A Few Safety Rules

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					              A Few Safety Rules
 Think through each step before beginning an
 Identify possible hazards and take appropriate
  measures to contain or minimize hazards (read labels)
 If you don’t know what is going to happen and think
  there may be a potential for danger
    Stop!
    Get help before proceeding or modify procedure to minimize
 When using hazardous chemicals use secondary
  containment and appropriate personal protection
        Unattended Experiment
 Prepare for power failure, _______ failure, or a leak
    __________ containment of hazardous chemicals
    Prepare for flooded and ____ conditions
    Do not let equipment such as power stirrers, hot plates,
     heating mantles, and water condensers run overnight
     without ________ provisions and the instructor's consent
 Everything well secured
 Check unattended reactions periodically
 Post contact information
 Accurate instructions and _______ for emergency
   Routes of Chemical Exposure
 skin
    protective clothing
    gloves
 ingestion
    don’t pipette by mouth!
    no food in the lab
    wash before leaving the lab
 inhalation
    dust and vapors (use fume hood when either are present)
 eyes
    eye protection against splashing and vapors
    Material Safety Data Sheets:
      an information source
 Emergency information
    chemical product and company identification
    composition
    hazards identification
 Appropriate response to hazardous situations
    first aid measures
    fire fighting measures
    accidental release measures
    Material Safety Data Sheets:
      an information source
 Prevention of hazardous situations
    handling and storage
    exposure controls and personal protection
    physical and chemical properties
    stability and reactivity
 Miscellaneous
    toxicological information
    ecological information
    disposal considerations
    transportation information
    regulatory information
   Material Safety Data Sheets:
 an example - Hydrochloric Acid
 You’ve been asked to mix up a solution of 1N HCl
  from concentrated hydrochloric acid. You would
  like to know of any hazards associated with this
 You remember the safety rule and you think
  through the steps of preparing the solution. You
  realize that you’ve never opened a container of
  concentrated HCl before. So you STOP! and get
  some help.
            Hydrochloric Acid:
          Potential Health Effects
 Eye:
   May cause irreversible eye injury. Vapor or mist may
    cause irritation and severe burns. Contact with liquid is
    corrosive to the eyes and causes severe burns.
 Skin:
   May be absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts.
    Contact with liquid is corrosive and causes severe burns
    and ulceration.
           Hydrochloric Acid:
         Potential Health Effects
 Ingestion:
    May cause circulatory system failure. Causes severe digestive tract
     burns with abdominal pain, vomiting, and possible death. May
     cause corrosion and permanent tissue destruction of the esophagus
     and digestive tract.
 Inhalation:
    Causes severe irritation of upper respiratory tract with coughing,
     burns, breathing difficulty, and possible coma. May cause
     pulmonary edema and severe respiratory disturbances.
 Chronic:
    Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis. Repeated
     exposure may cause erosion of teeth. May cause conjunctivitis and
                  Hydrochloric Acid
Physical State:           Liquid
Appearance:               Clear, colorless to faintly yellow.
Odor:                     Strong, pungent.
pH:                       1.1 (0.1N sol).
Vapor Pressure:           160 mm Hg             danger!
Vapor Density:            1.257 (Air=1)
Evaporation Rate:         2.0 (Butyl acetate=1)
Viscosity:                Not available.
Boiling Point:            230_F
Freezing/Melting Point:    -101_F
Decomposition Temperature: 3239.6_F
Solubility:               823g/L water at 32F.
Specific Gravity/Density: 1.19 (Water=1)
Molecular Formula:        HCl
Molecular Weight:         36.46
       Hydrochloric Acid:
    My Solution to the solution

Vapor pressure is significant and vapor is
 very corrosive
Liquid is very corrosive
Solution preparation should be done in a
 fume hood with gloves, protective clothing,
 and eye protection
  MSDS: Hazards Identification
 NaCl
   Warning! Causes eye irritation.
 HCl
   Poison! Danger! Corrosive. Liquid and mist cause severe
    burns to all body tissue. May be fatal if swallowed or
    inhaled. Inhalation may cause lung damage.
 H2SO4
   Poison! Danger! Corrosive. Liquid and mist cause severe
    burns to all body tissue. May be fatal if swallowed or
    contacted with skin. Harmful if inhaled. Affects teeth. Water
    reactive. Cancer hazard. Strong inorganic acid mists
    containing sulfuric acid can cause cancer.
          MSDS: Summary
A good source of information on safe
May provide useful information on
 physical-chemical properties
Provide first aid, fire fighting, and
 accidental release measures
Can be used to obtain concentrations of
 ingredients in proprietary solutions