worth of goods from
China every year,up from roughly $10 billion worth of yearly imports just a decade ago.
     If China joins the WTO,the level of U.S. exports to China will skyrocket because high tariffs
and various other trade restrictions will be removed.Today tariffs on imports into China range as
high as 120 percent.As part of its bid for WTO membership,China has agreed to cut the average
tariff rate to 15 percent by the year 2000.In addition,WTO membership would put trade with
China under a more standardized legal framework,giving exporters and importers alike more
consistent treatment.
       Another benefit of China's proposed WTO membership is that U.S. companies would within
a few years be allowed to deal directly with Chinese companies instead of going through a trading
company.Just as important,U.S. manufacturers would finally be able to market directly to Chinese
consumers.Such an import-friendly environment would be bound to open new trade opportunities
for U.S. businesses—which is why many U.S. officials favor WTO membership for China.
Ⅵ.Translate the following into English(25%):
1.作为取代关贸总协定的新的、改善了的机构,世界贸易组织是一个永久性的国际组织,所
有关贸总协定的成员国均自动转为世界贸易组织的成员。
2.许多国际交易是通过汇票支付的。汇票是对银行或顾客发出的支付命令,包括即期汇票和
远期汇票。
3.买方发出的询盘是为了获得拟订购商品的有关信息,它对发出询盘的人无约束力。
4.即使是在这种情况下,大多数公司宁可支付数量明确的保险费来转移风险,也不愿有遭受
风险的不确定性。
5.尽管跨国公司的日常管理工作下放到其子公司,但重要决策,如公司目标和新投资项目都
由母公司来决定。
Ⅶ.Answer the following questions in English(15%):
1.Why and how are Incoterms used?Give two commonly used terms to illustrate.
2.How is D/A different from D/P after sight?Which is safer for the exporter?
Ⅰ.术语英汉互译(每小题 1 分,共 10 分)
a.复税/混合关税
b.跟单托收
c.售货确认书


                                                7
d.优先股
e.人均国内生产总值
a. protectionism
b. insolvent
c. make delivery
d. CIF
e. share-holder/shareholders
Ⅱ.选择(每小题 1 分,共 5 分)
(1) c      (2) e      (3) d    (4) g     (5) f
Ⅲ.术语定义(每小题 4 分,共 20 分)
(1)International trade refers to the exchange of goods and services produced in one country with
those produced in another.(In the complex economic world,no country can be completely
self-sufficient.)
(2)Transferable credit:a letter of credit that can be transferred by the original beneficiary to one or
more parties in making payment.
(3)Insurance is a social device in which a group of individuals transfer risk,and it provides for
payment of losses from funds contributed by all members who transferred risk.
(4)MNC is a business organization which owns (whether wholly or partly),controls and manages
assets,often including productive resources,in more than one country,through its member
companies incorporated separately in each of these countries.
(5)The commercial invoice is a business document which gives a general description of the quality
and quantity of the goods and the unit and total price.
Ⅳ.选择填空(每小题 1 分,共 10 分)
(1)transfer       (2)financial    (3)charged         (4)policy           (5)renewed
(6)loss            (7)protection     (8)insurable      (9)speculative      (10)orders
Ⅴ.翻译(15 分)
      如何使更多的美国货出现在中国的商店里?按照现行的贸易限制,进入中国的美国商品
数量不多。但是,如果中国,亚洲最大的新兴市场,加入世界贸易组织,进口商品将大量涌
入。   尽管在过去的十年中美国对中国的出口有所增加,                                   但每年的总出口仍只有 120 亿美元左
右,占美国总出口的很小比例。同时,美国是中国商品的一个很好的市场,美国每年从中国
进口商品的价值从十年前的 100 亿美元左右增至大约 500 亿美元。
      如果中国加入世贸,               美国对中国出口的数量将大大增加,                        因为高关税与其它各种贸易限
制将被取消。目前中国的进口关税最高可达 120%。为了加入世贸,中国已同意到 2000 年
以前把平均关税税率降至 15%。加入世贸将会把中国的对外贸易置于更为规范的法律框架
之中,从而会对进出口商一视同仁。
      中国加入世贸带来的另一个好处在于美国公司将可以不必通过贸易公司直接接触中国
的公司。同样重要的是,美国的制造商们最终还能够直接向中国消费者销售其产品。这样一
个利于进口的环境必将为美国企业展现新的贸易机会,                                      所以许多美国官员都赞成中国加入世
界贸易组织。
Ⅵ.汉译英(每小题 5 分,共 25 分)
(1)Being a new,improved replacement of GATT,WTO is a permanent international organization,to
which all the members of GATT have automatically become members.
(2)The payment of many international transactions is made by draft.A draft is an order to a bank
or a customer,which includes sight draft and usance draft.


                                                  8
(3)The enquiry made by the buyer is to get information about the goods to be ordered.It is made
without engagement to the enquirer.
(4)Even in those circumstances,most firms prefer to pay a known premium for the transfer of
risk,rather than face the uncertainty of carrying the risk of loss.
(5)Although the day-to-day administration of MNCs may be delegated(decentralized) to their
affiliates,major decisions such as corporate goals and new investment projects are made by the
parent company.
Ⅶ.问答(15 分)
      (1)The purpose of Incoterms is to 1)provide a set of international rules 2)for the interpretation
of the most commonly used trade terms 3)in foreign trade.Thus,4)the uncertainties of different
interpretations of such terms in different countries 5)can be avoided or 6)at least reduced to a
considerable degree.Examples:7)FOB,short for Free On Board.It means that the exporter makes
delivery of the goods on board the ship without the responsibility for the insurance cover and
transportation.8)CIF,short for Cost,Insurance and Freight.It means that the exporter is responsible
for the arrangement of insurance cover and transportation before delivering the goods.
      (2)9)In the case of documents against acceptance(D/A),10)documents are handed over to the
importer 11)upon his acceptance of the bill of exchange drawn by the exporter.12)Payment will
not be made until a later date.13)D/P after sight gives the importer a certain period after
presentation of the documents,14)but documents are not released to him until he actually pays for
the merchandise.15)D/P after sight is safer than D/A.
Ⅴ . Translate the following sentences:(30%)
      1. “ 555 ” 干电池是自 1964 年起在巴基斯坦以我方的名义注册的商标。
      2. 我们遗憾地通知:由于上述商品无货供应,我们无法向你报盘。
      3. 邮费先由小王代替小李预付,小李然后据实向小王偿付。
      4. 申诉人要求被诉人承担由于进行仲裁而引起的一切费用。
      5. 因此,我方不得不拒绝你方索赔。
      6. We believe you can commit yourselves in this transaction.
      7. The L/C should reach us before September 20, in order that we may effect shipment before
the end of October.
      8. Please pay beneficiary face amount of drawings on a sight basis.
      9. This contention cannot survive analysis and is misconceived.
      10. The buyers accepted the Seller's New Shipment Arrangement but did not agree to
increase the contracted prices.
Ⅵ . Letter-writing:(20%)
      根据以下所给内容用完整的书信格式 ( 包括信头、信内地址、称呼、正文、结束语、
信尾敬语和签名 ) 拟一封信:
      1. 我方:中国进出口公司 (China Import & Export Company 地址: 397 Tiantan Road,
Beijing 电话: 86 10 6332548 ,传真: 86 10 6332549) 确认收到你方:美国 The Juster
Trading Co.Ltd.( 地址: 35 South St. Minneapolis , Minn. USA
      ) 于 2002 年 2 月 20 日 要求订购茶叶的订单。
      2. 对所订之货,我们要求用不可撤消的即期信用证,于装运前一个月开到我方。请立
即告知是否同意我们的条款。一收到你方肯定的答复,我们即按信中所述价格确认供货,
      并在收到信用证后,安排装运。
      3. 如对方公司对此货还有何要求,请参阅第 88 号目录并来函告知。


                                                  9
    4. 感谢贵方惠顾,希望上述货物能使对方满意。
    5. 写信日期为 2002 年 2 月 23 日 。

                 Test       Five
I. Translate the following words and expressions(10%)
          1)From English into Chinese
          a.common pool
          b.Consignment Contract
          c.EDI
          d.compensation trade
          e.net positions
          2)From Chinese into English
          a.增值税
          b.缓冲库存贷款
          c.宽限期
          d.外汇市场
          e.免除条款
Ⅱ. Match the words and expressions on the left with the explanations on the right. There are
two additional choices on the right(6%)
          1)primary commodities
          2)fluctuation
          3)remittance
          4)insurance policy
          5)expertise
          6)tariff
          a.one of the regular sums paid in order to be insured
          b.a document covering possible risks between the insurer and the insured
          c.those commodities not processed or only slightly processed, including farm produce
and raw materials
          d.the irregular movement of prices, levels, etc. upwards downwards
          e.an official schedule of customs duties imposed by a government on imports or exports
          f.the sending of money or the money sent
          g.a document for the general description of the goods and the price
          h.expert knowledge or skill, especially in a particular field
Ⅲ. Make brief explanations of the following terms in English(24%)
          1.proximate cause
          2.irrevocable credit
          3.commercial invoice
          4.transfer of technology
          5.transportation deregulation
          6.host government
Ⅳ. Fill in each of the following blanks with an appropriate word from the list(10%)
     Protectionists、passed、lengthening、shipping、cheaply、competition、retaliated、protect、
raised、offset、costly、reducing Despite the many benefits to trade, there are barriers to it. One


                                              10
                                                                    ( _________ in China than
is a natural barrier-distance. Suppose a product can be produced more 1)
in the United States. The cost of(2)__________ it to the United States might more than(3)
__________ the lower production cost. The big problem,however, is the created barrier to trade
——tariff and non-tariff barriers. These barriers are created by governments that want to(4)
__________ the domestic market for domestic firms.(5)__________,regardless of the country
in which they live, want to protect their domestic industries, firms and jobs from foreign(6)
                                                                 (情绪)
__________ by establishing trade barriers. Protectionist sentiment       seems to grow especially
during hard economic times. Congress(7)__________ the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act in 1930,
early in Great Depression, in the hope that it would reduce competition from foreign products.
Tariffs were(8)__________ so much that they helped to cause a global trade war. Thus,the
trading partners of U.S.(9)__________ by raising their tariffs on U.S. goods. Many people
believe that Smoot-Hawley was a major factor in(10)__________ the global depression of the
1930s.
Ⅴ. Translate the following into Chinese(15%)
             (
      A cartel 卡特尔) a group of firms in different counties that agree to operate as a monopoly
                          is
by regulating production and prices. Instead of competing, cartel members agree to limit output,
to share markets, and to fix prices. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC)
is a cartel. The International Coffee Organization, the 72-nation cartel that set coffee prices for
more than 27 years, officially went out of existence in 1989. Although cartels are illegal in the
United States, it may be legal for US-based firms to join in such agreements in foreign markets if
participation does not affect the U.S. market.
Ⅵ.Translate the following into English(25%)
1.汇票是一种无条件的支付命令。                     开出汇票的人被称作出票人,                 接受汇票的人被称作受票人。
2.出口商在发出实盘时,一定要提及装运期、付款方式和有效期。
3.尽管有很多好处,对销贸易可能被认为是贸易保护主义的一种表现形式。
4.证券交易所是证券发行和交易的中心市场。
5.补偿和应急基金贷款始建于 1998 年 8 月,其宗旨是帮助会员国调整其经济增长。
Ⅶ. Answer the following questions in English(10%)
      What is theory of comparative advantage? Why is this theory better than the theory of
absolute advantage?




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