Document Sample
Leadership In Practice

             Caroline Patterson
Special Adviser, Organisational Development,
             Gateshead Council

   Talk about Transformational Leadership (TF)
   What it is, what it really means
   Why it’s so important
   Practical things we’ve done to embed it and
    360 degree appraisal in various
   Some of the lessons learned along the way
   Also here to learn from your experience

   Need to briefly recap the theory, but we’ll
    do that quickly
   Debunk some of the myths
   Challenge what you believe to be true
   Build in some activities around factors to
    consider when embedding TF/using 360
   Handouts and questionnaires to take away
Why I’m Here

   Met Professor Beverly Alimo-Metcalfe
     in 1999
   Programme Director IDeA Modern Managers
   She conducted the biggest study ever on leadership
    in the public sector
   Worked together since then developing and
    embedding leadership cultures in various
   National research- MBA Hull, Members 360
 Quick Recap……….

Why Do We Need Leadership?
Importance of Leadership

   Vision, direction and focus –real skill is
    aligning people to it
   Clear goals, don’t know where you are going
    you are unlikely to get there
   Team spirit…………….

   Manager’s managing is important
   Transformational Leadership has the
    biggest impact on morale, motivation,
    stress, job satisfaction, productivity and
Importance of Leadership

   Poor leadership costs ££££££££££ in terms of
    stress related absence, and has enormous cost in
    terms of individual health and psychological well
   Increased focus on leadership development and
    assessment in our Corporate Performance
   “Leadership is the single biggest factor that drives
    change and organisational improvement “ LG
    White Paper”
 Direct Relationship Between
Leadership, Motivation, Stress
      and Performance
3 Variables That Affect Performance

   Performance =

      A + Ability and competence
      M + Motivation
      R + Resources
Motivation Over Time



Leadership is about saying…
   “How can I interact with
   people to improve their
 performance, give them just
enough stretch to keep them
  motivated and help them
   realise their potential?”
What’s The Biggest Cause Of
 Stress In The Workplace?
Climate Studies 50’s to 90’s

     60-75% of people said that in any
      organisation, the most stressful aspect
      of their work was their immediate boss!
Controlling Styles

“Managers with controlling styles who fail
 to clarify roles and responsibilities, who
   exert undue pressure have working
  groups with higher levels of stress and
Climate Studies- Main Causes Of Stress

     Unclear roles and responsibilities

     Lack of autonomy

     Lack of social support
Levels Of Arousal

                          Unacceptable level

               Acceptable level of stress
Stress is Infectious!

      We leak!!!!

     Average correlation within the same
      working groups

                       = .92
Leadership Development

        is both a financial and moral imperative….
    Stress is increasing in
     organisations at a phenomenal
   Cost of stress is also increasing
    (in terms of absence as well as performance)

                       Beverly Alimo-Metcalfe
The Search for the Holy Grail

      What makes a good leader?
Leadership Research: The Old Paradigm

 1930s-50s   Great Man Approach
             Traits Approach

 1960s       The Behavioural Approach

 1970s       Situational/Contingency
   1960’s Behaviour/Style Approaches
          “one best style”
                                                         Levels of

Levels of

                                                   Levels of
            Autocratic   Participative Consultative Democratic

       Tannenbaum Schmidt
Blanchard-Situational Leadership

             PARTICIPATE           SELL

              DELEGATE             TELL

         HIGH                             LOW
The New Paradigms of
Changing Paradigms of Leadership

   Seismic shift in thinking in the 70’s
   Old models only suitable for stable
   Research conducted with first line
   Need to engage with CExs with experience
    of managing strategic and complex change
   Existing research not particularly valid- all
    self rating
The Myths of Leadership

    It’s rare
    It’s found mainly at the top
    It’s about being super-human
    You can only do it if you are male!
     (We’ll save that one for another time)

                    Beverly Alimo-Metcalfe
Research on Charisma

   Early research- charismatic leaders were
    the star performers
   Utter rubbish -completely discredited
   You were perceived to be charismatic if
    you were evangelistic, expressive, waived
    your arms about, had blue eyes, were
    extrovert rather than introvert
   Leadership is about being quietly effective
Unrealistic Job Ads

Knight in shining armour
required to charge in on their
white horse and save the
organisation from ruin-

Mere mortals need not apply!
 Another paradigm shift-leadership no longer
 viewed as a subset of management………….

What’s the Difference Between
Leadership and Management?
Kotter’s Comparison of
Management & Leadership
 Transactional Leadership
                                        Transformational Leadership
           (Management)                     (Leadership)

Creating                  Planning
                          Budgeting:         Establishing Direction:

Developing HR
                       Organising &          Aligning People:

Execution              Controlling &
                       Problem-            Motivating & Inspiring:

Outcomes               Produces a          Produces change - often to a
                       degree of
                       predictability           dramatic degree
                       & order
Leadership Versus Management

  Management is about coping with
  complexity, provides stability, order and

       -     Is transactional
       -     Promotes the status quo
Leadership Versus Management

 Leadership is having vision, a clear sense
 of direction and aligning people to it,
 helping people cope with change

           -Promotes transformation
            and drives change
Leadership Versus Management

    Management is about doing things right
    Leadership is about doing the right thing
    We need to develop both

        But where did the terms transactional
        and transformational come from?…..
Transactional versus Transformational

     Transactional - negotiation exchange or
     Transformational - a vision that things
      would be different or better

  George McGregor Burns
1980’s Bass’s Model of Transformational

       Idealised Influence (Vision)
       Inspirational Motivation (Charisma)
       Intellectual Stimulation
       Individualised Consideration

                   Bass, B.M. (1985) Leadership &
                        Performance Beyond
                  Expectations. London: Free Press

“Vision is the dream that invents the

   Developing a shared vision
   Direction, aligning people
   Painting pictures
   Make people believe it’s achievable
Be a Good Conductor

     “The task is to get the orchestra
    working to deliver the music in your
    head. It’s a three stage operation-
     hear the music, get it over to the
    orchestra get them to give it to the
             Leonard Bernstein
Redefining Charisma

    Quietly effective
    Positive role models others look up to
     and want to follow
    Encourage people to give more of
     themselves, go the extra mile
    Can be positive or negative
    Beware the pseudo-charismatics
Pseudo- Charismatics

     Often do well at interview
     All gloss and no substance
     Highly visible
     Good at self promotion/taking credit
      for the work of others
     Don’t deliver results
     Can generate compliance cultures
Potentially Worrying !!

    Zero correlation between charisma
    and performance, strong correlation
        between charisma and pay!
Intellectual Stimulation

    Encourage people to question the way
     things are done and are not defensive
    Take a collaborative approach to problem
    Intelligent and use a range of behaviours-
     adjust pitch and style according to whom
     they are dealing with, gain credibility
Individualised Consideration

    Genuine concern for others and their
    Communicate positive expectations of
    Treat them with dignity and respect
    Not interested in status and hierarchy-
     treat everyone as equals
    Value diversity and difference
    Are you ok?
Does The Soft and Fluffy Stuff Really
Research has shown that:

    Transformational Leadership has a significantly greater
    impact than Transactional Leadership on a variety of
    subjective and objective outcome measures, including:
   job satisfaction, motivation, and performance of followers
   lower levels of stress & burnout amongst staff
   more collaborative, innovative, harmonious teams
   financial performance of organisations
   performance in public sector organisations

Source: Bass, B.M. & Avolio, B.J., (1996) Postscripts: Recent Developments
  for Improving Organisational Effectiveness, Sage
The Importance Of Balance

“It’s about being transactional in a transformational way”
Managers Managing Is Also Important

Clarifying roles and expectations

  Managing poor           Competency Framework
                      Delegations        Constitution
             Decision making   Training on key skills

Training on personnel               Reward/sanction
policies and procedures
Why Conduct Further Research?

   Most leadership research was from the US

   Based on commercial & military

   Focus was typically on male white top
    managers who were self rating

   Gender & race bias
How Was The Research Conducted?
Interviews with 150 male and female managers, LG and NHS
using Rep Grid

       Think about leaders you have known
       2 outstanding, 2 average, 2 poor
       Write their initials on a card
       Shuffle cards and pick out 2
       To what extent are they similar but
        different from the rest?
       Elicit and group constructs
New Model of Transformational
Leadership (1)

             (1) Leading others

         Genuine concern for others

         Being accessible, available,

            Encourages change

                Beverly Alimo-Metcalfe & John
New Model of Transformational
Leadership (2)
          (2) Personal Qualities

          Honest and consistent

           Acting With Integrity

             Being Decisive

             Inspiring Others

        Resolving Complex problems
New Model of Transformational
Leadership (3)

             (3) Organisational Skills

          Political sensitivity and skills

       Networker, promoter, communicator

     Manages change sensitively and skilfully

                  Beverly Alimo-Metcalfe & John
3 Types of Handout In your Pack

       How TF am I/Are We?
US Versus The UK Model

   US models focus on charisma and vision,
    the leader as a role model
   UK public sector model – leadership is
    about engaging with partners, developing a
    shared vision and engagement
   Genuine concern fourth for Bass, top of the
    LG scale
   Ability to communicate positive expectations
    and develop good networks is really
Transformational Leaders
   Are outward looking
    Drive change in organisations and make things
   Clear sense of direction and focus
   Develop a shared vision and bring people along with
   Communicate positive expectations
   Accessible, approachable, are honest consistent
    and act with integrity
   Motivate and empower employees, help them cope
    with change
The Relationship Between
Leadership and Self Awareness

  “Leadership and self awareness
   are inextricably linked- to be a
   leader you first need to know
                        Robert Greenleaf
“ Leadership is connecting what
   I do to who I am to those I

You are not a leader if no-one is
        following you!!!
Problems with Traditional Appraisal



360 Is a Great Tool for Developing SAw

    Multiple perspectives on your leadership
    Encourages a culture of openness and
    Studies have shown it improves all aspects
     of TF ( if development needs are
    Performance improvement is sustained for
     at least two years
Particularly As…..

    Direct reports are the best predictors of
    Over and above assessment centres for
     the first seven years
     We all have blind-spots
    Everybody sees me differently but me!
UK Model, Based on a 360

    0.3     0.6

               .18   Colleagues



 How transformational is your organisation?
 How do you know?

 Are you doing enough to develop TF, if not what
  practical things do you need to do?
 (Think specifically about the implications for
  recruitment, A and D, competency frameworks,
  development/ succession planning etc)?
 What practical things would you need to consider
  prior to implementing 360?
Lessons Learned

Embedding Transformational
Embedding Leadership Cultures in

     “Leadership & culture are 2 sides
                of same coin
     -you can’t change one without the
The Culture Behaviour Cycle


Influences             Reinforces
Focus At An Organisational
    and An Individual
    Embedding TF-Research
   Clear statement about which leadership and
    management skills the organisation values
   Core competency framework which assesses
    management (the what) and TF leadership (the
   Don’t run out-dated re-cycled management
    development programmes
   Assess the right behaviours when you recruit or
    promote (handout refers)
   Send a clear message-you only get on here if you
    do x!!!

                       Beverly Alimo-Metcalfe
Challenge The Unwritten Rules
                             Explore the
Some Examples

   We want a high performance culture but reward
    loyalty/length of service
   We want to reward TF but Job Evaluation
    rewards the task/ we don’t look for TF in
   We are committed to equalities but few women
    make it to the top
   We want to focus less on hierarchy and more on
    empowerment- but only senior managers can
    present to members
   Hull research-no contradictions in excellent
Other Lessons Learned
   Never under-estimate the effort it takes to embed
    this down to grass roots-change agents can help
   Have a clear communications strategy that
    tackles the “soggy sponge”
   Then do some mystery shopping to find out
    whether employees at different levels know what
    TF is, what they can expect in terms of their
    managers and leaders?
   Training is just the beginning-the days of just
    running a conference and expecting it to happen
    are over!!!
   Focus on tangible results….
Other Lessons Learned…………..
    Managers at all levels need to work with
     their teams and identify practical things
     they will do to to engender TF in their
     team/service and enhance their own
    Publicise quick wins (articles,
     certificates, recognition etc)

 Its not just about training………
  Recruitment and succession planning
    are key (recruitment fact-sheet refers)
Other Lessons Learned

   Don’t forget to bring your policies into line-
    reward, recognition, bullying and
    harassment, managing poor performance
   This is also about how we do business- the
    how we go about projects is as important
    as delivering to time
Don’t Forget The Importance Of Balance

“It’s about being transactional in a transformational way”
  Individual as well as
organisational behaviour
 contribute to culture….
Embedding a Culture of
Transformational Leadership
 Commitment from CEx and senior managers is vital
 Studies show there are three major blocks to TF in
       Senior managers
       Senior managers and
       Senior managers!!!
 and they are crucial in terms of role modelling
the right behaviours

    Bass, B.M. & Avolio, B. J. (1993) ‘Transformational leadership & organizational culture’. Public
    Administration Quarterly, 17, 112-121.
Essentially, Culture Management is
Message Management

 “Culture is created and sustained through
  the messages people receive about how
                 to behave.”

                  Carolyn Taylor, Walk the Talk
Managers Are Carriers Of Culture
   Send important messages about what s
    acceptable and what isn’t through the way
    they lead,manage and interact with others
   Whether they are open to feedback and
   By what they choose to reward, how fair
    they are in this process
   Whether they deal with inappropriate
    behaviour, and how well they tackle it
   We must invest in their development
Quick Levers to Pull In Terms of
Culture Change
Behaviour           Training and role modelling
Myths and Stories   Mavericks, heroes and villains
                    Positive reinforcement-
Signs and Symbols   Eg: Creating a high
                    performance culture,
                    performance dashboards,
                    displaying evaluation data
                    Pace and choice-see reward
Systems             Reward-measure recognise
                    and reward the right things-
                    Succession Communications,
Can Leadership Really be Developed?

  It depends…..
     On the attitude of the individual
     Preparedness to accept others’ views as
     Whether they are open to feedback
     Quality of feedback
     The organisation’s commitment to reinforcing
      what is important- supporting development-
      what’s the sanction if people don’t change?

                      Beverly Alimo-Metcalfe
  Lessons Learned

Embedding 360 Degree Appraisal
Critical Success Factors

   Be clear about why you are using it
   Is the organisation ready?
   Ethics/confidentiality agreement- the
    person owns the data
   360 should be used primarily for
    development purposes rather than
    performance assessment (360 should not
    be linked to performance pay)
Critical Success Factors

   Supplements rather than replaces A and D
   Chose a valid, reliable instrument which
    reflects your strategic aims
   Cost and complexity can be a problem
   Pilot-light small fires
   Start at the top
   Develop feedback skills first
Get People To Admit There Is a
   When was the last time you asked for
    feedback about your personal style?
   How frank were the conversations?
   Do you know how your team would describe
    your style, your strengths, what you bring?
   Do you know what they want you to stop
    doing/ do differently?
   Is there two way or one way feedback in A
    and D?
Critical Success Factors

    Clear advice on choosing raters
    Brief raters on TF- they need to understand
     what they are assessing
    More detailed briefings may be required for
     instruments which also assess competence
    Online briefings
    Credible qualified facilitator
    Prioritised Personal Development Plans with
     no more than three key objectives
    Get commitment to resourcing development
Leadership In Practice

          A Question to close……..
Can an organisation be transformational or is it
           the people that make it?