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YEAR 7 UNIT 7F SIMPLE CHEMICAL REACTIONS

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YEAR 7 UNIT 7F SIMPLE CHEMICAL REACTIONS Powered By Docstoc
					                       YEAR 8 – CHEMISTRY SCHEMES OF WORK

The chemistry modules have ten lessons and then eight lessons assigned to them, giving 18
lessons for the chemistry rotation. Two lessons of Sc. 1 have been incorporated into the Scheme
of work and one lesson has been assigned to the two module test.

Exploring Science 2 worksheets: C8 Target/Word and summary sheets can be distributed to
help pupils with the course.


8G & 8H WEATHERING AND THE ROCK CYCLE

       LESSON                                LESSON TOPIC
       NUMBER
          1                     Introduction into types of rock weathering
          2                     Types of rock weathering (continued) (Sc 1)
          3                     What happens to weathered pieces of rock?
          4                    Identifying the different types of rocks (Sc 1)
          5                           How are igneous rocks formed?
          6            An experiment to investigate the formation of crystals in rocks
                                                    (Sc 1)
            7                      How are sedimentary rocks formed?
            8                      How are metamorphic rocks formed?
            9                                  The rock cycle
           10             The different rock structures found in the Earth’s crust


Exploring Science 9 worksheets: GC Target/Word and summary sheets can be distributed to
help pupils with the course.

9G ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

       LESSON                                LESSON TOPIC
       NUMBER
          1                     Acids, alkalis and neutral substances (Sc 1)
          2                                 Neutralisation (Sc1)
          3                     Investigating the pH of soil samples (Sc 1)
          4              The causes and the effects of acid rain on the environment
          5                           History and theory of burning
          6                            The effects of global warming
          7                                Monitoring pollution
          8                                     Module test




                                               1
             YEAR 8: UNIT 8G & 8H WEATHERING AND THE ROCK CYCLE

LESSON 1 – Introduction into types of rock weathering

Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
    terms ‘Physical weathering’, ‘Heating and cooling’, ‘Freeze-thawing’ and ‘Erosion’ and their
        effects on rocks
    That when physical weathering happens, no new substance is made
    About examples of where physical weathering occurs i.e. deserts, mountain peaks

KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2f, 2k & Sc3 1g, 2d-g

KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
    about particle arrangements in ‘solids, liquids and gases’ module
    about reactions of acids and carbonates in ‘atoms, elements and compounds’ module

Suggested Teaching Activities

Starter Activity
Introduce the two Chemistry modules being taught as ‘Weathering and rock cycle’ and
‘Environmental chemistry’. Ask pupils what the term ‘Weathering’ means.

      Show pupils large pieces of rocks and ask them how weathering could break down the rocks
       into small pieces. Write ideas on the board. Pupils are to use this information to write a title
       page in their exercise books.

Core Activity
    Teacher to demonstrate to pupils the effects of heating and cooling by heating up a piece of
      marble/limestone and then after heating the marble piece crumbles into smaller pieces. The
      heating and cooling of metal ball and ring could be used to show expansion and contraction.
      Ask pupils their ideas about what happens to rocks in desert areas and explain why it occurs.
    Two plastic beakers, both with 100ml of water – one beaker should have been frozen and the
      other kept at room temperature. The beakers could be used to show expansion of water due to
      freezing. Pupils could be asked to predict what would happen to the water/ice level in the
      beakers. A comparison of the beaker that has been frozen with the beaker containing water
      could be shown to pupils. Ask pupils about what happens when water gets into rock cracks and
      how it causes weathering.
    Introduce the terms, ‘freeze-thawing’, ‘heating and cooling’ and ‘erosion’ in rocks and explain
      that these are types of physical weathering.
    Pupils could be asked to arrange diagrams and information about sequences of both types of
      weathering (freeze-thawing and heating and cooling)
    Ask pupils why mountaineers climbing mountains start early in the morning and try to
      complete their climb on mountain faces before midday. Also, ask pupils to explain why rock
      falls are a major hazard to climbing.
    Pupils can answer questions from Exploring Science book : P93/94 C8a ‘Out in all weather’
    Pupils can complete worksheet Hodder Science B 8.4 ‘Country rain and town rain’, 8.4
      ‘Volcanic beach party?’
    Pupils can answer questions from Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8a/6 ‘Heating and
      cooling’, C8a/4 ‘Physical or chemical weathering?’


                                                  2
Plenary
    Pupils will carry out Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 52 ‘How are rocks broken
      into small pieces’ on OHP transparency

Safety/Risk Assessment
Goggles must be worn during the heating of the marble pieces and metal ball.

Resources
2 plastic beakers – one with 100ml of water and the other ice, metal ball and ring, Bunsen burner,
safety mat, matches, marble/limestone pieces, gauze, tripod, tongs, watch glass

OHP and transparency
Exploring Science book 2: P93/94 C8a ‘Out in all weather’
Exploring Science 2 worksheets: C8a/6 ‘Heating and cooling’, C8a/4 ‘Physical or chemical
weathering?’
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 52 ‘How are rocks broken into small pieces’ on OHP
transparency
Hodder Science B 8.4 ‘Country rain and town rain’, 8.4 ‘Volcanic beach party?’

Homework
Pupils are to complete Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8a/5 ‘Out in all weather’

Additional Notes/Differentiation
Water expanding when it freezes can be demonstrated using a glass bottle full of water being put into
a freezer.
More able pupils could soak a porous rock in a saturated salt solution and then examine it when it has
been allowed to dry to observe the crystals in the pores. This can lead to a discussion about how the
salt could be removed. In addition, a digital camera could be used to create a time-lapse sequence
showing a number of saturation – drying cycles on the rock sample. Pupils could examine the size and
shape of fragments that are formed and discuss how the growth of salt crystals breaks down the rock.

Associated Skills

Communication          *
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy       *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation     * (Observing, Analysing)




                                                  3
             YEAR 8: UNIT 8G & 8H WEATHERING AND THE ROCK CYCLE

LESSON 2 –Types of rock weathering (continued)

Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
    The terms ‘Chemical weathering’, ‘Biological weathering’ and ‘Erosion’
    About chemical weathering such as acid rain and its effects on rocks
    About biological weathering and its effects on rocks

KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2f, 2k & Sc3 3g, 2d-g, 2i

KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
    About physical weathering in the previous lesson
    About the reaction of carbonates and acid in the ‘Elements & compounds’ module

Suggested Teaching Activities

Starter Activity
    Pupils to explain what the terms ‘Freeze-thaw’ and ‘heating and cooling’ and their effects on
       rocks. Pupils may draw diagrams to help them explain these terms either on the board or in
       their books.

Core Activity
    Teacher demonstration of class practical of reacting rocks with acid. Pupils are given a
      selection of rocks such as limestone, granite, marble, slate, chalk, and sandstone that are
      reacted with drops of sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid. Pupils are to record their observation
      and draw a conclusion of what happens to some rocks when they react with acid or
      OR
      Pupils could conduct experiment ‘What is the best rock for making a statue that will last for
      years?’ using Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8a/1 ‘Best rock statue 1’(Sc1 Observation
      and analysis).
    Teacher discussion on the terms ‘chemical weathering’ and ‘erosion’ as well as examples of
      chemical weathering such as acid rain (Briefly, discuss how acid rain is formed). Show pupils
      photographs/pictures/diagrams of gravestone or buildings effected by acid rain and instruct
      pupils to describe what has happened to them.
    Teacher to introduce the term ‘Biological weathering’ and to discuss/show pictures of rocks
      effected by plants and trees in biological weathering
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science book 2: P90 C7e ‘A burning problem’,
      P92/93 C8a ‘Out in all weathers’
    Pupils are to complete worksheet Hodder B Activity – 8.2 ‘Sorting Rocks’
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8a/4 ‘Physical or
      chemical weathering?’
    Spotlight Science 8 book: P142/143 ‘Erosion’.
Plenary
    Pupils will carry out Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 53 ‘Are rocks affected by acid
      rain?’ on OHP transparency

Safety/Risk Assessment
Pupils are to wear goggles due to the use of acids in class experiment. Pupils are to be instructed to
handle nails carefully when scratching rocks in the hardness test.

                                                  4
Resources
Practical: different types of rock including limestone, marble, chalk, granite, sandstone
Dilute Sulphuric acid, pipettes, tiles, iron nails, balances, plastic beaker, bowel for used rock samples,
paper towels, goggles, lenses
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science book 2: P90 C7e ‘A burning problem’, P92/93 C8a ‘Out in all weathers’
Hodder B Activity – 8.2 ‘Sorting Rocks’, B8E3b ‘Wind Erosion’
Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8a/4 ‘Physical or chemical weathering?’ C8a/1 ‘Best rock statue 1’
C8/a ‘Out in all weathers’
Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 53 ‘Are rocks affected by acid rain?’ on OHP transparency
Spotlight Science 8 book: P142/143 ‘Erosion’.

Homework
Pupils are to complete Hodder B worksheet: B8E4 ‘Acid Rain’/Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8/a
‘Out in all weathers’ or design a leaflet illustrating and explaining the three types of weathering and
their effects on rocks.

Additional Notes/Differentiation
More able pupils could complete the Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8a/3 ‘Mohs Scale of hardness’
Hodder Activity B: B8E3b ‘Wind Erosion’.
A Set of photographs of weathered materials in other environment, would be useful. Possible Internet
website:
www.geo.duke.edu/sched/geopages/geo41/wea.htm
www.geo.duke.edu/sched/geopages/geo41/wea2.htm
http://athena.wednet.edu/curric/land/landform

Associated Skills

Communication          *
Information Technology         *
Citizenship *
Literacy       *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation       * (Observing, Analysing)




                                                    5
             YEAR 8: UNIT 8G & 8H WEATHERING AND THE ROCK CYCLE

LESSON 3 – What happens to weathered pieces of rock?

Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
    about rock fragments becoming sediment grains that are transported by water currents which
        are then deposited
    The smaller sediment grains travel the furthest and the largest grains the shortest distance.
    That the further the sediment grains travel the more rounded and sorted into similar sized
        grains which then deposited

KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2f, 2k & Sc3 3g, 2d-g, 2i

KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
    About the different types of weathering and their effects on rocks

Suggested Teaching Activities

Starter Activity
    Pupils are to observe a teacher demonstration of sediment (a mixture of large and small rock
       grains) in a piece of guttering being washed into a bowel with water at different speeds. Pupils
       are to write observation of where the large and small grains were deposited at the different
       water speeds. Pupils could use Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8b/1 or 2 ‘How far are grains
       carried?’

Core Activity
    Teacher to demonstrate what happens to a mixture of sand, gravel and mud in a river using the
      mixture, water, bowel and a ruler. The demonstration should follow Hodder B Activity
      worksheet: B8S2 ‘Sorting’. Instruct pupils to observe what happens and to answer questions
      from the worksheet.
    Pupils to conduct a short experiment to help their understanding of how different grains
      behave by adding a cup full of mixed sized grains to a jar of water and swirling it around.
      Instruct pupils to observe which grains roll, which bounce and which moved around in the
      suspension (Sc 1 observing, analysing)
    Teacher to discuss with pupils the transportation and deposition of the different sediment
      grains as well as discussing roundness and the similar sized grains deposited down rivers and
      streams.
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science book 2 : P94 C8b ‘Setting down’
    Pupils are to complete Hodder B Activity worksheet: B8S3 ‘Wear and tear’
    Spotlight Science 8 book: P144/145 ‘Settling down’.
Plenary
    Pupils will carry out Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 55 ‘Coal was dumped into the
      sea’ on OHP transparency

Safety/Risk Assessment
Pupils are to wear goggles during sediment demonstrations.

Resources



                                                   6
Demonstration: bowel or trough, water, rubber piping, sediment with a mixture of different sized
grains, pebbles, mixture of sand, gravel and mud in a bowel, beaker, ruler, goggles
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science book 2: P94 C8b ‘Setting down’
Hodder B Activity worksheet: B8S3 ‘Wear and tear’
Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 55 ‘Coal was dumped into the sea’ on OHP transparency
Hodder B Activity worksheet: B8S2 ‘Sorting’
Spotlight Science 8 book: P144/145 ‘Settling down’

Homework
Pupils are to complete Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8b/3 or 4 ‘Moving grains’

Additional Notes/Differentiation

Associated Skills

Communication          *
Information Technology
Citizenship
Literacy       *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation    * (Observing, Analysing)




                                                 7
              YEAR 8: UNIT 8G & 8H WEATHERING AND THE ROCK CYCLE

LESSON 4 – Identifying the different types of rocks (Sc 1)

Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
    About the three types of rocks – igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary
    To know example of each type of rock such as limestone, granite and slate
    How to identify sedimentary rocks by observing their physical appearance
    That rocks are made up of a mixture of mineral grains

KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2f, 2k & Sc3 3g, 2d-g, 2i

KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
    the about how sediments are formed and deposited

Suggested Teaching Activities

Starter Activity
    Pupils are to be given a piece of rock and a hand lens and then asked to describe what they
       observe (different colours of minerals, fossils etc)

Core Activity
    Teacher to discuss with pupils about the three types of rock (sedimentary, igneous and
      metamorphic) and given details of how to identify each type of rock (i.e. sedimentary rocks
      may contain fossils, different types of rock grains etc)
    Pupils are given a variety of rocks and lenses and then instructed to identify which rock type
      they belong to. Pupils are to record results in a table, putting down their reasons for their
      choices (sketches of their observations can also be done)
    Teacher to discuss results with pupils and to draw a conclusion as to which rocks belong to
      each rock type.
    Pupils are to complete worksheet Hodder B Activity: B8S1 ‘Rocks data cards’
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science 9 worksheet: CRb/2 ‘Word search on
      rocks and weathering.
    Pupils are to complete Spotlight Science 8 book: P13136/137 ‘Rock groups’.
Plenary
    Pupils will carry out Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 51 ‘Which rock?’ on OHP
      transparency

Safety/Risk Assessment
Pupils are to handle rocks and lens with care.

Resources

Different types of rocks such as granite, limestone, marble, slate, shale, sandstone, obsidian, basalt etc.
Hand lenses
OHP and transparency
Spotlight Science 8 book: P13136/137 ‘Rock groups’
Exploring Science 9 worksheet: CRb/2 ‘Word search on rocks and weathering.
Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 51 ‘Which rock?’ on OHP transparency
Worksheet Hodder B Activity: B8S1 ‘Rocks data cards’

                                                    8
Homework
Pupils are to complete Hodder B Activity worksheet: 8.1 ‘Rock hunt’

Additional Notes/Differentiation
More able pupils could complete Hodder B activity sheet 8.1 ‘Out in the rain’. Some pupils may not
realise that the term ‘rock’ used by geologist, include materials such as sand, clay and peat as well as
harder materials.

Associated Skills

Communication          *
Information Technology
Citizenship
Literacy       *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation      * (Observing, Analysing)




                                                   9
              YEAR 8: UNIT 8G & 8H WEATHERING AND THE ROCK CYCLE

LESSON 5 – How are igneous rocks formed?

Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
    How igneous rocks are formed near volcanoes
    examples of igneous rocks such as granite and basalt and where they are formed
    the characteristics of igneous rocks i.e. crystals

KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2f, 2k & Sc3 3g, 2d-g, 2i

KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
    some characteristics and examples of igneous rocks

Suggested Teaching Activities

Starter Activity
    Pupils are to look at a variety of igneous rocks using hand lenses. Instruct pupils to describe
       what they observe about the appearance between the different igneous rocks.

Core Activity
    Instruct pupils to record differences and similarities between the different igneous rocks in a
      table (especially crystal sizes).
    Teacher to discuss with pupils about the formation of different igneous rocks near volcanoes
      (granite and basalt) using diagrams and statements on OHP transparencies or board.
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science book 2: P97/98 C8c ‘A river of rock’
    Pupils are to complete worksheet Hodder B Activity: B11E4a ‘Volcano stories’
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science 1 worksheet: C8c/4 ‘Igneous rocks’,
      C8c/3 ‘The changing earth’.
Plenary
    Pupils are identify from a series of diagrams on the OHP transparency/board the igneous rock
      and give reasons why they chose that particular diagram.

Safety/Risk Assessment
Pupils to use hand lenses carefully.

Resources
A variety of igneous rocks such as granite, basalt, obsidian etc.
Hand lenses
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science 1 worksheet: C8c/4 ‘Igneous rocks’, C8c/3 ‘The changing earth’, C8c/5 ‘Mount St
Helens’
Hodder B Activity: B11E4a ‘Volcano stories’
Exploring Science book 2: P97/98 C8c ‘A river of rock’

Homework
Pupils are to complete Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8c/5 ‘Mount St Helens’.




                                                 10
Additional Notes/Differentiation
More able pupils could look at more closely the structure of the Earth and areas on the Earth’s crust
where volcanoes are found. Pupils could research using ICT for information on currently active
volcanoes. They could look at the effects of volcanic eruptions on the local population and the
environment.
www.geo.mtu.edu/volanoes/world.html
www.volcano.und.nodak.edu

Associated Skills

Communication          *
Information Technology       *
Citizenship *
Literacy       *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation     * (Observing, Analysing)




                                                 11
              YEAR 8: UNIT 8G & 8H WEATHERING AND THE ROCK CYCLE

LESSON 6 – An experiment to investigate the formation of crystals in rocks (Sc 1)

Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
    That igneous rocks crystallise form magma
    That the rate of cooling and crystallisation determines the size of the crystals in igneous rock
    How to determine where certain igneous rocks would have formed around a volcano

KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2f, 2k & Sc3 3g, 2d-g, 2i

KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
    About the formation and the characteristics of igneous rocks

Suggested Teaching Activities

Starter Activity
    Pupils to explain how igneous rocks are formed and give examples.

Core Activity
    Teacher demonstration of class practical using Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8c/1 or 2
      ‘Investigating crystal size’ (Sc 1 Observing, Analysing). Pupils are to conduct an experiment
      to investigate the different sized Salol crystals obtained when they cooled down at different
      rates.
    Teacher to discuss results and conclusion with pupils and relate the different sized crystals to
      the regions around a volcano where they would be found in igneous rocks (i.e. basalt and
      granite).
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science book 2: P97 C8c ‘A river of rock’.
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8c/4 ‘Igneous rocks’,
      C8c/3 ‘Changing earth’.
    Pupils are to complete Spotlight Science 8 book: P138 ‘Rocks over time’.
Plenary
    Pupils will carry out Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 58 ‘What can crystals tell us?’
      on OHP transparency

Safety/Risk Assessment
Goggles must be worn during the experiment. Glass slide must be handled with care.

Resources

Salol, water, beaker, (bunsen burner, tripod, safety mat, gauze or alternatively water bath), boiling
tube, slides, pipettes, ice cubes, petri dishes, paper towels

OHP and transparency
Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8c/4 ‘Igneous rocks’, C8c/3 ‘Changing earth’, C8c/1 or 2
‘Investigating crystal size’, C8c/6 ‘A new island’
Exploring Science book 2: P97 C8c ‘A river of rock’
Exploring Science 9 worksheet: CRb/3 ‘Rocks key word’
Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 58 ‘What can crystals tell us?’ on OHP transparency


                                                  12
Homework
Pupils are to complete Exploring Science 9 worksheet: CRb/3 ‘Rocks key word’.

Additional Notes/Differentiation
More able pupils could complete Exploring Science 2 Worksheet: C8c/6 ‘A new island’.

Associated Skills

Communication          *
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy       *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation    * (Observing, Analysing)




                                               13
             YEAR 8: UNIT 8G & 8H WEATHERING AND THE ROCK CYCLE

LESSON 7 – How are sedimentary rocks formed?

Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
    That sedimentary rock can be formed by the pressure of layers of sediment
    the characteristics of sedimentary rock i.e. some contain fossils
    to know examples of sedimentary rock such limestone
    to know differences and similarities between different sedimentary rocks

KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2f, 2k & Sc3 3g, 2d-g, 2i

KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
    about some of the characteristics of the different types of rock
    about sediments found in rivers

Suggested Teaching Activities

Starter Activity
    Instruct pupils to explain what ‘the erosion of a mountain’ means and to explain what caused
       the mountain to erode. A photograph or diagram on the board maybe used.

Core Activity
    Discuss sediment grains and demonstrate using a mixture of sand, gravel and mud in a large
      measuring cylinder to show different layers that have separated out after a period of time (ask
      technician to set up this a few days beforehand).
    Teacher demonstration of the different types of sedimentary rock such as limestone, marble,
      shale and conglomerate. Teacher to discuss with pupils the differences and similarities
      between the rocks. Discuss with pupils about the formation of sedimentary rock (can also use
      different coloured layers of plasticine to represent sediment layers).
    Teacher demonstrations of limestones with acid to show that they contain different amounts of
      calcium carbonate. The amount of carbon dioxide gas could collect in a measuring cylinder
      filled with water over a certain amount of time. Pupils could write observations and conclusion
      to the experiment as well as word equations (could use Hodder B Activity worksheet: B11E1
      ‘Different limestones’.
    Pupils are to put a sequence of statements in the correct places on a diagram of a mountain
      peak, a valley, and a river to show how sedimentary rocks are formed.
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science book 2: P94/95 C8b‘Settling down’,
      P102 C8e ‘soil’.
    Pupils are to complete worksheet Hodder B Activity: 11.2 ‘Making sedimentary rock’.
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science 1 worksheet: C8b/3 ‘Sedimentary
      rock’.
    Spotlight Science 8 book: P140/141 ‘Rock Solid?’
Plenary
    Pupils will ask to put in order a series of diagrams (either on OHP or on the board), which
      show how sedimentary rocks are formed. Pupils could also explain in their own words.
    Pupils will carry out Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 57 ‘Different Limestones’ on
      OHP transparency



                                                 14
Safety/Risk Assessment
Any experiments involving acids then goggles must be worn.

Resources

A mixture of sand, gravel and mud in a large measuring cylinder full of water,
Different pieces of limestone, 2M Hydrochloric acid, pipette, conical flask, trough, delivery tube,
measuring cylinder, timer, balance
A variety of sedimentary rocks such as conglomerate, marble, shale etc
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science 2 Worksheet: C8b/5 ‘Layers of sediment’, C8b/3 ‘Sedimentary rock’.
Hodder B Activity worksheet: 11.2 ‘Making sedimentary rock’, B11E1 ‘Different limestones’
Exploring Science book 2: P94/95 C8b‘Settling down’, P102 C8e ‘soil’.
Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 57 ‘Different Limestones’ on OHP transparency
Spotlight Science 8 book: P140/141 ‘Rock Solid?’

Homework
Pupils are to complete Exploring Science 2 Worksheet: C8b/5 ‘Layers of sediment’.

Additional Notes/Differentiation
More able pupils could be provided with more data about the carbonate content of different limestones
and information about where it was formed (e.g. by accumulation of fossil fragments, by chemical
precipitation). Pupils could then be asked them to generalise about composition and formation.
Alternatively, pupils could use ICT to research further information about sedimentary rocks in terms
of their composition and on how and where they were formed.

Associated Skills

Communication          *
Information Technology       *
Citizenship
Literacy       *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation     * (Observing, Analysing)




                                                 15
             YEAR 8: UNIT 8G & 8H WEATHERING AND THE ROCK CYCLE

LESSON 8 – How are metamorphic rocks formed?

Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
    About the formation of metamorphic rocks within the Earth’s crust
    That the rock changes are due to high heat and pressure experienced by pre-existing rocks
    the examples of metamorphic rocks such as slate and marble and the rocks from which they
        are made from
    about the characteristics of metamorphic rocks

KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2f, 2k & Sc3 3g, 2d-g, 2i

KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
    about some characteristics and names of metamorphic rock in previous lesson.

Suggested Teaching Activities

Starter Activity
    Pupils are to look at a variety of metamorphic rocks using hand lenses. Instruct pupils to
       describe what they observe about the appearance between the different metamorphic rocks.

Core Activity
    Instruct pupils to record differences and similarities between the different metamorphic rocks
      in a table. Pupils are also asked to compare between samples of metamorphic rock and the
      sedimentary rocks from which they were formed e.g. Marble from limestone, slate from shale,
      quartzite from sandstone.
    Teacher to discuss with pupils about the formation of different metamorphic rocks deep
      underground and near volcanoes using diagrams and statements on OHP transparencies or
      board.
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science book 2: P98/99 C8d ‘All Change’.
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8d/3 ‘Metamorphic
      rock’, C8d/1 or 2 ‘Pairs of rocks’
Plenary
    Pupils will carry out Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 56 ‘Changes’ on OHP
      transparency

Safety/Risk Assessment
Handle with care the rocks and hand lenses.

Resources
A variety of metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, marble, slate, quartzite,
Limestone, shale, sandstone, granite
Hand lenses
OHP and transparency
Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 56 ‘Changes’ on OHP transparency
Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8d/3 ‘Metamorphic rock’, C8d/1 or 2 ‘Pairs of rocks’, C8d/5 ‘Slate’,
C8d/4 ‘Diamonds are forever’
Exploring Science book 2: P98/99 C8d ‘All Change’


                                                 16
Homework
Pupils are to complete Exploring Science 2 Worksheet: C8d/5 ‘Slate’.

Additional Notes/Differentiation
More able pupils could do the Exploring Science 2 Worksheet: C8d/4 ‘Diamonds are forever’.

Pupils may not be aware that metamorphism means ‘changing form’. It may be helpful for some
pupils to have processes and types of rocks on cards for them to arrange in order. Metamorphic rock
can be formed from igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic rock, but the changes from sedimentary to
metamorphic rock is more easily seen.

Associated Skills

Communication          *
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy       *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation     * (Observing, Analysing)




                                                17
              YEAR 8: UNIT 8G & 8H WEATHERING AND THE ROCK CYCLE

LESSON 9 – The rock cycle

Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
    about the formation of the different types of rocks in the rock cycle
    how the rock cycle provides a supply and transformation of the Earth’s material

KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2f, 2k & Sc3 3g, 2d-g, 2i

KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
    the about formation and examples of the different types of rocks from the previous lessons

Suggested Teaching Activities

Starter Activity
    Pupils are given the names of the three different types of rocks and instructed to match them
       up to the correct definitions. They are also instructed to select the correct examples of each
       type of rock.

Core Activity
    Teacher to discuss with pupils the different stages of the rock cycle using OHP
      transparency/board. Pupils are to arrange the statements to the correct parts of the cycle.
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science book 2: P100/101 C8e ‘Rolling on’
    Pupils are to complete worksheet Hodder B Activity:B11S3 ‘Rock Cycle’, 11.1 ‘Identifying
      rocks’, 11.3 ‘Rocks’.
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8e/1 or 2 ‘The rock
      cycle’
Plenary
    Pupils will carry out Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 54, 54a, 54b ‘The Rock cycle’
      on OHP transparency

Safety/Risk Assessment
No risk

Resources

OHP and transparency
Year 8 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 54, 54a, 54b ‘The Rock cycle’ on OHP transparency
Hodder B Activity Worksheets: B11S3 ‘Rock Cycle’, 11.1 ‘Identifying rocks’, and 11.3 ‘Rocks’.
Exploring Science book 2: P100/101 C8e ‘Rolling on’

Homework
Pupils are to design a poster/leaflet on the rock cycle, explaining each stage and giving examples of
rocks that could possibly be there.

Additional Notes/Differentiation
More able pupils could complete Exploring Science book 2: P103 C8e ‘Plate tectonics’ or Hodder B
Activity Worksheets:B11E2a and b, B11E2a.


                                                 18
Associated Skills

Communication          *
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy       *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation




                           19
             YEAR 8: UNIT 8G & 8H WEATHERING AND THE ROCK CYCLE

LESSON 10 – The different rock structures found in the Earth’s crust

Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
    about intrusive and extrusive rocks found in the Earth’s crust
    to determine how rocks have changed and been eroded away
    to determine the oldest and youngest layer of rock

KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2f, 2k & Sc3 3g, 2d-g, 2i

KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
    about the rock cycle

Suggested Teaching Activities

Starter Activity
    Pupils are to write statements to fill in the gaps on the board/OHP about the rock cycle or
       alternatively write a flow chart with the first statement given by the teacher.

Core Activity
    Teacher give diagram of intrusive and extrusive rocks found in the Earth’s crust. Discuss with
      pupils about what these terms mean and explain how they were formed. Pupils are also to look
      at diagram of cliff edge showing layers of rocks, which have eroded, away by the sea. Pupils
      are to be asked to explain why the rocks have ripples on them and which rock is the youngest
      and oldest. Remind pupils about the formation of igneous rocks around a volcano and ask
      them to say where large and small crystals would be found in the rocks and to explain why.
    Pupils could watch Shell Video ‘Rocks Endure’ and answer questions from a worksheet
      (please order in advance as this video is normally in upper school)
    Pupils are to complete worksheet Hodder B Activity: 11.5 ‘How do mountains form?’, ‘An
      island in the sun’
    Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C2e/3 ‘Non-stop rock’,
      C8e/4 ‘Different theories’, C8e/5 ‘Uniformitarianism’
Plenary
    Pupils could be given several drawings on an OHP transparency and asked to explain which
      rocks were intrusive and extrusive as well as which rocks are the oldest and youngest.

Safety/Risk Assessment
No Risk.

Resources

OHP and transparency
Hodder B Activity: 11.5 ‘How do mountains form?’, ‘An island in the sun’, 11.4 ‘Crude oil’
Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C2e/3 ‘Non-stop rock’, C8e/4 ‘Different theories’, C8e/5
‘Uniformitarianism’, C8e ‘End of unit test’
Shell Video ‘Rocks Endure’ and worksheet

Homework
Pupils are to complete Exploring Science 2 worksheet: C8e ‘End of unit test’ as revision.

                                                  20
Additional Notes/Differentiation
More able pupils could do the worksheet Hodder B Activity 11.4 ‘Crude oil’.

Associated Skills

Communication          *
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy       *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation




                                                21
                                 Year 9G:Environmental Chemistry

Lesson 1 – Acids, alkalis and their pH (Sc 1)

Learning Objectives

Pupils should learn:

 that solutions can be acidic, alkaline or neutral and can be classified as such by using indicators such
as litmus paper and Universal indicator solution/paper
 how to use Universal indicator to find the pH of a solution
 how to use the pH scale as a measure of acidity and alkalinity of a solution
 be aware that both acids and alkalis can be corrosive

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 3d

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2d & f

Pupils will
 know how to use universal indictor and may have made an indicator using red cabbage in Year 7
 know about acids and alkalis and possibly some everyday examples

Suggested teaching activities

Starter Activity
      Brainstorm with pupils about what they know about acids and alkalis and write on information
       on the board.
      Demonstrates to the pupils with litmus solution/paper to identify an acid, alkali or neutral
       solution. Give definitions of an indicator as a dye that will change colour in acids and alkalis.
       Pupils should know that although acids taste sour and alkalis feel slimy, these should not be
       used, as tests to identify them as both acids and alkalis are corrosive.
Core Activity
      Discuss with pupils the advantages of using universal indicator solution/paper as being able to
       give the strength of an acid or an alkali – the strength being represented by the term pH and
       give pH scale.
      Demonstrate to pupils the class practical (Sc 1 observation, Analysis) and instruct them to
       find out the pH of various solutions using UI paper and spotting tiles. Pupils may use
       Exploring science worksheet: 9Ga/2 ‘Acids and alkalis’ to help them conduct the experiment.
      Pupils are to dip a glass rod into a particular solution and dot solution onto a piece of universal
       indicator paper in a spotting tile and compare colour with a pH colour chart. Pupils are to
       record colour of UI paper and assign a pH number in a table. Pupils are to conclude whether
       substances are strong/weak acids, alkalis, or neutral. Give pupils names of common acids and
       alkalis – alkalis all having hydroxide in their name. If formulae are given, pupils may note that
       acids contain the element hydrogen.
      Pupils are to colour in pH chart with numbers and complete worksheet.
      Instruct pupils to answer questions from Exploring Science book 1: P66/67 C1e ‘Mixing a
       Rainbow’.
      Pupils can answer questions from Spotlight Science 7: P74/75 ‘A question of acid or alkali’



                                                    22
Plenary
     Give a selection of substances with the colour they turn Universal Indicator solution/paper and
      instruct pupils to identify whether these substances will be a strong/weak acid, alkali or
      neutral.

Extension

Pupils could discover what makes substances acid/alkali or neutral i.e. hydrogen ions and hydroxide
ions. Look at and learn the chemical formula of acids and alkali:

SULPHURIC ACID - H2SO4
NITRIC ACID – HNO3
HYDROCHLORIC ACID - HCl

SODIUM HYDROXIDE – NaOH
POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE – KOH
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE – Ca(OH)2

Resources/References

Litmus paper/solution, beaker, acidic or alkali solution
Beakers of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulphuric acid, solutions of sodium hydroxide, ammonia,
calcium hydroxide (limewater), magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), lemon juice, vinegar, soap,
shampoo, washing powder solution, toothpaste, sodium bicarbonate & salt water, spotting tiles,
pipettes, Universal indicator paper, litmus paper, colour/pH chart

Spotlight Science 7: P74/75 ‘A question of acid or alkali’
Worksheets – on pH and acidic and alkali solutions
Exploring science worksheet: 9Ga/2 ‘Acids and alkalis’
Exploring Science book 1: P66/67 C1e ‘Mixing a Rainbow’

Homework

Complete worksheet on acids and alkali or list number of substances used or found in the home and
say whether acidic/alkaline or neutral.

Safety/Risk Assessment
Safety goggles must be worn, as acids/alkalis are corrosive. Pupils must be warned not to taste
solutions. Wash any skin in contact with acid/alkali thoroughly with water.

Additional Notes

Ensure pupils do not contaminate solutions when using the glass rod – pupils must wash with water
the glass rod when testing a new solution.

Associated Skills
Communication            *
Information Technology
Citizenship       *
Literacy                 *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation *   (Observation, Analysis)

                                                       23
                                 Year 9G:Environmental Chemistry

Lesson 2 – Neutralisation (Sc 1)

Learning Objectives

Pupils should learn:

 that when an alkali is added to an acid, neutralisation takes place
 how to obtain a neutral solution from an acid and an alkali
 the hazards associated with alkali and acids
 that some everyday applications of neutralisation e.g. the treatments of indigestion, the treatment of
acid soil

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 3d & f

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2f

Pupils will
 know about neutralisation and examples of this reaction in year 7

Suggested teaching activities

Starter Activity
      Brainstorm with pupils about what they know about neutralisation – put details on the board
       along with uses of neutralisation (some everyday applications of neutralisation e.g. the
       treatments of indigestion, the treatment of acid soil).
      Explain neutralisation is the chemical reaction between an acid and alkali to produce a salt
       and water. The final products will be neutral and have a pH of 7.

Acid            +      Alkali                 salt        +    water

Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide                      sodium choride +   water

Core Activity

      Teacher is to demonstrate how to conduct practical of neutralisation using sodium hydroxide
       and hydrochloric acid (use concentrated acid and alkali – 2M). Pupils are shown hazard
       symbol for corrosive and irritant and informed even diluted solutions are skin irritants.
      Class practical: Hand out worksheet on neutralisation: making sodium chloride (salt) from
       sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid (Sc 1 Observing, Analysing). Pupils are to measure
       out 10cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid into a small beaker. Add 3 drops of UI solution and then
       carefully add sodium hydroxide solution drop by drop until the solution is green. Put 3 spatula
       measures of charcoal into the beaker and heat over a medium flame until it just boils. Turn off
       the Bunsen burner and allow it to cool. When cool filter the mixture into an evaporating dish
       and heat until some of the liquid evaporates. Allow some time to crystallise and examine the
       product. The final substance should be white in colour. Instruct pupils to write the word
       equation for the reaction and answer questions on the worksheet. Establish with pupils that
       sodium chloride is commons salt but there are many more salts. Instruct pupils to write word
       equations for other neutralisation reactions i.e.

                                                     24
Potassium hydroxide + sulphuric acid                     Potassium sulphate + water

Calcium hydroxide + nitric acid               Calcium nitrate + water

      Instruct pupils to answer questions from Exploring Science book: P66/67 C1e ‘Mixing a
       rainbow’.
      Pupils can questions from Spotlight Science 7: P78/79 ‘A balancing act’

      Pupils could also complete Exploring Science 9 worksheet: Crd/1 ‘Revising neutralisation’

Plenary
     Pupils are to do Year 9 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starters: Copymaster for Starter 52
      ‘Can we detect neutralisation’ on OHP transparencies.

Extension

Pupils could write formulae and symbol equations for the above neutralisation reactions. Ask pupils to
use secondary source to find out the uses of some salts e.g. sodium stearate (soap), magnesium
sulphate (Epsom salts), copper sulphate (fungicide), sliver nitrate, calcium sulphate, potassium nitrate,
iron sulphate (in iron tablets).

Resources/References

Class practical for making sodium chloride by neutralisation
1-2 M of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution, small beaker, charcoal, filter paper and
funnel, Bunsen burner, tripod, gauze, safety mat, matches, evaporating dish, conical flask,
crystallising dish, labels, UI solution, pipettes, stirring rods, measuring cylinder

Worksheets – neutralisation: making sodium chloride (see upper school chemistry technician)

Pupils can questions from Spotlight Science 7: P78/79 ‘A balancing act’
Year 9 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starters: Copymaster for Starter 52 on OHP transparencies
OHP
Exploring Science 9 worksheet: Crd/1 ‘Revising neutralisation’

Homework
Pupils can research about uses of neutralisation in everyday life and design a leaflet explain it.

Safety/Risk Assessment

Safety goggles must be worn, as acids/alkalis are corrosive. Pupils must be warned not to taste
solutions. Wash any skin in contact with acid/alkali thoroughly with water.
Acids and alkali are flammable – ensure pupils are aware to keep both solutions away from flames.

Additional Notes

Ensure pupils know how to correct if solution when the end point (green colour) is missed during
neutralisation process. If solution becomes red add more sodium hydroxide and if solution turns blue
add more acid drop wise. Heating with charcoal decolourises the UI solution – ensure pupils heating
and filter correctly otherwise the final solution contains black solid or is still green. Ensure pupils do
not boil off all the water at the end of the reaction to allow large crystals to form.
Could use a computer simulation or a pH probe to give accurate readings in a demonstration.

                                                    25
Associated Skills
Communication            *
Information Technology
Citizenship
Literacy                 *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation *   (Observation, Analysis)




                                                       26
                                Year 9G:Environmental Chemistry

Lesson 3 – Investigating the pH of soil samples (Sc 1)

Learning Objectives

Pupils should learn:
 that different soils have different characteristics, including pH ranges which affects the plants that
grow in them.
 to locate information about plants and preferred soil types from secondary sources.
 to use knowledge about acids and alkalis and neutralisation to suggest ways of reducing the acidity
of soils.

National Curriculum references: Keys stage 3 Sc 3 materials and their properties – 3d, 3f & 3g

Key Stage 2 Links / Prior Learning

Sc3 materials and their properties – 1d

Pupils will know
 about the different types of soils and environments from Unit 3D ‘Rocks and soils’ and Unit 6A
'Interdependence and adaptation’
 about acids and alkalis from previous modules taught in Unit 7E ‘Acids and alkalis’

Suggested Teaching Activities

Starter Activity
      Give pupils the table below of plants and their pH ranges for best growth and instruct pupils to
       answer a series of questions based on the table i.e. which plant(s) would grow best in a soil
       with a pH of 7?
                                 Plant                   pH range for best growth
                         Cabbage/Brussels sprouts                6.0-7.5
                                 Apples                          5.0-7.5
                              Broad beans                        5.5-6.5
                                Potatoes                         4.5-6.0
                               Tomatoes                          5.5-7.0

Core Activity
     Class practical (Sc1 Observing, Analysing): (Inform technician about the pH of soil
      samples you would prefer) Inform pupils that a farmer has sent several soil samples from
      different fields to a laboratory to be analysed. The farmer would like to know which plants to
      grow in each field from which soil samples were taken. Pupils are to find out the pH of soils
      and advise the farmer of which plants to grow. They are also to make suggestions of how and
      what to do in fields where soil samples conditions are unsuitable to grow plants.
     Demonstrate to pupils how to conduct experiment to discover pH of different soil samples.
      Pupils could use Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Ga/3 ‘Soil Survey’. Allow pupils to test a
      range of soils sample solutions by filtering soil solutions using filter paper and conical flask.
      Then dotting the filtrate using a glass rod onto pH paper and compare colour to pH chart and
      record results in a table. Write a conclusion determining which soil samples were acidic,
      neutral or alkali. Suggest which plants would be suitable to grow in each soil sample and
      advise a farmer what to do to soil conditions that are unsuitable for plant growth (i.e. add lime
      –calcium oxide) which neutralises the acidic soil. If the soil is too alkaline then peat or manure
      (rotting vegetation) can be added which are acidic. This neutralises the soil to make it suitable.

                                                    27
     Pupils can then discuss their findings from the investigation with the rest of the class.
     Pupils can make notes or answer questions from Spotlight Science 7: P80/81 ‘pH is pretty
      helpful’.
     Pupils are to complete Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Ga/4 ‘Neutralising soil’.
Plenary
     Pupils are to do Year 9 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starters: Copymaster for Starter 61 ‘Does
      the pH of soil matter?’ on OHP transparencies.

Extension

Pupils could neutralise acidic soil solutions with limewater dropwise i.e. solutions turns green
Pupils could find out about wild flowers/trees and their preferred soil type using the Internet or in
textbooks and produce a leaflet to advise gardeners on the soil conditions required by different wild
flowers/trees.

Resources / References

Pieces of sedimentary rock
Different types of soils – clay, sandy and loam in glass beakers to demonstrate to pupils

Class practical – acidic, alkaline and neutral soil solutions, pH paper, pH chart, glass rod, conical
flask, beaker, filter paper, filter funnel
Worksheets on sedimentary rock, soils and the pH of soils
Spotlight Science 7: P80/81 ‘pH is pretty helpful’.

Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Ga/3 ‘Soil Survey’, 9Ga/4 ‘Neutralising soil’.
Year 9 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starters: Copymaster for Starter 61 ‘Does the pH of soil matter?’

Homework
Pupils are to complete Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Ga/6 ‘At home in any soil?’

Safety/Risk Assessment
The soil must be uncontaminated and goggles must be worn due acidity/alkalinity of soil samples.

Additional Notes

It is important that pupils do not attribute acid soil to acid rain solely - rotting vegetation/manure can
also cause soil to be acidic.

Associated Skills
Communication            *
Information Technology
Citizenship
Literacy                 *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation *   (Observation, Analysis)




                                                       28
                                 Year 9G:Environmental Chemistry

Lesson 4 – The causes and the effects of acid rain on the environment

Learning Objectives

Pupils should learn:
 that burning of fossil fuels releases more acidic gases which dissolve in rain water to make it more
acidic
 that acid rain causes buildings and certain rocks to erode, make lakes and rivers acidic
 that effects of acid rain are that it kills fish and other living organisms, makes soils acidic and so
kills/harms plants and trees
 be aware of the ways in which emissions of acidic gases are reduced

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2i, 3d, 3e, 3f &
3g

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2f

Pupils will
 may know about substances that can produce acidic gases – they may identify fossil fuels
 know that acid rain kills plant and animals and makes soils and lakes acidic
 know that acid rain erodes buildings and rocks (taught in year 8)

Suggested teaching activities

Starter Activity
      Brainstorm with pupils about what is acid rain and the causes of acid rain. (Rain is slightly
       acidic (pH 5.5-5.9) due to non-metal gases which dissolve in the rainwater. The causes of
       acid rain are mainly the burning of fossil fuels, which release more acidic gases)
      Instruct pupils to name the gases that can cause acid rain. (Carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide
       and nitrogen oxides)
      How are these gases produced? (By burning fossil fuels in power stations as the fuels,
       contain carbon and sulphur. This then produces sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide when
       burnt in oxygen. Cars also produce carbon dioxide. The high temperature produced by
       sparks inside a car engine makes nitrogen and oxygen combine to form nitrogen oxide)
       How do we get acid rain?(We get acid rain when these gases are released in large amounts
       into the atmosphere where they are dissolve in falling rain)
      How do we know we have acid rain? (The pH is below 5.6)
Core Activity
      Practical (Sc 1 Observing, Analysis): Demonstrate the pH of an acidic gas such as sulphur
       dioxide by burning sulphur in air/oxygen. Placed the sulphur in a burning spoon and put it over
       a Bunsen burner flame. Once sulphur melts or burns and smoke is seen then place in a gas jar
       until the smoke is collected. Carefully remove the burning spoon and place a vaselined lid to
       seal the gas jar. Remove the lid briefly and add water. Place the lid back and shake the gas jar
       vigorously to dissolve sulphur dioxide gas into the water. An acidic solution (e.g. sulphuric
       acid) has been produced in a similar way to acid rain. Put Universal indicator solution into the
       gas jar and see the solution turn orange/red colour.
      Another practical that could be demonstrated the properties of carbon dioxide gas released is
       when a candle burns (the wax is made from crude oil – fossil fuel). The gases (carbon dioxide
                                                    29
      and water vapour) from candle wax burning are collected and bubbled through tubes
      containing blue cobalt chloride paper (turns pink when water vapour is present) and limewater
      (to show CO2 present) and water with UI solutions to show the weak acidic property of CO2.
     Demonstrate that acidic rain dissolves rocks such as limestone which contain calcium
      carbonate add sulphuric acid and observe the rock being eroded by chemical weathering
      (caused by the acid in the rain).
     Demonstrate the pH of rainwater samples collect at North Chadderton School – upper and
      lower. Instruct pupils to predict which sample would be expected to be acidic and instruct
      pupils to explain why. Lower school’s rainwater may be more acidic (pH below 5.5) as it is
      close to a busy road (more acidic gases released) but upper school situated in an area with
      lower levels of traffic (therefore more close to pH 5.5-5.9).
     Discuss with pupils about the possible ways in which pollution and acidic gas emission can be
      reduced. (Use catalytic converter in cars, the use of sulphur precipitator at power stations
      and burn less fossil fuels etc)
     Pupils are to make notes on experiments with conclusions or teacher gives notes on acid rain.
     Instruct pupils to answer questions from Spotlight Science 7:P76/77 ‘How strong?’.
Plenary
     Pupils are to do Year 9 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starters: Copymaster for Starter 62 ‘The
      disappearing statue’ on OHP transparencies.

Extension

Pupils could find out how emissions of acid rain are reduced using the Internet and textbooks.
Pupils could write out word equations for any chemical reactions that have occurred in experiments
demonstrated.

Resources/References

Demonstration – sulphur powder, burning spoon, safety mat, matches, splint, gas jar, limestone,
sulphuric acid, Bunsen burner, UI solution/paper, pH chart, spatula, rainwater samples from upper and
lower school, candle, glass funnel and tubing, test tubes filled with limewater, UI solution & water
and cobalt chloride paper U-tube.
Worksheet on acid rain
Spotlight Science 7:P76/77 ‘How strong?’

Year 9 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starters: Copymaster for Starter 62 ‘The disappearing statue’ on
OHP transparencies

Homework

Pupils are complete worksheet on acid rain or research on the devastation that acid rain can have on
the environment and then write an article for a scientific magazine (Citizenship).


Safety/Risk Assessment
Safety glasses and safety screen should be used. The fume cupboard or a well-ventilated room must
be used for the burning of sulphur in oxygen. Sulphur dioxide can trigger off asthma attacks.

Additional Notes

Government has passed laws to reduce pollution especially acidic gases. The MOT test includes the
measurement of car exhaust gases – if level is too high it will fail and cannot be driven on the roads.

                                                   30
Associated Skills
Communication              *
Information Technology
Citizenship                *
Literacy                   *
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation   *   (Observation, Analysis)




                                                         31
                                Year 9G:Environmental Chemistry

Lesson 5 – History and theory of burning

Learning Objectives

Pupils should learn:
 about how scientist worked in the past and how they work today (citizenship)
 about the creative thought that went into the development of scientific ideas concerning combustion
 about the roles of experimentation and evidence to prove new theories
 that when a substance burns its reacts with oxygen to form oxides and involves a mass increase

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2g & 2i

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2f & 2g

Pupils will
 know that burning substances in oxygen produces oxides taught in lessons in years 8 & 9
 know that oxygen found in air

Suggested teaching activities
Starter Activity
      Brain storm with pupils about burning of substance in air (oxygen) to produce oxides. Ask
       pupils to give another name for burning – combustion and then instruct them to give
       examples: magnesium and oxygen to give magnesium oxide etc. Mass is conserved during this
       reaction.
      Could demonstrate to pupils the burning of different metals such as magnesium, iron filing etc
       in air.
Core Activity
      Discuss with pupils about how ideas of combustion arose and then discuss how scientist ideas
       in the past were scrutinised by society and how experimentation gave them the evidence to
       back their theories. Talk about how some scientist lived or had to work in other jobs in order to
       carry on with their experiments. (Look at additional notes)
      Pupils could complete Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Hd/3 ‘Changing ideas 2’ or 9Hd/4
       ‘More about phlogiston’
      Pupils could conduct the matching scientist and their discovery card game.
      Pupils are to research on the Internet or on CD ROMs – Put into the search engines the name
       of the scientist, their scientific theories, or the scientist’s nationality scientist.

Early ideas by the Greeks on combustion
Boyle’s experiment of heating tin in a sealed flask
The phlogiston theory
Lavoisier’s experiment
The discovery of oxygen by priestly
Combustion

      Pupils could design a poster/leaflet on the history of combustion/on one particular scientist’s
       struggles to prove their theory on combustion.
      The spread: spotlight science 27b: A burning Tale covers this in story-cartoon form. Pictures
       of relevant scientist and questions sheet based on spread 27b are available.

                                                  32
Plenary
Pupils could complete Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Hd/2 ‘Changing ideas 1’.

Extension

Pupils could produce a PowerPoint presentation on the history of combustion.

Resources/References

Magnesium strip, iron filings etc, safety mat, matches, splint, tongs, Bunsen burner
Worksheet spotlight science 27b: A burning Tale – related questions sheet and pictures of related such
as Democritus, Boyle, Lavoisier and Priestley.
Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Hd/3 ‘Changing ideas 2’ or 9Hd/4 ‘More about phlogiston’, 9Hd/2
‘Changing ideas 1’
Spotlight science 9: 27b A burning tale P30-31
Websites from the Internet: http://www.lexcie.zetnet.co.uk/virginia-lavoisier.htm

Homework

Complete poster/leaflet on scientist and the history of burning

Safety/Risk Assessment

Safety glasses and safety screen should be used if demonstrating burning of magnesium or other
metals.

Additional Notes

Pupils often have the misconception that substances decrease in mass when they burn. This exercise
relates practical evidence of substances gaining mass when heated to various ideas such as phlogiston
theory. With the discovery of oxygen it was realised that air was not a single substance and it was this
gas which reacts when a substance burns.


Associated Skills

Communication                 *
Information Technology        *
Citizenship                   *
Literacy                      *
Application of Numbers        *
Scientific Investigation




                                                   33
                                Year 9G:Environmental Chemistry

Lesson 6 – The effects of global warming

Learning Objectives

Pupils should learn:

 that carbon dioxide gas is a greenhouse gas which is mainly caused by burning fossil fuels
 that greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere cause global warming
 that greenhouse gases absorb heat in the atmosphere and re-radiate it back to the surface
 how effects of global warming on the world’s environment and how it can be reduced

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 3i

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2g

Pupils will
 know that burning fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide gas
 know that carbon dioxide gas is a greenhouse gas

Suggested teaching activities

Starter Activity
      Brainstorm with the pupils about which gases are produced when fossil fuels (coal, oil or gas)
       are burnt.
       Establish with pupils that carbon dioxide gas is one of the gases released during the burning of
       fossil fuels and that it commonly known as a greenhouse gas. Write ideas/answers from pupils
       about greenhouse gases and their effects on the world on the white board.
      What do we mean by the term ‘greenhouse gas’?(Carbon dioxide gas traps the sun’s heat
       energy – the gas absorbs the heat in the atmosphere and re-radiates it back to the surface of
       the earth hence simulating the conditions inside a greenhouse for plants)
      What effect does this greenhouse gas have on the earth/world? (Greenhouse gases trap the
       sun’s heat energy in the atmosphere (greenhouse effect) and cause global warming)
Core Activity
      Discuss with pupils the following:
       What is global warming and how is it effecting our environment? (The main ideas about
       global warming is that its due to mainly large amounts of carbon dioxide gas being released
       into the atmosphere from burning of fossil fuels, forests, engine exhausts, factories etc.,
       throughout the world. Scientists believe that the greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide causes
       the temperature rises in the atmosphere. This is effecting our environment causing weather
       patterns (violent storms, flooding & droughts) to change and melting ice caps at the poles
       causing sea levels to rise. Subsequently this has caused flooding in many areas of the world
       especially in many coastal areas)
      What can we do to stop global warming destroying our environment? (Reduce greenhouse
       gases like carbon dioxide by finding alternative energy resources to fossil fuels, using our
       cars less, extracting carbon dioxide gas from our factories chimneys, stop cutting down and
       burning forests which taken in carbon dioxide gas etc.,)


                                                  34
         Who is responsible for global warming? (Citizenship) (Most of the greenhouse gases are
          produced in the developed industrial countries for example the USA and in the European
          continent – these countries should be more responsible in reducing its greenhouse emissions
          by research into alternatives fuels and strict regulations. They should perhaps also help and
          encourage developing countries like India and Brazil to reduce their emissions and prevent
          forests from being cut down. Some countries are reluctant to reduce emissions due to short-
          term economic gains. On the whole, human activity is responsible for global warming)

         Pupils could be put into groups and asked to conduct one of the following tasks or use
          Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Gd/1 ‘The global warming debate’.

a) Pupils could draw a poster or write an article for a scientific newspaper about greenhouse gases
   and global warming – this should include diagrams. Data about cost to the environment, amount
   of gases being released etc. could be obtained from the Internet.
b) Pupils could research information on the Internet on greenhouse gases and global warming and
   present it in a report format with data to back up their ideas or PowerPoint presentation.

     Pupils could complete Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Gc/1 ‘Evidence of pollution 1’.
Plenary
     Pupils are to complete Year 9 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starters: Copymaster for Starter
      66a & b ‘What would be evidence of global warming’

Extension

Pupils could research about other greenhouse gases and their possible sources. They could also
research about the ozone layer and its effect on the environment. Pupils could also explain how use of
catalytic converters help to reduce acid rain.

Resources/References

Worksheets – global warming
Internet websites: North Chadderton/global community- has information and diagrams on greenhouse
gases and global warming and other weblinks
Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Gd/1 ‘The global warming debate’
Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Gc/1 ‘Evidence of pollution 1’, 9Gc/5 ‘Pollution in the past’
Year 9 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starters: Copymaster for Starter 66a & b ‘What would be
evidence of global warming’

Homework

Pupils could write an article discussing the effects of global warming on the environment. Research
could be done using the Internet.

Safety/Risk Assessment

No risk

Additional Notes

Some scientists believe that the world temperature will not change anyway, and may even fall in the
future. However, we cannot be sure as there are many variables and predicting the effect of
greenhouse gases is complicated.

                                                   35
Associated Skills
Communication              *
Information Technology     *
Citizenship                *
Literacy                   *
Application of Numbers     *
Scientific Investigation




                               36
                                 Year 9G:Environmental Chemistry

Lesson 7 – Monitoring pollution

Learning Objectives

Pupils should learn:

 the causes and effects of pollution i.e. burning fossil fuels, waste from factories and human
consumption, oil tank disasters etc.
 how pollution is monitored by scientists and the consequences of pollution (citizenship)
 how air pollution compares from present and the past (smog)

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 3i

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2g

Pupils will
 know from the previous lesson that burning fossil fuels causes air pollution releasing carbon
dioxide, sulphur dioxide etc.
 know that pollution causes harm to living things and the environment.

Suggested teaching activities

Starter Activity
      Discuss with pupils are about the different types of pollution and their causes (i.e. air pollution
       –burning fossil fuels and fumes from cars (carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen), water pollution
       –fertiliser, pesticides, insecticides, oil slicks, acid rain – burning/releasing of acidic gases
       (sulphur dioxide) into the atmosphere, land pollution – chemicals and rubbish dumps, CFC’s
       in refrigerators etc)
      Instruct pupils to describe what effects these types of pollution will have on living things and
       the environment. (Air becomes unbreathable to animals and plants do not survive because the
       conditions are not right for growth. Water is too poisonous for plants/animals to live in, algae
       grow more rapidly or chemicals get into food chain and water supply etc)
Core Activity
      Ask pupils how are the different types of pollution are monitored (Air quality monitoring
       stations, rainwater collected and pH tested around the country, lichens grow indicates clean
       air and low levels of sulphur dioxide gas, lake and river water tested for pesticide, insecticide,
       fertilisers levels for chemicals, landfill site soil tested etc)
      Ask pupil what could be done to reduce these types of pollution (Burn less fossil fuels and use
       alternative fuels that don’t release gases that cause acid rain, extract sulphur dioxide gas and
       other pollutants from water, air etc, use less energy to reduce amount of fuels used, walking
       rather than using a car/ bus etc)
      Pupils are to design a leaflet on the causes and effects of different types of pollution. Pupil’s
       leaflet should be specifically designed for year 7 pupils to be able to understand. Alternatively,
       pupils could go onto the computers and research using the Internet current levels of pollution
       in regional areas of the UK or around the world. Pupil could use data obtained from the
       Internet in their leaflets.
      Pupils could complete Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Gc/3 ‘Source of information & 9Gc/4
       ‘Air Quality monitoring’

                                                   37
Plenary
     Pupils are to complete Year 9 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starters: Copymaster for Starter
      64a & b ‘Reducing pollutants from car engines’

Extension

Pupils could research information about how specific types of pollution is reduced using the Internet
or looking through the textbooks.

Resources/References

Worksheet on monitoring pollution.

THE WEBSITES ADDRESSES BELOW NEED TO CHECKED BEFORE THE LESSON TO
SEE WHETHER THEY ARE ACCESSIBLE
Website: http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/yourenv/eff/pollution/?version=1&;lang=e
This describes in detail about the different types of pollution with further links
http://www1.york.ac.uk/inst/sei/rapidc2.html
http://www.news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1359917.stm – gives latest information about pollution
(small article)
http://www.aeat.co.uk/netcen/corinair/94/ - gives pie charts on levels of pollution around the Europe
from 1994
http://www.aeat.co.uk/netcen/airqual/data/sitelon.html
This gives data on monitored air pollution around Britain in particular London
http://www.learn.co.uk/default.asap?WCI=Unit&WCU22573

Year 9 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starters: Copymaster for Starter 64a & b ‘Reducing pollutants
from car engines’
Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Gc/3 ‘Source of information & 9Gc/4 ‘Air Quality monitoring’

Homework

Pupils could complete Exploring Science 9 worksheet: 9Gd/4 ‘ Climate history’.

Safety/Risk Assessment
No risk

Additional Notes
Pupils could select diagrams and information from different WebPages and print out to be used in
their leaflets. Ensure pupils only use data concerning gases such as sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide,
carbon monoxide etc, to narrow down research data.

Associated Skills

Communication                 *
Information Technology        *
Citizenship                   *
Literacy                      *
Application of Numbers        *
Scientific Investigation




                                                  38

				
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