Before the Revolution – Chapter 5
Rural Communities -> Insight into the Peasant’s World (Hansel and Gretel)
- role of hunger, witchcraft, superstition
- difference between middle and upper class
- condition of lower class
symbiotic relationship – cities need produce, (later cheap, unskilled labour)
rural needs markets – later jobs
Cities – what were they like? Note pp.173 description on abandoned children
city core –
role of towns – what did they want?
1780’s – repeated poor grain crops, national bankruptcy, rising food costs -> under and
discontent to the cities and rural areas of France – eventually led them to unite to survive
Role of the Intellectual Elite (intelligentsia)
- criticism of absolute governments
- salons (new views & middle class culture) vs. courts of Europe (upper class)
Good Taste and Manners
Middle ages – courtliness
Renaissance – conversation and civility added to courtliness
Enlightenment – good taste (art, fashion, food, manners) to a social virtue
Indicate the changes at the dinner table –
Honours of the Table (1788) (text p.175)
Picture p.178 – Gin Lane – what is this telling you about the social conditions?
Science, Technology and Society
Technological developments in one areas brought changes in others - give an example
Rights of Man (slave, Indians, Jews or poor) – not woman
ideal woman ? ->
Rousseau – Emile (1762) – intelligent women (p.176)
- Lower class women treatment?
- Role of Convents
Marriage and children
average age to marry?
infant mortality so high – successive sons the same name
children constraints and practices
- general attitude toward children?
-rise in formal education – toward universal education
- most children no formal education -> age 7 -12 (boys worked with fathers, girls – servants)
Popular Culture in the 18th Century
New radical ideas, emphasis on reason
Religion seemed ridiculous
Gap between the enlightened upper and middle class and the unenlightened lower classes
Role of the following and class of society?:
Salons, Café –
On the Eve of the Revolution
Why was France on the verge of bankruptcy?
What is the Estates-General? Why recall?
- indicate the levels of society/estates
What power did the Estates-General have?
French Public opinion? – what did they hope for in government?
Impact of the pamphlet – What is the Third Estate? by Sieyes
What were the cahier de doleances?
Why a deadlock in the Estates-General?
Louis XIV fated action?
Tennis Court Oath?
Storming of the Bastille – 5W’s?
2. Rural – The Great Fear – 5W’s?
3. October Days – 5W’s?
4. Constitutional Revolution: The Constituent Assembly 1789-1791
- Role of Mirabeau’s life and death
- Maximilien de Robespierre – aims for the revolution
5. Political groups:
- Girondins –
- Jacobins –
- Committee of Public Safety
6. Characterization of the period between 1789 – 1794 – political process and individual
7. Austrian and Prussian declaration:
8. Royal flight to Varennes
9. September Massacres – 5W’s?
10. September 21, 1792 – significance?
11. Political Spectrum at the Convention 1792
12. Execution of Louis XVI
13. Revolutionary Names and Symbols – secularization
14. Reign of Terror – 5W’s?
15. Doctor Guillotine - contribution
16. Condorcet’s view on voting rights
- Revolution’s view on women
Thoughts from Madame Roland:
17. What happened to Danton? Robespierre?
18. “White Terror” and “Red Terror”
Age of Napoleon
1. contemporary assessments:
2. early history:
3. Toulon military action
4. “whiff of grapeshot”
5. Rosetta Stone
6. Napoleonic Wars – who was defeated?
7. Napoleonic Government
system of lycees
- victory at Austerlitz (1805)
8. Latin American independence movements, Brazil
9. “Battle of Nations”
- exile to Elba
10. “Flight of the Eagle”
11. Battle of Waterloo
12. Congress of Vienna – results – restoration
13. Napoleon’s legacy:
14. Revolutionary Spirit – changes?
- home and pastimes
- motherhood and raising children
- marriage and divorce
Jacques-Louis David – aim of art:
Death of Marat – importance
Ludwig von Beethoven
- example of music and time