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					   SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE




FACULTY OF FORESTRY AND NATURE CONSERVATION




                CURRICULUM FOR

        MSc. (FORESTRY) DEGREE PROGRAMME




                    May 2009
                MASTER OF SCIENCE IN FORESTRY (MSc. FOR)

12.1.0 NATURE OF THE PROGRAMME

12.1.1 Name of the degree
The degree is called Master of Science in Forestry (MSc. For)

12.1.2 General Information
The regulations and guidelines for higher degree at Sokoine University of Agriculture as
stipulated in the Prospectus and in the “Regulations and Guidelines for higher degrees
apply except where indicated otherwise.

The Master of Science degree in Forestry (MSc. For), is designed to train students for
higher professional positions in the management and administration of forest resources
and wood based industries, for teaching and research in colleges and universities, for
research administration and extension, and assist to foster public relations in public and
private organizations.

The students are admitted to the MSc. (For) programme upon meeting the general
requirements for registration for the degree of Master of Science of Sokoine University of
Agriculture (SUA). Candidates whose first degree is considered deficient in forestry may
be required to take certain specialized courses from the undergraduate forestry
curriculum in addition to the minimum postgraduate requirements.

The programme consists of course work and dissertation. Normally the course work takes
one academic year and a candidate is expected to submit a dissertation usually not later
than twelve months after accomplishing the course work. Internal examinations and
assessments are given on the courses. Satisfactory completion of the course work
qualifies the candidate to continue with the dissertation work. Further details are as per
“Regulation and Guidelines for Higher Degrees at Sokoine University of Agriculture for
Masters Degree”.

Course work normally consists of a minimum of 12 credit hours of course work study. In
addition to the compulsory common core courses at the faculty level, all students are
supposed to take certain prescribed core courses in the department in which they
specialize (Forest Biology, Forest Engineering, Forest Mensuration and Management,
Forest Economics and Wood utilization) together with optional courses related to the
candidate’s field of study.

Courses and special studies from other Faculties/Institutes within Sokoine University of
Agriculture and from other Universities as exemplified by sandwich programmes have to
be approved as partial fulfilment of the course work.

Optional courses and special studies are selected after consultation with a student’s
supervisor or Head of the relevant Department. In the case of sandwich programmes with
another Institution, the approval of Senate is required.
12.2.0 COURSE STRUCTURE AND CONTENTS

All listed courses are given through a combination of lectures, laboratory and field
practical, seminars and field trips. The size of the course is indicated in credit hours, i.e.
one credit hour equals 30 hours of lecture or 60 hours of seminar/practical.

12.2.1 Course structure

                        A. CORE COURSES
1. UNIVERSITY AND FACULTY CORE COURSES
                                                                            Credit hours
     AEE 600           Research Planning and Management                         1.0
     AEA 600           Statistics                                               3.0
     AE 601            Introduction to Programming in Fortran                   1.5
     FO 601            Research Paper and Reports                               0.5
                                                                                6.0
2. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST BIOLOGY
     FO 610     Agroforestry                                                     2.0
     FO 611     Silviculture                                                     2.0
     FO 612     Tropical Vegetation and Plant Ecology                            1.5
                                                                                 5.5
3. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ENGINEERING
     FO 621     Harvesting Systems                                               1.8
     FO 622     Forest Roads                                                     1.5
     FO 623     Machine Operating Principles and                                 0.7
                Maintenance
     FO 624     Forest Work studies and Ergonomics                               1.5
                                                                                 5.5
4. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ECONOMICS
     FO 641     Forest Resource Economics                                        1.5
     FO 642     Forecast and Consumption Surveys                                 1.5
     FO 643     Applied Quantitative Techniques                                  2.5
                                                                                 5.5
5. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST MENSURATION AND MANAGEMENT
     FO 631     Advanced Crop Mensuration          2.7
      FO632     Forest Resource Management         1.5
                                                   4.2
6. DEPARTMENT OF WOOD UTILIZATION
     FO 651     Wood Anatomy and Chemistry         1.3
     FO 652     Physics, Mechanics and Rheology of 2.0
                Wood
     FO 653     Wood Machining                     1.3
                                                   4.6

                                B. OPTIONAL COURSES
DEPARTMENT OF FOREST BIOLOGY
    FO 605     Special Study in Forest Biology           2.0
    FO 613     Wildlife Ecology                          1.0
    FO 614     Forest Entomology                         1.0
    FO 615     Forest Pathology                          1.0
    FO 616     Forest Tree Improvement                   2.0
    FO 617     Taxonomy of Tropical Forest Trees and     2.0
               Shrubs
    FO 618     Forest Influences and Watershed           2.0
               Management
    FO 619     Forest Soils                              1.5
    FO 820     Tree Physiology                           1.5

DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ENGINEERING
    FO 625     Forest Engineering Quantitative Methods   1.5
    FO 626     Design of Structures                      1.0
    FO 627     Special Study in Forest Engineering       2.0

DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ECONOMICS
    FO 644     Administration                            1.0
    FO 645     Marketing                                 1.5
    FO 646     Project Planning and Evaluation           2.0
    FO 647     Special Study in Forest Economics         2.0

DEPARTMENT OF FOREST MENSURATION AND MANAGEMENT
    FO 633     Remote Sensing in Forestry                2.0
    FO634      Forest Industries Management              1.5
    FO 635     Quantitative Techniques in Planning       2.5
    FO 636     Forestry in Rural Development             2.5
    FO 637     Human Resource Management                 1.5
    FO 638     Special Study in Forest Mensuration and   2.0
               Management

DEPARTMENT OF WOOD UTILIZATION
    FO 654     Wood Preservation and Modified Wood       1.0
    FO 655     Technology of Wood Based Panels           1.5
    FO 656     Pulp and Paper Technology                 1.5
    FO 657     Wood Fuel and other Forest Produce        1.0
    FO 658     Special Study in Wood utilization         2.0


12.2.2 Course contents

   1. UNIVERSITY AND FACULTY CORE COURSES
EE 600         Research Planning and Management (1.0 credit hour)
               See 3.2.2


AEA 600        Statistics (3.0 credit hours)
               See 1.2.2


AE 601          Introduction to Programming in Fortran (1.5 credit hours)
Fundamental computer concepts: the Micro-computer revolution. Computer and program.
Computer organisation. Input/output devices. Terminals. The FORTRAN language; high
level languages, FORTRAN lines, compilers and interpreters. Algorithms. Integer and
real arithmetic. Variables, expressions and the assignment statement; Rules of
precedence. Library functions. Input and output format, free input, format statements and
specifications. Decision and control: program flow. GO TO and IF statements. The STOP
statement. Loops: The DO statement; Do loops, Nested loops. Valid and invalid loop
structures; Subscripted variables; Arrays. The DIMENSION statement; Array and Loops.
Permissible subscript forms. Matrices; Input/output of arrays. The implied DO loop.
Subprograms: Functions and Subroutines; passing arrays as arguments to subprograms.
Declarations; Implicit and explicit typing. COMMON and EQUIVALENCE statements.
The DATA initialisation statement.Character manipulation. Character storage. Files;
Sequential and direct files. Reading and writing sequential files. Binary files. Reading
and writing direct files.


FO 601         Research Papers and Reports (0.5 credit hour)
Formal organization of various types of written reports. Use of library services. Oral
presentation of subject matter in comprehensive form. Use of audio-visual aids.
Preparation of reports and papers for publication.



   2. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST BIOLOGY


FO 610          Agroforestry (2.0 credit hours)
Concepts of agroforestry, agrosilvicultural systems, silvipastoral systems,
agrosilvipastoral systems. Multipurpose trees (MPT), definitions; quantitative and
qualitative benefits of MPT including microclimatological effects, biological benefits,
nutrient relations, symbiotic relationships with V.A. mycorrhizae, rhizobia etc. Negative
interactions between trees and crops, concept of tree, crop interface, competition,
allelopathy. Some examples of agroforestry systems in the tropics; the Kilimanjaro
agroforestry system, structure and function of the systems. Introduction to land
evaluation, and farming systems. The concept of D and D. Practicals in D and D analysis.
Some examples of agroforestry technologies and intercropping, mixed intercropping,
improved fallows, fodder banks, boundary planting. Criteria for choice of MPT for use in
agroforestry, MPT evaluation, elimination and provenance tests, management and
technology trials, prototype tests

Practical requirement:

   (i)     One week D and D exercises in the field and 3 days data analysis.
   (ii)    Field visits to agroforestry areas to see existing Agroforestry systems. (1
           week)


FO 611           Silviculture (2.0 credit hours)
Forest tree seed; plant production, storage and transport; land preparation, spacing,
planting, fertilization, weeding, plant protection, pruning, thinning, yield and wood
quality, silvicultural systems; agroforestry and multiple use forestry; establishment and
management of nursery and field experiments in silviculture.


FO 612          Tropical vegetation and Plant Ecology (1.5 credit hours)
The ecological basis of natural resource management. The vegetation types of tropical
Africa , their ecology and interrelationships. Theories of plant association, introduction to
sampling and vegetation analysis, climatic, edaphic and biotic factors; their
interrelationships and influence on tree growth and development. Role of fire in
vegetation development and land management.


   3. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ENGINEERING


FO 621        Harvesting Systems (1.8 credit hours)
Cutting, conversion and extraction; equipment, methods and productivity. Interaction
between cutting and extraction. Thinning systems. The interaction between terrain and
logging methods and equipment. Animal skidding and transport: factors affecting
performance of animal pull and power potential, the influence of breed, training and
management of animals. Terrain classification, trafficability and mobility. Costs and
records.


FO 622          Forest Roads and Transportation (1.5 credit hours)
Engineering aspects of soil mechanics, description and classification. General planning of
road networks. Detailed planning and design of forest roads; location, alignment,
gradient, width, curves, camber, surface and subgrade. Road construction and
maintenance; equipment, techniques and methods. Design and construction of drainage
structures; ditches, culverts and bridges.

Transportation by tractor-trailer, truck, rail, water and aerial. Loading and unloading
equipment and operations.
FO 623          Machine Operating Principles and Maintenance (0.7 credit hours)
Fundamental principles and functions of engine parts. Fuel, lubrication, cooling
transmission. Hydraulic system and control, electric motors. Sources of power; human,
animal, wind, water, electric and solar. Organization of workshop facilities, service and
repair routines.


FO 624          Forest Work Studies and Ergonomics (1.5 credit hours)
Method and time studies. Principles of productivity forecasting. Payment system and
incentives. The effect of training; learning curve. Nutrition and physical working
capacity, physiology of muscles, anthropometric data and working power, development
of better working equipment and methods based on ergonomic principles. Working and
resting times. Environmental risk factors; heat stress, noise, vibration and pollution.
Accidents and safety measures.


   4. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ECONOMICS

FO 641         Forest Resource Economics (1.5 credit hours)
The concept of resource and their rational utilization. Natural resources of Eastern Africa
and the world. Theories of economic growth and development. Elements of welfare and
environmental economics. Timber production economics. Non timber production
economics, including water and recreation. Multiple land use analysis. Multiplier aspects
of forestry programmes.


FO 642           Forecasts and Consumption Surveys (1.5 credit hours)
A detailed study of methodologies involved in forecasting including qualitative
techniques, time series analysis and causal models. Examination of data sources,
reliability of statistics and forecast accuracy. Choice of forecasting technique. Long and
short term forecasts of supply, demand, consumption and trade in forest products at
national and global levels. A study of methodologies involved in execution of forest
products consumption surveys and solutions to likely field problems. Case studies in
forestry.


FO 643         Applied Quantitative Techniques (2.5 credit hours)
Probability theory and decision making under uncertainty, including Bayers’ Theorem.
Mathematical programming techniques such as linear programming, goal programming
and simulation as related to production, harvesting, processing, distribution and other
management aspects. Input-output, benefi/cost, and material flow analyses. Regression
analysis, simultaneous and recursive equation models in forestry. Systems theory and
inventory models. Case studies in forest and forest industries.
   5. DEPARTMENT OF FOREST MENSURATION AND MANAGEMENT

FO 631          Advanced Crop Mensuration (2.7 credit hours)
Theory and practice of volume table construction, including principles and applications
of simple linear regression, transformations, multiple linear regression, taper tables and
compatible volume tables. Growth modelling including site assessment by vegetation
association, soil and environmental factors, crop growth modelling techniques in even-
aged stands and uneven-aged multi-species forestry, effect of management practices on
growth and yield prediction. Sampling theory and application in forest inventory;
subjective and objective designs, sampling with equal and unequal probabilities and with
probability proportional to prediction, unrestricted random, cluster, stratified random and
multistage sampling design. Principles and practices in forest inventory in tropical high
forest, miombo woodlands, mangrove forests, plantations, and in recurrent forest
inventory. Range sampling, wildlife population estimates and physical quantification of
non-wood products.


FO 632         Forest Resources Management (1.5 credit hours)
General management theories; scope of forest resources management. Forest policy,
multiobjectives and goal formulation. Management of various forest types including
urban forestry and recreational areas. Socio-economic determination of rotation age and
stumpage price. Decision-making processes. Normal forest concept and yield regulation.
Forest growth and yield forecasting. Forest project planning. Management information
systems and control. Financial management and budgeting.


   6. DEPARTMENT OF WOOD UTINLIZATION

FO 651          Wood Anatomy and Chemistry (1.3 credit hours)
Structure of wood and wood cells. Biosynthesis of wood polysaccharides. Chemical
constituents of wood. The chemical constituents of different wood species.
Characteristics of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and extractives. Distribution of these
constituents in the tree. The influence of characteristics and distribution on the production
and properties of solid wood and wood based materials. Laboratory practicals in wood
chemistry.


FO 652          Physics, Mechanics and Rheology of Wood (2.0 credit hours)
Factors affecting wood density. Wood-liquid relations, flow, capillary movement and
diffusion as background to wood drying and preservation.
Thermal, electrical and acoustical properties of wood. Elasticity and creep. The strength
properties of wood and factors affecting them. Laboratory practicals.


FO 653         Wood Machining (1.3 credit hours)
Technology of sawing, chipless wood cutting, planning, sanding, turning, boring and
bending. Degrees of mechanization and automation in the wood machining industry with
special emphasis on sawmills. Organisation of inputs and outputs. Seasoning of wood.
Optimization of result. Integrated industries. Tour of sawmills.



                                OPTIONAL COURSES

   1.   DEPARTMENT OF FOREST BIOLOGY

   FO 605 Special Study in Forest Biology (2.0 credit hours)
   Assigned reading and discussions within a specialized topic, possibly combined with
   a field investigation or seminars. Syllabus to be outlined for each student according to
   interest and in cooperation with the supervisor.


   FO 613 Wildlife Ecology (1.0 credit hour)
   The interrelationships of wild animals and environment with special reference to
   forestry and agriculture. The dynamics of wildlife populations. The niche concept of
   large animal adaptation. Methods of studying wildlife numbers and distribution.
   Concepts of territory, space and habitats and animal numbers. Ecological research
   methods and the interdependence of management and research. Wildlife management
   in modern African states.


   FO 614 Forest Entomology (1.0 credit hour)
   Identification and classification of insects: morphology and physiology of insects;
   major forest insect pests in East Africa; population studies and assessment of
   outbreaks; methods of control, silvicultural, biological, physical and chemical:
   evaluation of insecticides: identification and control of termites and wood borers of
   standing trees.


   FO 615 Forest Pathology (1.0 credit hour)
   Principles of plant pathology with special reference to forest trees. Identification of
   major diseases of forest trees in Tanzania. Forecasting and rate of spread. Resistant
   species, natural defence mechanisms, control through silvicultural practices.
   Fungicides and their applications, side effects and costs. Biological control. Control
   by legislation.


   FO 616 Forest Tree Improvement (2.0 credit hours)
   The role of forest tree improvement in forestry. Qualitative and quantitative
   inheritance, evolution and genetic firmness, causes of genetic variation; inbreeding
   and heterosis; selection, heritability, breeding value, genotype-environment
interaction. Interaction between breeding and silvicultural activities; breeding
methods; crossing systems for progeny testing, incorporation of breeding goals in
species and provenance testing, short and long term breeding, plus tree selection,
seedling and clonal seed orchards; design and establishment. Breeding zones;
flowering and seed production in seed orchards, clonal forestry; breeding for quality.


FO 617 Taxonomy of Tropical Forest Trees and shrubs (2.0 credit hours)
Methods of tropical plant taxonomy. Herbarium methodology, modern methods of
plant anatomy and cytotaxonomy. Detailed descriptions of families with emphasis on
trees and shrubs important in East African forestry (a total of 90families)


FO 618 Forest Influences and Watershed Management 2.0 credit hours)
On climate, water and soil. The influence of various land use practices on the quantity
and quality of water. Management of forest land for water yield, stabilization of
stream flow and soils, reduction of sedimentation and general improvement of
environment. Preparation and analysis of hydrological data. Water balance models.


FO 619 Forest Soils (1.5 credit hours)
Concepts of forest soils. The forest floor. Forest soil biology. Physical and chemical
properties of forest soils. Soil water. Forest site productivity. Mapping forest soils.
Tree nutrition. Nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Forest fertilization. Biological
N-fixation. Waste disposal. Nursery soil management. Seed orchard soils.
Management of problem soils.


FO 620 Tree Physiology (1.5 credit hours)
Physiology of tree growth and development. Significance of water, nutrient supply
and plant growth substances in the growth and development of trees. Photosynthesis,
respiration, translocation of nutrients, water relations, ionic relations. Responses of
woody plants to environmental stress.


2.   DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ENGINEERING.

FO 625 Forest Engineering Quantitative Methods (1.5 credit hours)
Planning tolls for advanced planning. The use of mathematical programming in
solving timber harvesting problems; linear, goal, integer and dynamic programming,
simulation, network analysis, critical path methods, transportation models and non-
linear programming. Regression analysis, inventory and replacement models.


FO 626     Design of Structures (1.0 credit hours)
Drawing of structures; format and projections. Freehand drawing in orthographic and
isometric projections. Design of machine components and simple assemblies. Joining
of structural materials like timber and steel. Properties of materials, selection and
evaluation of materials for columns, trusses, walls and roofing. Structural design of
buildings and construction techniques.


FO 627 Special study in Forest Engineering (2.0 credit hours)
Assigned reading and discussions on a topic of interest to the student. Field excursion
or seminar to supplement class work. Collection of literature in preparation for
research proposal.


3.   DEPARTMENT OF FOREST ECONOMICS

FO 644 Administration (1.0 credit hour)
Elements of organizational theory. Systems structure, processes and functions.
Selected administrative problems. Bureaucratization, decentralization, incentives in
socialistic production, workers participation in management, corruption and
nepotism. Financial regulation. Communication. Organization cultures.


FO 645 Marketing (1.5 credit hors)
Marketing and the economy. Marketing systems. Market analysis. Product planning
and development. Promotional activities. Pricing. Distribution structures. Marketing
research. Evolution of marketing concept in forestry. International trade in forest
products. Marketing organisation in selected countries including exporting and
importing procedures including exporting and importing procedures


FO 646 Project Planning and Evaluation (2.0 credit hours)
Financial and economic analyses. Project plans and designs. Evaluation of project
inputs and outputs. Use of accounting prices. Risk analysis. Employment, income
distribution and balance of payment effects. Criteria in project evaluation and
selection. Financing. Project presentation. Case studies in forest, forest industries and
water shed projects.


FO 647 Special Study in Forest Economics (2 credit hours)
Assigned reading and discussion within a specialized topic, combined with a field
investigation or seminars where applicable. Syllabus to be outlined for each student
according to interest and in cooperation with the supervisor.


4.   DEPARTMENT OF FOREST MENSURATION AND MANAGEMENT
FO 633 Remote sensing in Forestry (2.0 credit hours)
Introduction to remote sensing. Elements of photographic systems. Aerial photos and
photo interpretation including Geographical Information Systems (GIS).
Photogrametry. Thermal and multispectral scanning. Microwave sensing. Remote
sensing in forest resource assessment including rangelands.


FO 634 Forest Industries Management (1.5 credit hours)
Introduction to industrial management. Forest industries in economic development.
Industrial strategies for Tanzania. Choice of technology, technological dependence
and appropriate technology for forest industries. Characteristics and structure of
forest industries. Development planning for forest industries including factory
location, layout and material handling. Investment analysis and financing.
Organization and management of forest industries. Production management.
Maintenance and management. Trade and commercial law. Operational planning,
budgeting and control systems. Industrial relations and work force. Environmental
effects of forest industries. Case studies.


FO 635 Quantitative Techniques in Planning (2.5 credit hours)
Introduction to quantitative analysis. Quantitative modelling. Management decision
process utilizing quantitative models; use and application of modelling techniques,
decision theory; operations research and simulation to the analysis and solution of
forest and forest industries problems such as inventory control, capital budgeting,
resource allocation, land use planning, and distribution in production, harvesting and
extraction, processing and marketing, use of financial and socio economic analysis
techniques; statistical decision theory, systems theory; linear, goal, dynamic and
integer programming, decision trees, PERT, critical path method, transportation and
assignment models, Queuing theory, game theory, inventory and replacement
models, input-output model, regression, simulation analysis and financial analysis.
Case studies.


FO 636 Forestry in Rural Development (2,5 credit hours)
Introduction to rural development. Rural communities and their economies. Forestry
in land use and rural development including shifting cultivation and pastoralism.
Farming systems. Community forestry production systems. Rural development
strategies. Social surveys and rural needs assessment. Decentralization and people’s
participation. Tragedy of the commons. Rural sociology and forest extension.
Natural resource conservation at a village level. Appropriate technology. Rural
social services and rural urban migration. Land evaluation, land suitability and
capability. Women in village forestry. Rural development planning; concepts of
integrated land use, multiple use and conflicts in land use. Village project
identification, design, implementation, monitoring, post evaluation and financing
with emphasis on village forestry. Application of operations research in rural
development problems with special reference to village forestry. Case studies.
FO 637 Human Resource Management (1.5 credit hours)
Strategic human resource planning. Recruitment and selection. Socialization into an
organization. Concepts of training and career development. Human assets
framework. Annual performance assessment. Employee safety and health. Labour
relations. Labour law and unions.


FO 638 Special Study in Forest Mensuration and Management (2.0 credit
hours)
Assigned reading and discussion within a specialized topic, combined with a field
investigation or seminars where applicable. Syllabus to be outlined for each student
according to interest and in cooperation with the supervisor.


5.   DEPARTMENT OF WOOD UTILIZATION

FO 654 Wood Preservation and Modified Wood (1.0 credit hour)
Biological deterioration of wood. Natural durability of wood. Preservation against
attack by organisms, fire, chemicals and weathering. Preservative treatment
methods. Dimension stabilization of wood. Densified wood. Adhesives and gluing of
wood. Uses of preservatives in treated and modified wood and their role in
traditional and modern constructions.


FO 655 Technology of Wood Based Panels (1.5 credit hours)
Definition of the various wood based panels. The suitability of various tree species
as raw materials for the different panels. Production, properties, testing and uses of
veneer, plywood, fibreboard and particleboard. Short discussion on blockboard,
wood wool cement board and other minor board types. Plant size and integration
with other wood based industries. Visits to industries.


FO 656 Pulp and Paper Technology (1.5 credit hours)
Different tree species suitability as raw materials for pulp and pulp from waste paper
and form material other than wood. Pulping, mechanical, chemi mechanical, semi
chemical an chemical methods. Paper manufacture, paper properties and testing of
paper. Dissolving pulp production and uses. Pulp and paper plants, plant size and
integration with other wood based industries. Visit to mill.


FO 658 Special Study in Wood Utilization (2.0 credit hours)
Assigned reading and discussion within a specialized topic, combined with a field
investigation or seminars where applicable. Syllabus to be outlined for each student
according to interest and in cooperation with the supervisor.

				
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