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Before the Revolution – Chapter 5

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Before the Revolution – Chapter 5
Rural Communities -> Insight into the Peasant’s World (Hansel and Gretel)
- role of hunger, witchcraft, superstition
- difference between middle and upper class
- condition of lower class

Urban Communities
symbiotic relationship – cities need produce, (later cheap, unskilled labour)
 rural needs markets – later jobs

Cities – what were they like? Note pp.173 description on abandoned children
city core –
suburbs –
role of towns – what did they want?

1780’s – repeated poor grain crops, national bankruptcy, rising food costs -> under and
discontent to the cities and rural areas of France – eventually led them to unite to survive

Role of the Intellectual Elite (intelligentsia)
- criticism of absolute governments
- salons (new views & middle class culture) vs. courts of Europe (upper class)
       - transition

Social History
Good Taste and Manners

Middle ages – courtliness
Renaissance – conversation and civility added to courtliness
Enlightenment – good taste (art, fashion, food, manners) to a social virtue

Indicate the changes at the dinner table –
Honours of the Table (1788) (text p.175)

Picture p.178 – Gin Lane – what is this telling you about the social conditions?

Science, Technology and Society

Technological developments in one areas brought changes in others - give an example

Pre-revolutionary Family

Rights of Man (slave, Indians, Jews or poor) – not woman
ideal woman ? ->
       Rousseau – Emile (1762) – intelligent women (p.176)

 - Lower class women treatment?
- Role of Convents
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Marriage and children

average age to marry?
infant mortality so high – successive sons the same name
children constraints and practices
- general attitude toward children?


Education
-rise in formal education – toward universal education
- most children no formal education -> age 7 -12 (boys worked with fathers, girls – servants)


Popular Culture in the 18th Century
New radical ideas, emphasis on reason
Religion seemed ridiculous

Gap between the enlightened upper and middle class and the unenlightened lower classes
Role of the following and class of society?:
Salons, Café –
Pubs –

Blood sports?


On the Eve of the Revolution

Why was France on the verge of bankruptcy?


What is the Estates-General? Why recall?
- indicate the levels of society/estates



What power did the Estates-General have?

French Public opinion? – what did they hope for in government?


Impact of the pamphlet – What is the Third Estate? by Sieyes



What were the cahier de doleances?

Why a deadlock in the Estates-General?

Louis XIV fated action?

Tennis Court Oath?
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Violence:
1. Urban
     Storming of the Bastille – 5W’s?


    2. Rural – The Great Fear – 5W’s?



    3. October Days – 5W’s?


    4. Constitutional Revolution: The Constituent Assembly 1789-1791
-   changes?


-   Role of Mirabeau’s life and death

-   Maximilien de Robespierre – aims for the revolution


5. Political groups:
- Girondins –


-   Jacobins –

- Committee of Public Safety


    6. Characterization of the period between 1789 – 1794 – political process and individual
       privacy


    7. Austrian and Prussian declaration:
       result:


    8. Royal flight to Varennes
       result:


    9. September Massacres – 5W’s?



    10. September 21, 1792 – significance?


    11. Political Spectrum at the Convention 1792
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    12. Execution of Louis XVI


    13. Revolutionary Names and Symbols – secularization


    14. Reign of Terror – 5W’s?



15. Doctor Guillotine - contribution


    16. Condorcet’s view on voting rights

-   Revolution’s view on women



Thoughts from Madame Roland:



    17. What happened to Danton? Robespierre?



    18. “White Terror” and “Red Terror”



Age of Napoleon

    1. contemporary assessments:


    2. early history:



    3. Toulon military action


    4. “whiff of grapeshot”


    5. Rosetta Stone


    6. Napoleonic Wars – who was defeated?
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7. Napoleonic Government

         First Consul


         The Concordat


         system of lycees


         Code Napoleon



        Napoleonic Wars:
-   victory at Austerlitz (1805)

-   Jena

-   Moscow

    8.   Latin American independence movements, Brazil



    9. “Battle of Nations”


-   exile to Elba


    10. “Flight of the Eagle”


    11. Battle of Waterloo




    12. Congress of Vienna – results – restoration
           - failures




    13. Napoleon’s legacy:
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    14. Revolutionary Spirit – changes?
           - Fashion/clothing


           -   home and pastimes


           -   motherhood and raising children


           -   marriage and divorce


           -   religion


    15. Artists:

Jacques-Louis David – aim of art:
examples:

Death of Marat – importance


Ludwig von Beethoven

-   example of music and time

				
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