SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE FACULTY OF FORESTRY AND NATURE CONSERVATION CURRICULUM FOR MSc. (FORESTRY) DEGREE PROGRAMME May 2009 MASTER OF SCIENCE IN FORESTRY (MSc. FOR) 12.1.0 NATURE OF THE PROGRAMME 12.1.1 Name of the degree The degree is called Master of Science in Forestry (MSc. For) 12.1.2 General Information The regulations and guidelines for higher degree at Sokoine University of Agriculture as stipulated in the Prospectus and in the “Regulations and Guidelines for higher degrees apply except where indicated otherwise. The Master of Science degree in Forestry (MSc. For), is designed to train students for higher professional positions in the management and administration of forest resources and wood based industries, for teaching and research in colleges and universities, for research administration and extension, and assist to foster public relations in public and private organizations. The students are admitted to the MSc. (For) programme upon meeting the general requirements for registration for the degree of Master of Science of Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA). Candidates whose first degree is considered deficient in forestry may be required to take certain specialized courses from the undergraduate forestry curriculum in addition to the minimum postgraduate requirements. The programme consists of course work and dissertation. Normally the course work takes one academic year and a candidate is expected to submit a dissertation usually not later than twelve months after accomplishing the course work. Internal examinations and assessments are given on the courses. Satisfactory completion of the course work qualifies the candidate to continue with the dissertation work. Further details are as per “Regulation and Guidelines for Higher Degrees at Sokoine University of Agriculture for Masters Degree”. Course work normally consists of a minimum of 12 credit hours of course work study. In addition to the compulsory common core courses at the faculty level, all students are supposed to take certain prescribed core courses in the department in which they specialize (Forest Biology, Forest Engineering, Forest Mensuration and Management, Forest Economics and Wood utilization) together with optional courses related to the candidate’s field of study. Courses and special studies from other Faculties/Institutes within Sokoine University of Agriculture and from other Universities as exemplified by sandwich programmes have to be approved as partial fulfilment of the course work. Optional courses and special studies are selected after consultation with a student’s supervisor or Head of the relevant Department. In the case of sandwich programmes with another Institution, the approval of Senate is required. 12.2.0 COURSE STRUCTURE AND CONTENTS All listed courses are given through a combination of lectures, laboratory and field practical, seminars and field trips. The size of the course is indicated in credit hours, i.e. one credit hour equals 30 hours of lecture or 60 hours of seminar/practical. 12.2.1 Course structure A. CORE COURSES 1. UNIVERSITY AND FACULTY CORE COURSES Credit hours AEE 600 Research Planning and Management 1.0 AEA 600 Statistics 3.0 AE 601 Introduction to Programming in Fortran 1.5 FO 601 Research Paper and Reports 0.5 6.0 2. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST BIOLOGY FO 610 Agroforestry 2.0 FO 611 Silviculture 2.0 FO 612 Tropical Vegetation and Plant Ecology 1.5 5.5 3. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ENGINEERING FO 621 Harvesting Systems 1.8 FO 622 Forest Roads 1.5 FO 623 Machine Operating Principles and 0.7 Maintenance FO 624 Forest Work studies and Ergonomics 1.5 5.5 4. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ECONOMICS FO 641 Forest Resource Economics 1.5 FO 642 Forecast and Consumption Surveys 1.5 FO 643 Applied Quantitative Techniques 2.5 5.5 5. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST MENSURATION AND MANAGEMENT FO 631 Advanced Crop Mensuration 2.7 FO632 Forest Resource Management 1.5 4.2 6. DEPARTMENT OF WOOD UTILIZATION FO 651 Wood Anatomy and Chemistry 1.3 FO 652 Physics, Mechanics and Rheology of 2.0 Wood FO 653 Wood Machining 1.3 4.6 B. OPTIONAL COURSES DEPARTMENT OF FOREST BIOLOGY FO 605 Special Study in Forest Biology 2.0 FO 613 Wildlife Ecology 1.0 FO 614 Forest Entomology 1.0 FO 615 Forest Pathology 1.0 FO 616 Forest Tree Improvement 2.0 FO 617 Taxonomy of Tropical Forest Trees and 2.0 Shrubs FO 618 Forest Influences and Watershed 2.0 Management FO 619 Forest Soils 1.5 FO 820 Tree Physiology 1.5 DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ENGINEERING FO 625 Forest Engineering Quantitative Methods 1.5 FO 626 Design of Structures 1.0 FO 627 Special Study in Forest Engineering 2.0 DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ECONOMICS FO 644 Administration 1.0 FO 645 Marketing 1.5 FO 646 Project Planning and Evaluation 2.0 FO 647 Special Study in Forest Economics 2.0 DEPARTMENT OF FOREST MENSURATION AND MANAGEMENT FO 633 Remote Sensing in Forestry 2.0 FO634 Forest Industries Management 1.5 FO 635 Quantitative Techniques in Planning 2.5 FO 636 Forestry in Rural Development 2.5 FO 637 Human Resource Management 1.5 FO 638 Special Study in Forest Mensuration and 2.0 Management DEPARTMENT OF WOOD UTILIZATION FO 654 Wood Preservation and Modified Wood 1.0 FO 655 Technology of Wood Based Panels 1.5 FO 656 Pulp and Paper Technology 1.5 FO 657 Wood Fuel and other Forest Produce 1.0 FO 658 Special Study in Wood utilization 2.0 12.2.2 Course contents 1. UNIVERSITY AND FACULTY CORE COURSES EE 600 Research Planning and Management (1.0 credit hour) See 3.2.2 AEA 600 Statistics (3.0 credit hours) See 1.2.2 AE 601 Introduction to Programming in Fortran (1.5 credit hours) Fundamental computer concepts: the Micro-computer revolution. Computer and program. Computer organisation. Input/output devices. Terminals. The FORTRAN language; high level languages, FORTRAN lines, compilers and interpreters. Algorithms. Integer and real arithmetic. Variables, expressions and the assignment statement; Rules of precedence. Library functions. Input and output format, free input, format statements and specifications. Decision and control: program flow. GO TO and IF statements. The STOP statement. Loops: The DO statement; Do loops, Nested loops. Valid and invalid loop structures; Subscripted variables; Arrays. The DIMENSION statement; Array and Loops. Permissible subscript forms. Matrices; Input/output of arrays. The implied DO loop. Subprograms: Functions and Subroutines; passing arrays as arguments to subprograms. Declarations; Implicit and explicit typing. COMMON and EQUIVALENCE statements. The DATA initialisation statement.Character manipulation. Character storage. Files; Sequential and direct files. Reading and writing sequential files. Binary files. Reading and writing direct files. FO 601 Research Papers and Reports (0.5 credit hour) Formal organization of various types of written reports. Use of library services. Oral presentation of subject matter in comprehensive form. Use of audio-visual aids. Preparation of reports and papers for publication. 2. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST BIOLOGY FO 610 Agroforestry (2.0 credit hours) Concepts of agroforestry, agrosilvicultural systems, silvipastoral systems, agrosilvipastoral systems. Multipurpose trees (MPT), definitions; quantitative and qualitative benefits of MPT including microclimatological effects, biological benefits, nutrient relations, symbiotic relationships with V.A. mycorrhizae, rhizobia etc. Negative interactions between trees and crops, concept of tree, crop interface, competition, allelopathy. Some examples of agroforestry systems in the tropics; the Kilimanjaro agroforestry system, structure and function of the systems. Introduction to land evaluation, and farming systems. The concept of D and D. Practicals in D and D analysis. Some examples of agroforestry technologies and intercropping, mixed intercropping, improved fallows, fodder banks, boundary planting. Criteria for choice of MPT for use in agroforestry, MPT evaluation, elimination and provenance tests, management and technology trials, prototype tests Practical requirement: (i) One week D and D exercises in the field and 3 days data analysis. (ii) Field visits to agroforestry areas to see existing Agroforestry systems. (1 week) FO 611 Silviculture (2.0 credit hours) Forest tree seed; plant production, storage and transport; land preparation, spacing, planting, fertilization, weeding, plant protection, pruning, thinning, yield and wood quality, silvicultural systems; agroforestry and multiple use forestry; establishment and management of nursery and field experiments in silviculture. FO 612 Tropical vegetation and Plant Ecology (1.5 credit hours) The ecological basis of natural resource management. The vegetation types of tropical Africa , their ecology and interrelationships. Theories of plant association, introduction to sampling and vegetation analysis, climatic, edaphic and biotic factors; their interrelationships and influence on tree growth and development. Role of fire in vegetation development and land management. 3. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ENGINEERING FO 621 Harvesting Systems (1.8 credit hours) Cutting, conversion and extraction; equipment, methods and productivity. Interaction between cutting and extraction. Thinning systems. The interaction between terrain and logging methods and equipment. Animal skidding and transport: factors affecting performance of animal pull and power potential, the influence of breed, training and management of animals. Terrain classification, trafficability and mobility. Costs and records. FO 622 Forest Roads and Transportation (1.5 credit hours) Engineering aspects of soil mechanics, description and classification. General planning of road networks. Detailed planning and design of forest roads; location, alignment, gradient, width, curves, camber, surface and subgrade. Road construction and maintenance; equipment, techniques and methods. Design and construction of drainage structures; ditches, culverts and bridges. Transportation by tractor-trailer, truck, rail, water and aerial. Loading and unloading equipment and operations. FO 623 Machine Operating Principles and Maintenance (0.7 credit hours) Fundamental principles and functions of engine parts. Fuel, lubrication, cooling transmission. Hydraulic system and control, electric motors. Sources of power; human, animal, wind, water, electric and solar. Organization of workshop facilities, service and repair routines. FO 624 Forest Work Studies and Ergonomics (1.5 credit hours) Method and time studies. Principles of productivity forecasting. Payment system and incentives. The effect of training; learning curve. Nutrition and physical working capacity, physiology of muscles, anthropometric data and working power, development of better working equipment and methods based on ergonomic principles. Working and resting times. Environmental risk factors; heat stress, noise, vibration and pollution. Accidents and safety measures. 4. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ECONOMICS FO 641 Forest Resource Economics (1.5 credit hours) The concept of resource and their rational utilization. Natural resources of Eastern Africa and the world. Theories of economic growth and development. Elements of welfare and environmental economics. Timber production economics. Non timber production economics, including water and recreation. Multiple land use analysis. Multiplier aspects of forestry programmes. FO 642 Forecasts and Consumption Surveys (1.5 credit hours) A detailed study of methodologies involved in forecasting including qualitative techniques, time series analysis and causal models. Examination of data sources, reliability of statistics and forecast accuracy. Choice of forecasting technique. Long and short term forecasts of supply, demand, consumption and trade in forest products at national and global levels. A study of methodologies involved in execution of forest products consumption surveys and solutions to likely field problems. Case studies in forestry. FO 643 Applied Quantitative Techniques (2.5 credit hours) Probability theory and decision making under uncertainty, including Bayers’ Theorem. Mathematical programming techniques such as linear programming, goal programming and simulation as related to production, harvesting, processing, distribution and other management aspects. Input-output, benefi/cost, and material flow analyses. Regression analysis, simultaneous and recursive equation models in forestry. Systems theory and inventory models. Case studies in forest and forest industries. 5. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST MENSURATION AND MANAGEMENT FO 631 Advanced Crop Mensuration (2.7 credit hours) Theory and practice of volume table construction, including principles and applications of simple linear regression, transformations, multiple linear regression, taper tables and compatible volume tables. Growth modelling including site assessment by vegetation association, soil and environmental factors, crop growth modelling techniques in even- aged stands and uneven-aged multi-species forestry, effect of management practices on growth and yield prediction. Sampling theory and application in forest inventory; subjective and objective designs, sampling with equal and unequal probabilities and with probability proportional to prediction, unrestricted random, cluster, stratified random and multistage sampling design. Principles and practices in forest inventory in tropical high forest, miombo woodlands, mangrove forests, plantations, and in recurrent forest inventory. Range sampling, wildlife population estimates and physical quantification of non-wood products. FO 632 Forest Resources Management (1.5 credit hours) General management theories; scope of forest resources management. Forest policy, multiobjectives and goal formulation. Management of various forest types including urban forestry and recreational areas. Socio-economic determination of rotation age and stumpage price. Decision-making processes. Normal forest concept and yield regulation. Forest growth and yield forecasting. Forest project planning. Management information systems and control. Financial management and budgeting. 6. DEPARTMENT OF WOOD UTINLIZATION FO 651 Wood Anatomy and Chemistry (1.3 credit hours) Structure of wood and wood cells. Biosynthesis of wood polysaccharides. Chemical constituents of wood. The chemical constituents of different wood species. Characteristics of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and extractives. Distribution of these constituents in the tree. The influence of characteristics and distribution on the production and properties of solid wood and wood based materials. Laboratory practicals in wood chemistry. FO 652 Physics, Mechanics and Rheology of Wood (2.0 credit hours) Factors affecting wood density. Wood-liquid relations, flow, capillary movement and diffusion as background to wood drying and preservation. Thermal, electrical and acoustical properties of wood. Elasticity and creep. The strength properties of wood and factors affecting them. Laboratory practicals. FO 653 Wood Machining (1.3 credit hours) Technology of sawing, chipless wood cutting, planning, sanding, turning, boring and bending. Degrees of mechanization and automation in the wood machining industry with special emphasis on sawmills. Organisation of inputs and outputs. Seasoning of wood. Optimization of result. Integrated industries. Tour of sawmills. OPTIONAL COURSES 1. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST BIOLOGY FO 605 Special Study in Forest Biology (2.0 credit hours) Assigned reading and discussions within a specialized topic, possibly combined with a field investigation or seminars. Syllabus to be outlined for each student according to interest and in cooperation with the supervisor. FO 613 Wildlife Ecology (1.0 credit hour) The interrelationships of wild animals and environment with special reference to forestry and agriculture. The dynamics of wildlife populations. The niche concept of large animal adaptation. Methods of studying wildlife numbers and distribution. Concepts of territory, space and habitats and animal numbers. Ecological research methods and the interdependence of management and research. Wildlife management in modern African states. FO 614 Forest Entomology (1.0 credit hour) Identification and classification of insects: morphology and physiology of insects; major forest insect pests in East Africa; population studies and assessment of outbreaks; methods of control, silvicultural, biological, physical and chemical: evaluation of insecticides: identification and control of termites and wood borers of standing trees. FO 615 Forest Pathology (1.0 credit hour) Principles of plant pathology with special reference to forest trees. Identification of major diseases of forest trees in Tanzania. Forecasting and rate of spread. Resistant species, natural defence mechanisms, control through silvicultural practices. Fungicides and their applications, side effects and costs. Biological control. Control by legislation. FO 616 Forest Tree Improvement (2.0 credit hours) The role of forest tree improvement in forestry. Qualitative and quantitative inheritance, evolution and genetic firmness, causes of genetic variation; inbreeding and heterosis; selection, heritability, breeding value, genotype-environment interaction. Interaction between breeding and silvicultural activities; breeding methods; crossing systems for progeny testing, incorporation of breeding goals in species and provenance testing, short and long term breeding, plus tree selection, seedling and clonal seed orchards; design and establishment. Breeding zones; flowering and seed production in seed orchards, clonal forestry; breeding for quality. FO 617 Taxonomy of Tropical Forest Trees and shrubs (2.0 credit hours) Methods of tropical plant taxonomy. Herbarium methodology, modern methods of plant anatomy and cytotaxonomy. Detailed descriptions of families with emphasis on trees and shrubs important in East African forestry (a total of 90families) FO 618 Forest Influences and Watershed Management 2.0 credit hours) On climate, water and soil. The influence of various land use practices on the quantity and quality of water. Management of forest land for water yield, stabilization of stream flow and soils, reduction of sedimentation and general improvement of environment. Preparation and analysis of hydrological data. Water balance models. FO 619 Forest Soils (1.5 credit hours) Concepts of forest soils. The forest floor. Forest soil biology. Physical and chemical properties of forest soils. Soil water. Forest site productivity. Mapping forest soils. Tree nutrition. Nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Forest fertilization. Biological N-fixation. Waste disposal. Nursery soil management. Seed orchard soils. Management of problem soils. FO 620 Tree Physiology (1.5 credit hours) Physiology of tree growth and development. Significance of water, nutrient supply and plant growth substances in the growth and development of trees. Photosynthesis, respiration, translocation of nutrients, water relations, ionic relations. Responses of woody plants to environmental stress. 2. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ENGINEERING. FO 625 Forest Engineering Quantitative Methods (1.5 credit hours) Planning tolls for advanced planning. The use of mathematical programming in solving timber harvesting problems; linear, goal, integer and dynamic programming, simulation, network analysis, critical path methods, transportation models and non- linear programming. Regression analysis, inventory and replacement models. FO 626 Design of Structures (1.0 credit hours) Drawing of structures; format and projections. Freehand drawing in orthographic and isometric projections. Design of machine components and simple assemblies. Joining of structural materials like timber and steel. Properties of materials, selection and evaluation of materials for columns, trusses, walls and roofing. Structural design of buildings and construction techniques. FO 627 Special study in Forest Engineering (2.0 credit hours) Assigned reading and discussions on a topic of interest to the student. Field excursion or seminar to supplement class work. Collection of literature in preparation for research proposal. 3. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ECONOMICS FO 644 Administration (1.0 credit hour) Elements of organizational theory. Systems structure, processes and functions. Selected administrative problems. Bureaucratization, decentralization, incentives in socialistic production, workers participation in management, corruption and nepotism. Financial regulation. Communication. Organization cultures. FO 645 Marketing (1.5 credit hors) Marketing and the economy. Marketing systems. Market analysis. Product planning and development. Promotional activities. Pricing. Distribution structures. Marketing research. Evolution of marketing concept in forestry. International trade in forest products. Marketing organisation in selected countries including exporting and importing procedures including exporting and importing procedures FO 646 Project Planning and Evaluation (2.0 credit hours) Financial and economic analyses. Project plans and designs. Evaluation of project inputs and outputs. Use of accounting prices. Risk analysis. Employment, income distribution and balance of payment effects. Criteria in project evaluation and selection. Financing. Project presentation. Case studies in forest, forest industries and water shed projects. FO 647 Special Study in Forest Economics (2 credit hours) Assigned reading and discussion within a specialized topic, combined with a field investigation or seminars where applicable. Syllabus to be outlined for each student according to interest and in cooperation with the supervisor. 4. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST MENSURATION AND MANAGEMENT FO 633 Remote sensing in Forestry (2.0 credit hours) Introduction to remote sensing. Elements of photographic systems. Aerial photos and photo interpretation including Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Photogrametry. Thermal and multispectral scanning. Microwave sensing. Remote sensing in forest resource assessment including rangelands. FO 634 Forest Industries Management (1.5 credit hours) Introduction to industrial management. Forest industries in economic development. Industrial strategies for Tanzania. Choice of technology, technological dependence and appropriate technology for forest industries. Characteristics and structure of forest industries. Development planning for forest industries including factory location, layout and material handling. Investment analysis and financing. Organization and management of forest industries. Production management. Maintenance and management. Trade and commercial law. Operational planning, budgeting and control systems. Industrial relations and work force. Environmental effects of forest industries. Case studies. FO 635 Quantitative Techniques in Planning (2.5 credit hours) Introduction to quantitative analysis. Quantitative modelling. Management decision process utilizing quantitative models; use and application of modelling techniques, decision theory; operations research and simulation to the analysis and solution of forest and forest industries problems such as inventory control, capital budgeting, resource allocation, land use planning, and distribution in production, harvesting and extraction, processing and marketing, use of financial and socio economic analysis techniques; statistical decision theory, systems theory; linear, goal, dynamic and integer programming, decision trees, PERT, critical path method, transportation and assignment models, Queuing theory, game theory, inventory and replacement models, input-output model, regression, simulation analysis and financial analysis. Case studies. FO 636 Forestry in Rural Development (2,5 credit hours) Introduction to rural development. Rural communities and their economies. Forestry in land use and rural development including shifting cultivation and pastoralism. Farming systems. Community forestry production systems. Rural development strategies. Social surveys and rural needs assessment. Decentralization and people’s participation. Tragedy of the commons. Rural sociology and forest extension. Natural resource conservation at a village level. Appropriate technology. Rural social services and rural urban migration. Land evaluation, land suitability and capability. Women in village forestry. Rural development planning; concepts of integrated land use, multiple use and conflicts in land use. Village project identification, design, implementation, monitoring, post evaluation and financing with emphasis on village forestry. Application of operations research in rural development problems with special reference to village forestry. Case studies. FO 637 Human Resource Management (1.5 credit hours) Strategic human resource planning. Recruitment and selection. Socialization into an organization. Concepts of training and career development. Human assets framework. Annual performance assessment. Employee safety and health. Labour relations. Labour law and unions. FO 638 Special Study in Forest Mensuration and Management (2.0 credit hours) Assigned reading and discussion within a specialized topic, combined with a field investigation or seminars where applicable. Syllabus to be outlined for each student according to interest and in cooperation with the supervisor. 5. DEPARTMENT OF WOOD UTILIZATION FO 654 Wood Preservation and Modified Wood (1.0 credit hour) Biological deterioration of wood. Natural durability of wood. Preservation against attack by organisms, fire, chemicals and weathering. Preservative treatment methods. Dimension stabilization of wood. Densified wood. Adhesives and gluing of wood. Uses of preservatives in treated and modified wood and their role in traditional and modern constructions. FO 655 Technology of Wood Based Panels (1.5 credit hours) Definition of the various wood based panels. The suitability of various tree species as raw materials for the different panels. Production, properties, testing and uses of veneer, plywood, fibreboard and particleboard. Short discussion on blockboard, wood wool cement board and other minor board types. Plant size and integration with other wood based industries. Visits to industries. FO 656 Pulp and Paper Technology (1.5 credit hours) Different tree species suitability as raw materials for pulp and pulp from waste paper and form material other than wood. Pulping, mechanical, chemi mechanical, semi chemical an chemical methods. Paper manufacture, paper properties and testing of paper. Dissolving pulp production and uses. Pulp and paper plants, plant size and integration with other wood based industries. Visit to mill. FO 658 Special Study in Wood Utilization (2.0 credit hours) Assigned reading and discussion within a specialized topic, combined with a field investigation or seminars where applicable. Syllabus to be outlined for each student according to interest and in cooperation with the supervisor.