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”Year of the World Summits in Peru” NATIONAL REPORT ON INCLUSIVE


  • pg 1
   ”Year of the World Summits in Peru”


               October, 2008


   Introduction                                                                    4

   1. The Educational System Facing The Challenges Of
      The 21st Century: A Joint Vision                                             5

       1.1 Main reforms and innovations to the educational
           system                                                                  5

       1.2 Principal policies, achievements and experiences                        16

   2. Inclusive education: the road to the future                                  21

       2.1 Approaches, scopes and content                                          21

       2.2 Public Policies                                                         27

       2.3 Systems, interfaces and transitions                                     30

       2.4 Students and Teachers                                                   33

   3. Annexes

        The Peruvian National Cooperation Commission with UNESCO present the national
report on “Inclusive Education in Peru” to the Director General of UNESCO, through the
International Office of Education (OIE, in Spanish).

        The present report contributes to the international dialogue on policies and educational
practices in the framework of the objectives of Education for All (EPT, in Spanish) by showing
an overview of the situation of inclusive education in Peru. It consists of four axis of analysis:
Approaches, Scope and Content; Public Policies; Systems, interfaces and transitions; and,
Students and Teachers.

        The active participation of the different levels of the Ministry of Education, more
precisely, the General Bureau Basic Education of Alternative, the General Bureau of Regular
Basic Education, the the General Bureau of Higher and Technical Education, the General Bureau
of Special Basic Education, the General Bureau of Educational Technologies and the General
Bureau of Rural, Bilingual and Intercultural Education have enabled the present report.

        Said document has been enriched by the National Symposium “Educational Inclusion: a
road towards the future”, where different public and civil institutions analyzed the dynamics of
the Peruvian educational system.

       Our special acknowledgement to the Strategic Planning Secretariat of the Ministry of
Education, represented by Javier Vega and Norma Eyzaguirre, to the Education For All
Technical Commission, represented by Cesar Uribe and Victor Soto and to the Peruvian
National Cooperation Commission with UNESCO‟s technical team comformed by Angela
Reymer and Emilio Delgado, for the consolidation of this document.

        Finally, we thank the UNESCO representation in Peru, the National Secretariat of the
Andres Bello Agreement, the National Council of Education and Regional Municipality of Lima,
for their invaluable support in the development of the National Symposium “Educational
Inclusion: a road towards the future”,.

                                                              Maria Isabel Miyan de Chiabra
                                                                           General Secretary
                                  Peruvian National Commission of Cooperation with UNESCO


1.1    Main reforms and innovations to the educational system especially concerning:

          a. The organization, structure and management of the educational system

According to the General Law of Education, Act N° 28044, the Peruvian Educational System is
flexible and integrative; adequate to the needs and requirements of the Country‟s diversity. This
system articulates its components so that individuals have the opportunity to achieve greater
learning achievements.
The system comprises: Stages, Levels, Modes, Cycles and Programs, as well as forms of

  I.           STAGES: are the consecutive periods in which the Educational System is
               divided; they are structured and developed according to the students’ learning

        i. Basic Education, addresses students‟ comprehensive development, use of their
        potentialities and development of capacities, knowledge, attitudes and the fundamental
        values a person should posses in order to act adequately and efficiently within society‟s
        social diversity. This area of education is inclusive in nature and meets the demands of
        individuals with special educational needs or learning difficulties. Basic Education is
        organized in the following modes:
           Regular Basic Education
           Alternative Basic Education
           Special Basic Education
           Higher Education, addressed towards research, creation and dissemination of
            knowledge; community outreach; achievement of high level professional
            competencies, according to the Country’s sustainable development demands and
            needs. It is offered in the following institutions
                    Universities
                    Higher Education Institutes
                    Teaching
                    Technology
                    Higher Education Fine Arts Schools

       II. LEVELS: These are gradual periods of the educational process within the
       educational stages,

        Regular Basic Education (EBR in Spanish) comprises three levels:

          i.      Early Years Education Level, this is the first level of EBR. It is addressed to
                  children up to 5 both within schooling and non-schooling forms, through

              different strategies with the participation of families, community
              stakeholders and local State’s authorities.
            Early Years Education is compulsory and includes the responsibility of providing
            varied educational services to children ages 0 to 2 or to their families. From 3 years
            on, families are required to bring their children to schooling or non schooling Early
            Years Education programs.

      ii.     Primary/Elementary Education Level, this is the second level of EBR. It is
              addressed to children from 6 on whether they have completed or not Early
              Years Education.

     iii.     Secondary/High School Education Level, this is the third level of EBR. It is
              offered through educational institutions to teenagers having successfully
              completed grade 6 of Primary/Elementary Education.

II. Types: these are alternatives to traditional educational offerings, organized according to
    the specific characteristics of the individuals to whom this service is addressed to.
       i.    Regular Basic Education, it is a type of Basic Education addressed to children
             and teenagers that go through the educational process on time according to their
             physical, emotional and intellectual evolution/growth from their moment of birth.
          Alternative Basic Education, this is a type of Basic Education which is tailored to
          students that did not have access to Regular Basic Education, in the framework of a
          lifelong education, to acquire and improve daily life performances and access to
          other educational levels. This mode has the same objectives and quality of EBR; it
          emphasizes the preparation for work and the development of entrepreneurial skills.
          It responds to the needs of:

                   Youth and adults that did not have access to regular education or
                    could not finish it.
                   Children and teenagers that were not inserted on time to EBR or who
                    dropped out of the Educational System and cannot continue regular
                    studies because of their age.
                   Students that need to study and work at the same time.

               The Literacy program corresponds to the first cycle of Alternative Basic

            Special Basic Education is a type of Basic Education that addresses, within an
            inclusive framework, children, teenagers, youth and adults with special educational
            needs (NEE, in Spanish) related to disabilities or talent (highly –gifted persons).

      ii.    On-line Education: is characterized by simultaneous or recorded interaction
             between the agents of the educational process; it is offered through technological

             means that enable autonomous learning. It is applicable to all stages of the
             educational system according to the corresponding regulations. This type of
             education aims to complement, reinforce or replace classroom teaching by
             meeting the needs and requirements of individuals. It also contributes to increase
             learning opportunities and coverage.


        Productive and Technical Education, this form of education is oriented towards the
        acquisition and development of competencies for business and work within a
        competitive and human sustainable development perspective; it also addresses the
        promotion of a culture for innovation to respond to the production sector demands, to
        technological advancements, to local, regional and national development, and to the
        needs of students within their specific environment. It is addressed to individuals
        seeking insertion or re-insertion into the labor market and to students of Basic
      i.    Community Education, it is a form of education which takes place throughout non
            educational organizations in any stage, level or mode. It aims to widen and enrich in
            a structured manner the knowledge, capacities, attitudes and values of individuals of
            any age, with or without schooling.

IV. CYCLES: are processes developed according to learning outcomes

  I. Regular Basic Education considers seven cycles which start during first childhood in order
  to organize the educational process in its different levels.
         I Cycle, addresses children from 0 to 2
         II Cycle, addresses children from 3 to 25
         III Cycle, addresses students from Primary/Elementary grades 1, 2
         IV Cycle, addresses students from Primary/Elementary grades 3, 4
         V Cycle, addresses students from Primary/Elementary grades 5,6
         VI Cycle, addresses students from Secondary/High School grades 1, 2
         VII Cycle, addresses students from Secondary/High School grades 3 to 5

       ii. Alternative Basic Education comprises three programs:
        Alternative Basic Education Program for children and teenagers (PEBANA, in
        Alternative Basic Education Program for youth and adults (PEBAJA, in Spanish)
        The Literacy Program

       Both the PEBANA and PEBAJA are developed in three cycles: Lower, Intermediate
       and Advanced. Each one of them comprises respectively two, three and four grades.

         Cycles and grades in Alternative Basic Education have a flexible duration.

         The literacy Program is developed in two cycles: initial and reinforcement, these are
         equivalent to the lower cycle of PEBAJA‟s program.

   ii.          Productive and Technical Education is organized in cycles according to the
                characteristics and complexities of technical profiles and to specific academic
                requirements. These cycles are not consecutive nor propedeutical:

           Basic Cycle. Provides the student with the necessary competencies to perform a
            specialized occupational activity. To access this cycle there is no requirement of
            previous formal educational level,
           Intermediate Cycle. Provides the student with the necessary competencies to perform
            a specialized occupational activity. To access this cycle competencies equivalent to the
            second level of Basic Education are required.

Productive and Technical Education is articulated with Regular Basic Education, Special Basic
Education, and Alternative Basic Education, according to students‟ needs.

IV. PROGRAMS. The Ministry of Education carries out a series of programs in the
    framework of specific strategies which have updated the guidelines for the future. These
    guidelines are design in order to improve teachers‟ quality, teaching materials, contents,
    learning environments and to the eradication of illiteracy.

          i.        Pedagogical recovery program
                  At primary/Elementary level, addressed to those students in conditions other than
                   those established in the Promotion and Repetition criteria for grades 2 - 6.
                  At Secondary/High School level, addressed to students having repeated no more
                   than three curricular areas including those areas and workshops created as part of
                   programmed free time or in an area to be recovered.

         ii.       National Lifelong Education and Training Program, it brings together teachers‟
                   initial education, its training, and in-service training. This program is coordinated
                   with higher education institutions.

         iii.      National Literacy Program, its mission is to carry out the actions addressed to
                   eradicate illiteracy in Peru within the period 2006 – 2011, which means to provide
                   reading, writing, and basic mathematical competencies (adding and subtracting) to
                   two million and a half Peruvian people.

         iv.       Strategic Program “Learning achievements” The Ministry of Education is
                   responsible, within the Country area, of the Strategic Program Learning
                   achievements in primary; for that reason it conducts coordinated planning with

        other involved sectors and regions, as well as follow up and assess the outcomes
        foresighted for the final results and products.

  v.    Preventive Maintenance Program, for the maintenance of classrooms of
        educational centers at a national level, preferably in disadvantaged or frontier

 vi.     “21st Century Teacher Program, a Laptop for every Teacher”, it contributes
        to personal and professional development of teachers in public Educational
        Institutions in the Country. This program will benefit teachers Countrywide by
        subsidizing the acquisition of computers, specially favoring those teachers
        working in rural and disadvantaged areas.

vii.    Scholarship Program establishes training objectives for the best students having
        completed secondary/High school in accordance to the educational demands of the
        Country, pedagogical and scientific advances. The present year starts with 2000
        students selected through a national evaluation. The scholarships are assigned
        according the merit order by each region. The minimum score to be eligible is 70
        over 100. The benefits of this program cover: students‟ fees, insurance, and extra
        expenses. At the end of teh scholarship the student commits himself to work for
        the State for ten years. The evaluation is carried out through ten academic cycles
        by qualified teachers‟ institutions.

viii.   One Laptop per Child Program, it is implemented through the General Direction
        of Educational Technologies (DIGETE, in Spanish) in order to contribute to
        educational equity in rural areas. Distributing 250 thousand XO Laptops
        Countrywide; the program aims to improve educational quality for students in
        these areas through the modernization and updating the role of the teacher.

 ix.    National Movement for Reading Comprehension, it will distribute reading
        comprehension modules in every school in the Country to enable students reading
        comprehension competencies.

  a.    Purpose and objectives of education at different levels;

  In Regular Basic Education:

   i.   Early Years Stage, with the involvement of families and community, this stage
        meets the purpose of promoting upbringing practices which contribute to the
        overall development of children. It takes into consideration the emotional and
        intellectual development, oral and artistic expression, neural motor skills and
        respect for the child‟s rights.    Early Years Education coordinates with
        Primary/Elementary Education ensuring pedagogical and curriculum coherence.
  ii.   Primary/Elementary Education Stage, aims to bring a well rounded education
        to children. It promotes communication through every area, an operational
        management of knowledge, personal development, creativity, skills acquisition for

       the use of their potentialities, as well as the understanding of facts related to their
       natural and social environment.
iii.   Secondary/High School Education Stage, offers students a scientific, humanistic
       and technical education. It consolidates their personal and social identity. It
       provides an in-depth knowledge of Primary Level contents. It is oriented towards
       the development of competencies to enable students to access changing
       humanistic, scientific and technological knowledge. It teaches for life, work,
       democracy, citizenship and to move on to higher levels of studies. It considers the
       characteristics, needs and rights of teenagers and adolescents
     Training for work is part of every student‟s basic education. In the last years of
     school within the educational institution itself or by agreement with vocational
     technical institutions, enterprises or other educational environments that allow for
     specific and flexible work learning‟s relevant to the development of each

Higher education is the second stage of the Educational System. It consolidates the
overall education of individuals, produces knowledge, develops research and innovation
and trains professionals in the highest level of specialization and expertise in all fields of
knowledge, art, culture, science and technology in order to meet the demands of society
and contribute to the Country‟s development and sustainability.

         University Higher Education
         The purposes of universities are:
                    1. To maintain, enrich and transmit universal culture with critical
                        and creative thought and with a special emphasis on national
                    2. To carry out research in the fields of humanities, science and
                        technologies, fostering intellectual and artistic creativity,
                    3. To educate/prepare high quality humanists, scientists and
                        professionals according to the needs of the Country, to develop
                        ethical and civic values, responsible and national solidarity
                        attitudes, knowledge of national facts as well as the need for
                        national, Latin-American and universal integration.
                    4. To extend its action and services to the community promoting
                        its overall development.
                    5. To meet the requirements established by the Constitution, the
                        Law and their statutes

    Non University Higher Education

    Non university higher education in Peru is composed by Higher Teaching
    Institutions (ISP; in Spanish), Higher Technical Institutions (IST, in Spanish) and
    Higher Fine Arts Schools. It is also composed by the institutions that by specific
    regulation of the University Law (art. 99, modified by Laws Nº 24183,
    24341,26215,26341, 27785), reasserted by The General Law of Education Nº 28044
    (Eleventh Complementary and transitory regulation) are considered in this level,

such as the School for Army Officers, Higher Schools of the Army, National Police
School, Public Health School (now Human Resources Development Institute),
Diplomatic School, National Teaching Institute of Monterrico, National School of
Merchant Navy “Almirante Miguel Grau”, National Autonomous Higher School of
Fine Arts, Autonomous Higher School of Fine Arts “Diego Quispe Tito or the
national Conservatory of Music. These institutions have an academic and economic
regime established by the laws that regulate them; they issue the corresponding titles
on behalf of the Nation and benefit from the exonerations and incentives.

“Public and Private Higher Institutions, Higher Schools of Fine Arts and Higher
Education Institutes which provide teaching education are Non University Higher
Institutions, addressed to educate, to bring up to date and to specialize teachers and
other professionals of the highest quality the Country needs...”

        The objectives of the Higher Teaching Institutes and Higher schools of
        Teacher Education are:

            1. To promote the overall education of students and future teachers.
            2. To ensure that future teachers achieve the necessary competencies
               to guarantee:
               a. An efficient performance in favor of the students‟ talents and
                   the development of their potentialities.

                b. To become efficient researchers and promoters of learning. To
                   be agents and leaders of change for the transformation of the
                   local, regional and national reality.

                c. To keep a permanent attitude for ethical, moral, professional,
                   and civic improvement, allowing them to be part of their work
                   environment and to contribute from the local community to the
                   population‟s human and sustainable development.

                d. The development of emotional and reliable bonds with his
                   students, within the interactions and pedagogical processes.

The objectives of the Higher Technological Institutes are:

        a. To produce versatile, competitive professional with values, and a sense
           of equality. They must develop work competencies and
           entrepreneurship capacities to respond to the characteristics and
           demands of the local and regional market in the framework of
           decentralization and improvement of the population‟s quality of life.

        b. To consolidate the overall education of people, to develop research and
           innovation, to favor the improvement of technology in order to meet the

                   demands of society and contribute to the Country‟s development and

               c. To achieve the order and pertinence of the educational offer provided by
                  higher technological institutes in order to provide education on those
                  careers that respond to the requirements of the labor market, regional
                  strategically plans and to the development of the regional potentialities.

               d. To promote the social appreciation and recognition of Higher
                  Technological Education, as a main factor for productive, economic,
                  social and technological development to advance the Country‟s

 b.     The curriculum policies, the content of education and the strategies of teaching
        and learning

 In Regular Basic Education:

 i.      The curriculum policy in Peru, according to Law N° 28044, General Law of
         Education , article 13, common basic curriculums for the Country are established
         for the whole Country as a factor for the achievement of quality education. These
         curriculums are coordinated among the different educational levels and modes, as
         well as diversified in regional, local and educational centers levels in order to meet
         the characteristics of each field.
       The design emphasizes the recognition of the individual as the axis of the
       educational process, for that reason it highlights various central aspects: quality, to
       ensure the efficiency of the processes, achievement of results and better conditions
       for an education for identity, citizenship, and work in a framework of lifelong
       education. Equality in order to enable quality education for every Peruvian with no
       exclusion. Interculturality, to contribute to the recognition and appreciation of our
       cultural diversity. Democracy, which enables to educate for and with tolerance,
       respect to human rights, as well as participation, ethics, thus strengthening values of
       individuals and raising public moral conscientiousness. Pertinence, to favor the
       development of an education according to age groups, diversity and sustainable
       development of Peru.

iii.     The contents of education in Peru include learning‟s which students must achieve
         when concluding each level as well as the evaluation form. These learnings are a
         specification of Basic Education objectives; they are based on the multilingual and
         pluricultural social reality diagnostics of childhood and adolescents. They have as
         pedagogical and coherence supports the principles and aims of Peruvian education
         established in the General Law of Education.

iv.      The pedagogical process of teaching-learning used in the framework of a
         pedagogy for diversity uses the following strategies:

    To establish a motivational, solidarity, acceptance, trust, open to diversity and
     inclusive climate, adequate to encourage interpersonal bonds among students.
    To show high expectations about students‟ learning possibilities.
    To diversify learning processes according to the characteristics and capacities of
     each student.
    To establish rules of coexistence in the classroom with the students to facilitate a
     nice, tolerant, respectful, stimulating environment to ease educational work and
     social relations.
    To use in an optimum manner, the available resources in the classroom, the
     educational institution and the community.
    To assume direct responsibilities in the permanent orientation of its own students.
    To enable research, critical reflection, creativity as well as democratic participation
     in the life of the educational institution and the community.
    To foster the interest and critical reflection of the most relevant processes of the
     public local, regional and national life.
    To design and practice pedagogical management processes and tools.

In Higher Education:

The study regime is established by each Universities Statutes, preferably through a
semester based system with flexible curriculum based on credits. Research, teaching,
permanent training and intellectual production is inherent to university teaching.

The legal framework in education (particularly the new regulations);

The Education Sector as part of the Executive Power has as legal framework the General
Law of Education, Law N° 28044, which establishes the aims and objectives of Peruvian
education; it also has as an action framework several national and international
agreements, the most representative of which are:

 The Millennium Development Goals; Peru is committed to meet by the year 2015
  with the eight proposed objectives.
 Education for All world Objectives; Peru endorses the six Education for All world
  commitments for 2015.
 National Agreement (2002 – 2021), The 12th State Policy corresponds to Universal
  access to Free Public Education of Quality and Promotion and Defense of Culture and
 The National Education Project: for 2021 six strategic objectives are proposed as
  overall response to education in long term
 National Plan of Education for All 2005 – 2015, Peru, it was elaborated by the
  National Forum of Education for all and proposes nine objectives of intersectorial
  relationships in the framework of world initiatives for education for all...

      The national Plan for Human Rights (2006 – 2010), which considers as strategic
       objective to guarantee respect and full satisfaction to all human rights, including the
       right to education.
      The Commission for Truth and Reconciliation Report, elaborated by the The Truth
       and Reconciliation Commission (CVR, in Spanish) which commits the education
       sector to the educational principles and recommendations of the CVR to ensure quality
       education and a fair and supportive citizenship which promotes democratic values.

i.       Among the new regulations.

     In Regular Basic Education:

      Modification of the Teachers Law in reference to Teachers’ Public Career,
          It commits State to guarantee qualified teachers and educational authorities, as well
          as their good performance to meet each student‟s right to a competitive teacher,
          promoting the sustainable improvement of professional quality for the achievement
          of learning and the overall development of students.
      Law that declares Regular Basic Education as an essential public service, it
       declares Regular Basic Education as an essential public service, in order to guarantee
       the practice of the fundamental rights of the individual to education, right recognized in
       the Constitution of Peru, in the General Law of Education and in the international
       agreements endorsed by the Peruvian State.
      Law N° 28740, Law of the National System for Evaluation, Accreditation and
       Certification of educational Quality, its objective is to contribute to improve the
       quality of educational services at all stages, levels, modes, forms, cycles and programs
       and institutions in the Country, determining and establishing the criteria, standards, and
       evaluation, accreditation and certification processes.
      Supreme Decree Nº 007-2007-ED, creates the National Program for Lifelong
       Education and Training, responsible for developing actions conducting to the
       improvement of teachers‟ in service education in public educational institutions
       Country wide.

      Supreme Decree Nº 0022-2006-ED creates the National Movement for Literacy,
       responsible for developing actions aimed at eradicating illiteracy in the Country.
      Supreme Decree Nº 078-2006-PCM authorizes the Ministry of Education to carry out
       the Pilot Plan of Educational Management Municipalization for Early years and
       Primary Level. With the participation of Municipalities, it establishes the elaboration of
       guidelines for the Pilot Plan in coordination with the municipalities that take part in
       said plan as well as with the Regional States and the different levels of decentralized
       educational management.

         In Higher Education:

      Regulation N° 065-2008-ME/SG-OGA Regulations for the issuance and
         distribution of ID cards for students from Non University Higher Education
         Institutes (July 10th, 2008). It aims to regulate and distribute the ID cards for the
         identification and practice of the right for differentiated transport ticket. It is

        addressed to students from Higher Institutions for Teachers and Public and Private
        Higher Education Technological Institutions with careers which have duration of no
        less than two years.

       Ministerial Resolution N° 0018-2007-ED, It approves the National Regulations
        and Orientations for the development of Educational Activities during the year 2007
        in Non University Higher Education Institutions”

   c.    Present and future reforms principal objectives and characteristics

        Multianual Sectorial Plan PESEM 2007-2011, elaborated participative under the
        responsibility of the Secretary of Planning of the Ministry of Education, it collects
        specific policy guidelines established in the different plans within the Sector as
        well as those inter-institutional plans, besides the international Agreements endorsed
        by the Peruvian State.
        Considering this background and within the Framework of national Policies 2007 –
        2001, it establishes Sectorial priorities for next years must focus on:

              o   Equity:
              o   Reduce illiteracy
              o   Enhance programs and services in Early Years Education
              o   Equity in access and quality in rural areas
              o   Access to regular classrooms for students with special educational needs
              o   Inclusive Education

              o   Quality:
              o   To improve the quality of Regular Basic Education
              o   To improve the quality of Bilingual Intercultural Education
              o   To improve the educational infraestructure, including the communication
                  and information technologies in support of the educational process
              o   To improve the quality of Higher Education through accreditation
              o   To improve the quality of Higher Teacher Education
              o   To improve the quality of initial and in service teachers education
              o   To improve and stimulate teachers‟ professional performance
              o   To promote Municipalities participation in educational management
              o   To improve the quality of Regular Basic Education
              o   To intensify the fight against corruption
              o   To promote citizens‟ participation in accountability

1.2. Principalpolicies, achievements as well as experiences specially in relation to:
    a. Access to education (with special emphasis on actions taken to assist excluded
         boys and girls, youths and adults);

    The general Law of Education, Law Nº 28044, in the article 12, guarantees the
    universalization of Basic Education:

     “To guarantee the universalization of basic education in the Country as foundation for
    human development, education is compulsory for the students of early years, primary
    and secondary levels. The State provides the necessary public services to achieve this
    objective and guarantees the time of studies equals international standards. It
    corresponds to parents or t legal guardians to guarantee the timely registration of
    students and their permanence in educational centers and programs.

    At present the educational coverage of population ages 6 to 8 has reached figures close
    to universalization (96,5%). It does not shows great gaps between gender, area or level
    of poverty. In 2007, the Primary Education coverage net rate reached 93.6 %.

    On the other hand, the General Law of Education (enacted in July 2003) creates the
    Alternative Basic Education “EBA” for all those individuals without schooling or
    incomplete basic education. The EBA is regulated with the D.S. Nº 015-2004-ED –
    2004 and its progessive implementation is established in the Conversion Plan approved
    by R.M. Nº 542 - 2005-ED1.

    The EBA offers three programs:

                 1. Alternative Basic Education Program for children and teenagers (PEBANA, in
                    Spanish), ages 9 to 18
                 2. Alternative Basic Education Program for youth and adults (PEBAJA, in
                    Spanish), more than 18
                 3. The Literacy Program more than 15

    Early Chilhood Program ( as a means to support overall development and learning of
    boys and girls as well as the transition to primary teaching);

    The registration in Early Years Education (ages 3 to 5) has shown a sustainable growth
    through the last years (both in public and private schools), growing from 52,6 % in 2001
    to 64% in 2007, as shown in the next chart. During that year ,the Sector covered
    1´140,997 boys and girls from 3 to 5.

                                     Chart 1. Early Years coverage evolution (3to 5))





1                                    1985    1994   1998   1999   2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
    Fuente: Dirección General de Educación Básica Alternativa – DIGEBA.
                   Total             24.3    57.1   45.5   53.4   51.9   52.6   52.2   53.2   58.5   57.5   59.5   64.2
                   Urbana            32.2    59.1   51.0   57.0   56.6   59.1   59.6   61.6   71.1   67.4   69.4   72.4
                   Rural              15.9   54.9   39.9   48.7   45.3   44.0   42.7   42.5   42.5   45.9   47.0   52.8
                   Rural Femenina
                   Rural masculina
Children from 3 to 5 that attend early years public educational centers are included in the
integral insurance protection scheme of the Ministry of Health _ MINSA, at the same
time these children are included in the nutritional supplement programs of the National
Program of Food Support – PRONAA.

Source: Nacional Home Survey - INEI
Prepared by:: Educational Statistics Unit UEE - MED

Though the average age of entrance to primary education has improved significantly
over the last years, the 4,0% of the population gets registered with delay, this indicator
is greater in rural areas(5,9%).. This fact has more incidence in isolated areas with long
distances in between homes and educational institutions, students tend to enter to school
at an age over the established. Nevertheless, it is necessary to mention that the portion
of children aged five attending 1st grade of Primary Education increases constantly
,specially in urban areas .

b.     Learning outcomes, specially in relation to the efforts to improve learning
       outcomes (how well do students perform at different levels?) and reduce
       inequalities (how have inequalities been reduced in learning outcomes?)

The results of the National Evaluation – EN (in Spanish) carried out in 2004 by the
Quality measurement Unit- UMC of the Ministry of Education show significant quality
problems on the students‟ reading comprehension and mathematics results: the majority
of students didn‟t reach the expected performance levels for the grade. This problem

    affects students in all social levels studied: only 12,1% and 7,9% of sixth grade students
    reached the expected performance in communication and mathematics respectively.

                                                      Chart 3
         Portionnof students that finish Primary and reach expected levels of performance in
          communication and mathematics
                                             Áreas                             Primary
                        Communication                                            12,1

                        Mathematicis                                             7,9
                         FUENTE: Resultados de la Evaluación National UMC /MED 2004

    Another remarkable aspect of the EN 2004 results is that a considerable portion of the
    capacities established in the curriculum are not developed in the classroom. This affects
    the students’ learning opportunities, if we consider as well that the capacities developed
    are usually managed in a functional manner, that is to say, through low cognitive
    demand tasks. It was found that students usually have more difficulty solving those
    questions related to contents that have been less developed in the classroom.

    c.    The education, recruitment, work conditions, transfer and professional in
          service development of teachers.

    The population of public and private teachers of the Peruvian Educational Sector is
    composed by 468,823 teachers (2006). The public teachers represented in this same
    year 65.18% of the total (305,589) and private teachers 34.81% (163,234).                  2

    Within the years 1983 y 2002, the public expenditure per capita dropped to 1.3% annual
    average rate and school coverage had a progressive extension which worsen the sector's
    condition, resulting in the deterioration of public expenditure by student and the
    significant reduction of teachers salaries, that were more and more numerous. (Saavedra
    : 2000; Web and y Valencia : 2006; Benavides and Rodríguez : 2006 ).
    The negative trend of in teachers‟ salaries contrast with the fast contraction and rapid
    recovery of the salaries of other professional groups, though specially if we consider the
    number of hours monthly worked by teachers and the same demographic, social and
    educational characteristics of other professional, both salaries would be similar.
    Additionally, the salary‟s structure of teachers are more plain, less changeable and do
    not receive the same return for education as the rest do.

    At present the Ministry of Education has implemented measures to allow for the
    recognition of the teachers career, from initial to in service education, with immediate
    training and updating to improve teachers‟ working performance. These measures are
    focused on the quality improvement of learnings through crosscutting issues in school

    Concerning Lifelong education, the permanent process of updating and widening of
    knowledge, for teachers‟ better development in regular basic educational institutions at
    national level. It is conducted by the educational system composed by the Ministry of
    Education , the Regional Bureaus of Education (DRE), Educational Management Local
    Units (UGEL), Educational Institutions and Regional States, under local, regional,
    national policies.

    Escale – MED: Cifras de la Educación 1998-2006 (http://escale.minedu.gob.pe/escale/inicio.do?pagina=404)

   Within the national scope, the Ministry of Education implements policies in coordination
   with Regional States, while in the regional scope the Regional States collect, analyze,
   assess the demand and impacts, producing policies , regulations and pertinent and
   contextualized learning strategies in each region.

   The Lifelong Educational System, comprises initial education and in service education,
   it begins in the period of teachers‟ insertion, promotes teaching students‟ professional
   development – at Teaching Institutes and Universities- through in service teaching,
   through the programs:

        Inicial Education Teachers´ Program
        Teachers‟ Permanent Improvement Program
        Educational Program for Principals,       sub directores and specialists of
         descentralized educational management levels of Educational Institutions
         (Regional Bureaus of Edcuation and Educational Management Local Units)
        Teachers‟ Excellence Special Recognition Program

1.3. The role of the educational system in the fight against poverty as well as other forms
     of social exclusión and cultural separation(how it is conceived? What kind of
     contribution is to be expected? What kind of strategies should be implementes?)

       The Peruvian State conscious of the different dimensions of social exclusion and of
       the national level of poverty -almost half the population- has designed inter-
       sectorial intervention programs in order to contribute to overcome poverty through
       the sectorial educational strategic objectives

       JUNTOS is a Social Program addressed to the most vulnerable population, in
       extreme poverty, risk and exclusion condition, promoting the practice of
       fundamental rights through the coordination of the offer offood, health, education
       and identity services.

       To achieve this objective JUNTOS provides a monetary incentive conditioned of S/.
       100 free of use for the representative (mother/father) of each participant home.

       Many widowers part of JUNTOS may access no only to the monetary incentive but
       to the improvement of basic services in food, health and education to develop human
       capital which enables a positive attitude in their lives.

       The beginning of its operations took place in the District of Chuschi, Ayacucho,
       where 1,041 homes received for the first time in September 2005 the benefits of

Until June 2008, the JUNTOS Program has reached 408,961homes in extreme
poverty in 638 rural districts in 14 departments all over the Country. Nevertheless it
continues its work of incorporating other regions and districts at national level.

This constant work has been recognized by international institutions such as the
United nations Program for Development and the United Nations Children‟s Fund,
whom have highlighted the actions undertaken by the Peruvian social model.

Thanks to the coordination between the Ministries of Women and Social
Development, Health, Education and Economy, as well as the National Bank, the
Identity and Civil National Register, the Statistics Institute and the active
participation of the Table of Agreements to Fight against Poverty, The JUNTOS
Program, now it is a reality increased by the participation and the voluntary
commitment of parents that can now foresee a better future for their families,

       At present the JUNTOS Program is part of the National Strategy CRECER,
        created by D.S. 055-2007-PCM , July 2, 2007 and which aims to fight
        poverty and chronic malnutrition, CRECER coordinates the social
        programs work in three axes:
       Restitution of fundamental rights
       Promotion of productive development
       Social protection Network

The JUNTOS Program – Subsystem MINEDU initiates in 2005 and the transfers
were carried out in 2006 and 2007, the third transfer is being carried out in 2008.
Transfers were allocated according to the commitments assumed by the Education
Sector in the following components.
           Early Years Education. The educational level is highlighted.
           Didactic material It is about providing educational materials to
            students in JUNTOS Program to enable them to develop teaching and
            learning processes in favorable conditions.
           Teachers’ Training It provides Reading Comprehension, Reasoning,
            General and Specific Curriculum modules.
           Improvement of the efficacy of Educational management. It deals
            with the implementation of adequate mechanisms for an efficient
            control, maintenance and permanence of students in the classroom. It
            collects information which are processed automatically.         The
            information processing is based on an system specially designed for
            that purpose.

                       Strengthening of Educational Agents Skills on management. It
                        trains the members of the monitoring system, so that they can provide
                        support to the teachers within the field of intervention of the program.
                        Coordination of the MINEDU Subsystem. Support team on the
                        management of the different components of the Subsystem at MED
                        Level. It seeks to ensure an adequate program and development of
                        activities within the framework of the JUNTOS Program Subsystem


2.1. Approaches, scope and content

     a) How is inclusive education conceptualized? Which is the actual viewpoint of
        inclusive education in your Country?

        The National Agreement, as a collection of long term State Policies, establishes
        between them the following objective: Equity and Social Justice. In this sense, the
        representatives of political, religious, civil and State organizations who approved said
        policies, agreed upon human development as a whole, overcoming poverty and equal
        access to opportunities for all men and women in Peru, with no discrimination, as
        constituting the main axis for the State‟s action plan.

        Consistent to said form, they promised to: guarantee universal and unrestricted access
        to an integrated, public, free and quality education which promotes equity amongst men
        and women, consolidating democratic values and preparing citizens for an active role in
        their social life. Accepting the autonomy of each school, as national and decentralized,
        all inclusive, and which provide multiple exits. Peruvian education must emphasize
        ethical, social and cultural values in the development of an ecological consciousness as
        well as incorporating people with disabilities.

        In the framework of the general Education Law, Peruvian education considers people
        as fundamental agents of the educational process, under which the principle of
        educational inclusion, which incorporates people with disabilities, excluded social
        groups, marginalized and vulnerable, especially in rural areas, without distinction of
        race, sex, religion or other cause of discrimination thus contributing to the eradication of
        poverty, exclusion and inequality.

        The National Educational Project (or PEN in Spanish) situates itself in two
        different yet mutually influencing dimension when dealing in terms of Basic
        Education and Non University Level Education. This are: an education for the
        personal development of each individual and an education for the collective growth of
        democracy and the development of the Country, establishing between the required

changes in Peruvian education the following results for 2021: Thirteen years of
good/quality ¿? Education without exclusions. Basic Education is universalized and
guarantees equal opportunity as well as educational results for infants, children, and
youth all along the Country.
Goal that could be attained thru policies directed at including rural and urban social
groups who have been marginalized from Basic Education. These groups are conformed
by children 5 years old, adolescents who could not access secondary education and
youths, male and female all over the Country.

Similarly, the principles of University/Higher Level Education which rule their activity
coincide with the precepts of the National Agreement by rejecting all forms of violence,
intolerance, discrimination and dependency (article 3° University/Higher Level
Education law 23733).

Between these policies and priorities which are currently being developed, Inclusive
Education stands out as number one, for people with disabilities. At the same time,
Integral attention for preschool children has been prioritized, where a 15% goal for ages
0 to 2 is expected and an increase from 56 to 69% for ages 3 to 5. Inclusive methods
such as providing better access, permanency and conclusion have been considered, as
well as the necessary social conditions for the educational process in Elementary and
high School. In Elementary education is to go from 70 to 80%. To increase
achievements in the 2nd grade from 15 to 35 % in reading comprehension and from 9.6 to
30 % in Mathematical Reasoning by 2011, as well as progressively including children
and youths previously excluded from Basic Alternative Education.

The Ministry of Education considers empowering Intercultural and Bilingual Education
and eradicating analphabetism in our Country.

Peru is making efforts to push forward Inclusive Education within the framework of a
social and educational inclusion which incorporates health and alimentation as well as
access to justice, permanency and conclusion, educational conditions and achievements.

Which are the most important challenges in order to assure social and educational
inclusion? How have these challenges changed in recent years?

The most important challenges in order to assure social and educational inclusion are
defined in the National Agreement, as a collection of State Policies, they depend of all
the state powers in their design or execution in the long term. In other words, their
policies head towards Peru in the year 2021, garnishing stability which the Country
requires in order to reach a sustainable development and contributing, as well, to the
construction of a democracy built upon dialogue.

The second objective of the National Agreement: Development with equality and social
Justice, establishes as 11th State Policy the Promotion of equal opportunity with no
discrimination, promising to Adopt measures oriented at achieving economic, social
cultural and political opportunities eradicating all forms of inequity and
discrimination, under the context of the respect for Human Rights.

In regards with budgetary aspects, the same National Agreement proposes to reach 6%
of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to invest in education.

Similarly, the State has established the compulsory compliance of a series of National
Policies, which involve every and all of the ministries as well as the National State,
to be fulfilled during the Stateal term. With in this are:
    o Concerning equality of men and women, which considers equal opportunity
         between men and women in public policies, national plans and practices, as well
         as in the hiring of public servants and access to high level posts.
    o Concerning youths, strengthening and promoting youth participation in the
         diverse aspects of social and political spaces, as well as in the Ministries and
         other Stateal institutions, in the promotion of plans, projects and programs
         related to youths.
    o Concerning Andean, Amazonian, Afro-Peruvian and Asian-Peruvian
         groups, in order to contribute in the implementations of programs with a
         national reach and Sectorial policies aimed at the integral development of
         Andean, Amazonian, Afro-Peruvian and Asian-Peruvian groups.
    o Concerning people with disabilities, in order to contribute to the effective
         participation of people with disabilities in all social, economic, political levels
         and cultural life of the Country.
    o Concerning inclusion, all Ministries and National State Institutions
         interventions should:
               Promote economic, social, political and cultural inclusion of traditionally
                excluded or marginalized groups either because of economic, racial,
                cultural or geographic reasons, mainly located in rural and/or organized
                around native or farming communities.
               Compulsorily divert part of their activities, actions and budget for
                infrastructure in favor of excluded social groups.
               Develop programs destined to reduce infant mortality, prevent chronic
                diseases, and improve nutrition of minors.
               Adopt measures to eradicate child labor and favor responsible paternity.
               Guarantee respect for the human rights of vulnerable groups, eradicating
                all forms of discrimination.

In the Education sector, the enactment of the General Law of Education has permitted
to properly define the concept of inclusive education in Peru, increasing its definition
from just education opportunities for people with special needs or some type of
disability, towards other excluded human groups. Thus, in its IV Chapter “Equality in
Education” proposes the required measures to be taken, as well as the scope of
Education in Indigenous Groups and Intercultural Bilingual Education.

“...the State guarantees and recognizes the right of indigenous people to equal
education. For this reasons, it establishes special programs which guarantee equal
opportunity and gender equality in rural areas as well as places where it is pertinent.

“…Intercultural Bilingual Education is offered thru out the whole education system:

      A. it promotes the enrichment and valuation of the culture, the respect for cultural
         diversity, intercultural dialogue and the awareness of indigenous people‟s rights,
         and other national and foreign communities. It incorporates the history of the
         diverse people, their knowledge and technology, value systems and social and
         economic aspirations.

      B.   it guarantee learning in the learner‟s mother tongue and Spanish as a second
           language, and later the learning of foreign languages.

      C.   it determines the obligation of teachers to be fluent in the location‟s original
           language where they work as well as in Spanish.

      D. it assures the participation of indigenous people in the elaboration and
         implementation of educational programs to form teams capable of progressively
         assume the management of these programs.

      E.   it preserves the native languages and promotes their development and practice.

   Process enriched by diverse social and educational initiatives, which include Education
   for All.

   In the context previously expressed, the most significant changes made in Peruvian
   education have been noted in The National Education Project. Thus, the substitution of
   an education which reproduces inequitie1s for another which brings education
   results and opportunities of quality for all, exempt from all forms of discrimination,
   is one of the challenges raised for 2021.

   Complementarily, the Multi-annual Educational Sectorial Plan (PESEM) 2007-2011
   makes these proposals viable to be raised within their general objectives to increment
   quality and equity of the services provided by the Education Sector, which translates
   to specific objectives aimed at:
       o Reducing analphabetism
       o Increasing programs and services in elementary education
       o Equal access and quality in rural areas, while respecting local cultural and
            linguistic diversity as well as the environment
       o Access for students with special education needs into normal classes
       o Conclusion of quality elementary education
       o Increase coverage and improve the quality of high school education
       o Improve infrastructure and equipment, including ICT‟s
       o Consolidating public higher learning institutions into research and investigation
       o Strengthen and revalue teaching degree.

b) Is there regulatory or normative framework specific to inclusive education? Which
   groups are considered excluded within this framework and how are they

Educational inclusion has been promoted in Peru by the following public policies:
 Inclusive Education Decade – Supreme Decree/Act N° 026-2003-ED, which
   states that the Ministry of Education must execute plans and projects which
   guarantee actions in favor of educational inclusion within the context of “Inclusive
   Education Decade 2003 – 2012”.
 General Law of People with Disabilities, Law N° 27050, restated by law N°
   28164. Its objective is to establish the general legal protective system of health care,
   labor, education and rehabilitation so that the person with a disability can develop as
 Rural Youths and Female Education Promotion Law. Law N° 7558, which
   obliges the State to promote equal conditions for boys and girls and youths in rural
   areas. It must elaborate education policies which respond to the needs of these
   sectors and, specifically, girls and rural youths, within the framework of quality and
   integral formation for all.
 New Adolescent and child Code. Law N° 27337. This establishes as economic,
   social and cultural rights education, culture, sports and recreation, ensuring free
   access to public schooling for those with economic disadvantages. No child or
   adolescent can be discriminated against in an educational center either because of a
   disability, or civil status of their parents. The girl or adolescent, pregnant or mother
   cannot be impeded form starting or continuing her studies.
 Equal Opportunity Plan for People with Disabilities, with an inter-Sectorial
   focus, it establishes public policy actions which generate equal opportunity and
   participation opportunities for people with disabilities within the framework of
   cultural tolerance and respect.
 Law which foments university/college vacancies for Victims of Terrorism. Law
   N° 27277. This law establishes that all public Universities reserve, in their
   admission process and specialized technical courses, a number of vacancies, which
   they consider adequate, for the benefit of children of terrorism victims.
 Law of Budgetary Results of Recent Implementation. The objective is to
   “Achieve a budgetary compensation which favors and promotes the progressive
   development of management oriented in favor of results thru out Public
   Administration”, with the purpose of strengthening the efficiency and equality, in
   order to contribute to improve the performance of the State in relation to the well
   being of the public, specially the poor and excluded.
 National Equal Opportunity Plan for Men and Women 2006 – 2010, D.S. 009-
   2005-MIMDES, which incorporates gender equality. This is to say, equal
   opportunities between men and women, in a manner which is sustainable thru the
   design of public policies and the management of programs.
 National Equal Opportunity Plan for People with Disabilities 2003 – 2007, D.S.
   001-2003-PCM, Whose objective is to “…Contribute to improve the quality of life
   of the population with disabilities by means of preventing, preferred attention to
   services, adopting measures to provide positive discrimination and strengthening
   and expanding existing services, facilitating access, quality and coverage…”
 National Plan against Female Violence 2002 – 2007. D.S. N° 017-2001-
   PROMUDEH, with the following objectives:
   o To promote awareness against violence and counteract practices which tolerate
        violent practices.

            o   To assure specialized quality services.
            o   To establish and maintain a system which provides information to the public and
                private sectors about the causes, characteristics, risks, consequences and
                frequency in which violence occurs and a register of the efficiency of the
                adopted measures.
            o   To modify laws, rules and practices which backup or tolerate violence, and who
                guarantee legal and judicial protection.

           National Plan for Senior Citizens 2002 – 2006. D.S, N° 017-2001.-PROMUDEH,
            with the following objectives:
            o To improve, physically, mentally and socially Senior Citizens
            o To promote senior citizen solidarity
            o To increase the levels of social and political participation of senior citizens
            o To elevate/promote the cultural and educational level of senior citizens, and to
                promote a positive attitude towards aging.

           Within the framework of the General Education Law, the basis for Regular Basic
            Education, Alternative Basic Education and Special Basic Education are
            formulated – Supreme Decree/Act N° 002-2005-ED, with an inclusive viewpoint.

           Registration for boys, girls and youths with disabilities at all levels and forms of the
            educational system R.M. N° 069-2008-ED.

           Norms to aid the Conversion Especial Education Centers – CEBE and Backup and
            Counseling Services for students with Special Needs –SAANEE- Directive N° 076-

           Norms and rules for the Organization and Execution of Early Intervention Programs
            –PRITE- Directive N° 081-2006-VMPG/DINEBE.

    As for the human groups affected by social exclusion, the 11th policies of State in the
    National Agreement states that efficient priorities for the promotion of equal opportunities,
    recognizing Peru‟s diverse forms of discrimination and social inequalities, specially towards,
    women, childhood, seniors, people members of ethnic backgrounds, disabled and people
    with no resources, amongst others.

     This is why, and according to the study elaborated by the Ministry of Education, in relation
     to the Education Indicators, poverty, malnutrition, low education levels of the mothers and
     mother tongue different from Spanish are the important characteristics of Peruvian children
     and youths in school age, affecting their future education success and with that possible
     future social exclusion.
2.2. Public Policies:

a) Which is the actual social dimension of the exclusion phenomenon inside and
   outside the Educational System? What kind of indicators and data are used to
   inform/measure inclusive education policies?

With a holistic vision and as a result of their research in political violence lived in Peru
during the 1980-2000 period, “la Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación or CVR” (the
Truth and Reconciliation Commission) concluded that, together with the socioeconomic
gap, the process of violence manifested the severity of inequalities based on ethnical
and cultural traits in Peru. Based on the notorious relationship between poverty and social
exclusion which increases the possibility of being a victim of violence, which affected
particularly farming communities in rural areas and who speak languages different from
Spanish and with education levels below that of the rest of the Country.

Said report adds that this period of violence impacted unequally different geographical
arenas and different social classes in the Country. The tragedy suffered by rural, Andean
and Amazonian, Quechua and Ashaninka, farmers, poor and uneducated populations in Peru
was not felt as ones own by the rest of the population; thus entailing a judgment from the
CVR, the veil of racism and attitudes of disdain still subsist in Peruvian society after two
centuries of the birth of the Republic.

According to the document, the social exclusion phenomenon in Peruvian Society is
multidimensional and superimposes multiple trajectories of misencouters. Collecting several
formats from various authors, we distinguished four fundamental dimensions: economic,
social, symbolic and political, which transcend and reproduce in the educational system.

The social exclusion phenomenon gives rise to the following situations in the education
 Inclusive culture, oriented towards the creation of a safe, comforting, collaborative and
    stimulating school community in which each student is valued as the fundamental
    essence for achieving higher goals.
 An inclusive policy to assure that inclusion is in the process of change, transverse to the
    entire system to improve learning and participation of all.
 Inclusive practices, in order to ensure that school activities, especially in the classroom
    and outside of school motivate student participation.

The strategic Multiannual Sectorial Plan PESEM 2007-2011 from the Education Sector,
according to National Policies, aforementioned, established the following indicators related
to Educative Inclusion:

o Within the framework of equality of men and women
   Percentage of education institutions which adequately implement tutorship.
   Illiteracy rate
o In relation to the youth Theme
   High school graduating rate (at official age).
   Adequate performance in Reading comprehension of graduating students.
   Adequate performance in Math of graduating students.

   Rate of growth of number scholarships granted in relation to the previous year.
o In relation to Andean, Amazonian, Afro-Peruvian and Asian-Peruvian groups
   Percentage of boys and girls 3 to 5 years of age who speak their native tongue in
       rural areas, who benefited from EIB.
   Percentage of boys and girls from elementary school who speak their native tongue
       in rural areas who benefited from EIB.
   Percentage of high school students who speak their native tongues in rural areas who
       benefited from EIB.
o In relation to the disable people theme
   Percentage of inclusive education Institutions (% added to the base line).
   Percentage of students who have benefited from Inclusive Institutions (% added to
       the base line).
o In relation to thematic Inclusion
   Percentage of high school students who speak their native tongues in rural who
       benefited from EIB.

It is also important to outline the following Specific Strategic Objectives related to Exclusive
o “To ensure quality education for people with special education needs”
o “better access and quality of educational services, while being mindful of cultural and
     linguistic diversity, and the proper treatment of the environment; with emphasis on rural
o “To reduce illiteracy and improve educational opportunities for those who cannot access
     Regular basic Education”
o “To ensure that all boys and girls finish elementary school with quality education”. This
     objective is evaluated thru the following indicator as defined by the PESEM:
           Net rate of elementary level coverage
           Rate of elementary school students who graduate (official age 11 to 13)
           Percentage of students who use ICT‟s for learning.
           Within the framework of Budget for Results it is considered: Second Year
              Students in elementary school who have reach a proficient level of
              comprehension of texts and Math.
o To improve the area of coverage and quality of education for boys and girls younger
     than the age of six”. This objective is evaluated thru two indicators as defined in the
o     “To Increase the coverage and quality of High School education”. This objective is
           Net rate of high School level education coverage
           Graduating rate of high school students who graduate (official age 16 -18)
           Percentage of education institutions who implement adequate tutorship
           Percentage of students who use ICT‟s for learning
           In the PPR: Third Year high school Students who reach a proficient level of
              comprehension of texts and Math

b) Which have been, are and will be the relevant issues in inclusive education for
   education policies in your Country?

For the National Education Project, national transformation is stated thru Human
development consolidates, from which concrete advancements must be confirmed in four
different dimensions: Economic development and competitiveness; welfare and equality,
affirmation of democratic institutions, State reform and territorial, social and cultural
integration of the Country.

Thus, national development starts with the eradication of exclusion, discrimination an
inequality of opportunities, based on the socioeconomic, ethnic, physical, mental, age and
gender condition and implies fighting against exclusive subordination suffered by other
cultures and languages.

The principles which influence current educational policies in the sector, evidenced by the
PESEM, which mission looks for “…the assurance that all people achieve the best chances
and means to acquire learning and knowledge, enhanced by the formative process in socio-
cultural and intercultural contexts, thus contributing to further the human development of

Work is being done in basic curricular structures, formation plans and teacher training,
follow up of quality education factors, pedagogical research and use of new teaching
technologies. With in its competencies, intersectorial relationships are established with
the help of civil society which acts in favor of education.

In its Sectorialrole, the Ministry of Education must tend to the compatibility and integration
of its policies, with other political intersectorial and regional plans and baselines within the
framework of decentralization.

c) Which are the groups considered as most vulnerable in various forms of exclusion
   inside and outside of the educational system? Who are excluded and unattended by
   current policies?

The diverse documents, mentioned above, consider vulnerable to social exclusion the human
groups in poverty, females, minors below five years of age boys and girls who work, teen
pregnancies, Andean or Amazonian rural inhabitants and victims of terrorism, also, those
with some type of disability or who have a mother tongue other than Spanish and senior

One of the most vulnerable groups is formed by people with disabilities, according to the
low registration rate of student with disabilities in the education system. There is a
relationship between disabilities and poverty, the later raises the risk of disabilities.

A second vulnerable group are infants around the Country. The low coverage rate for this
age group (0 to 2) excludes them not only from educational services, but also from health
and food services, since these services constitute and excellent platform for other sectors to

   identify and aid these infants. Similarly, the poverty indicators are related to low area

   d) How are the educational reforms taking into consideration inclusive education?

       Currently, eleven Sectorial priorities have been established, being their horizon in 2011.
       Literacy, evaluation and Municipalization stand out by:
            Expanding to more than two million Peruvians considered illiterate, the
               Programa Nacional de Movilización de la Alfabetización (Literacy program) has
               established a deadline to eradicate illiteracy by 2011.
            Improving management in local educational system, is the objective of the
               Municipalization Pilot Plan (pilot plan for Municipalization) started in 2006.
               Since local State – Municipalities – are closest to the population and to their
               social realities, they foment educational inclusion from the social participation
               in local development planning.
            The evaluation, accreditation and certification system of quality education will
               regulate the process of evaluation, accreditation and certification in the quality
               of education, defining the participation of the State.

2.3. Systems, interfaces and transitions

   a) Which are the main barriers (economical, political, and social) for inclusive

       Considering the economic barriers in relation to the integration and non-integration to
       work – method thru which people achieve, or not, their economic existence – attention
       must be paid to the constant technological and scientific advances which cause
       transformations in the work place and determine experiences of uncertainty and
       abandonment, which leads to exclusion of not only people who do not work but of
       people who do not have the required skills to find a job.

       Universities in Peru have become fundamentally producers of professionals, frequently
       in areas with few possibilities of insertion to the workforce, which contributes to a high
       rate of unemployment of their graduates. Seven of the 266 careers which make up the
       professional offer, represent 40 % of total registration for undergraduate degrees. These
       are overly saturated careers in the job market, and with little or no investment in
       logistics and formation of teacher/professors. Private universities tend to this fact due to
       cost benefit issues in the short term. Lower still is the correspondence between the
       degree and the possibility of a job which are open to higher strategic potential for
       national development in themed and long term.

       As for political barriers, what is at stake is the idea of citizenship, common condition to
       all men and women, and which leads to the correspondence with social groups, with all
       the attributes, rights, duties which society recognizes for its members. But, not all of
       those recognized as citizens from a political perspective, have the possibility of claiming
       the whole of their social rights. This condition of non belonging, or virtual citizenship,
       leads to exclusion.

In Peru, even if the Constitution and other legal rules establish free public education and
state that no charges can be applied for registration, 9 out 10 schools in urban areas and
in the city of Lima, as well as in rural areas, charge some form of fee during registration.

In one-teacher schools, a larger number of parents see the benefit of paying fees, where
as not so in multi teacher and complete schools. Said situation results form the high
demand of better formal education (even for high school level education) even if they
tend to be in poorer areas. In one hand, this is because parents are willing to assume the
cost of education; on the other hand, in these schools, where the participation of the state
is low, it is necessary for parents to collaborate more in order for the school to function.
Nevertheless, this situation remains paradoxical and incompatible with the principles of
equality in public education, because it reveals the fact that in poorer and more
vulnerable areas, parents must take on the costs so that the schools can function even if
they are not satisfied with the level of education.
In relation to the social barriers, the unstable work relationship above mentioned, leads
to the dis-structuralization of the normal life cycles due to the succession of learning and
activities periods and the time gained and insure for retirement; a marked dis-
structuralization due to the risks of destabilization in the ways of life and social
networks. The exclusion from work leads to, not only material deficiencies, but to the
loss of basic rights, the disqualification and dis-socialization (understood as the loss of
ones identity and security and as social abandonment) of a percentage of the population.

In Peru, between those minors who live in extreme poverty, only 78% and 54% of the 15
to 17 and 12 to 14 years old of the population have, respectively, finished elementary
school. The low level in which minors in extreme poverty finish school affects their
decision to continue to the next level in education. If a fifteen year old stops studying to
start working, he could contribute the family‟s income more effectively than a 12 year
old. Thus, the choice of studying the next year has a much higher cost for the 15 year

The inclusion, as a process looks for the constant search for better attention to diversity
and has as main barriers the following:
   Limitations in the articulation process at different instances of the Peruvian
    educational system.
   Regional authorities lack of involvement and unwillingness to prioritizeeducational
    policies with an inclusive perspective.
   Lack of teacher training for Special Student classes, as well as cultural, religious
    and linguistics training.
   The shortage of information of the current status of children with disabilities.
   Architectural and urbanistic barriers
   The rare use of ICT‟s as a methodological resource in the classroom, with the
    required adaptations for children with disabilities
   The lack of budgetary resources for inclusive education
   Limited sensibilization and commitment actions from the public in inclusive

b) Which are the elements which can facilitate a more inclusive education?

   For the National Education Project, the consolidation of human development implies
   building a space for equality in diversity: A society which grows in a space designed for
   integration which accept equal rights and opportunities and, at the same time, respect
   differences derived from the innate quality of being free and autonomous beings, with
   our collective differences, brought up from our historical conditions, cultural and
   traditional roots, where unity and cohesion must coexist with individual freedom and
   with the particularities of different human collectivities.

   Within this framework, the General Regular Basic Education Direction considers that
   the fundamental facilitators for an inclusive education in the Education Sector are:
    The official and normative framework with an inclusive focus.
    National Training Program for teachers in regular, special and bilingual schools.
    The decision to adapt the profile for elementary formation in teachers with an
       inclusive focus.
    Subscription of treaties with organizations of social interests and international
       institutions to implement services in favor of people with disabilities (FOAL- OEI,
       OEA Save the Children, Educational Forum, SENSE International, Propolis, etc).
   Additionally, it is suggested promoting an inclusive culture beginning at the family level
   geared towards other hierarchical social organization.

c) What kinds of measures and viewpoints have been adopted so that educational
   systems become more inclusive?

   The Peruvian educational system thru its Basic Regular Education Curricular Design,
   details the orientation principles and goals for education such as: Ethics, Equality,
   Inclusion, Quality, Democracy, Interculturality, Environmental Consciousness,
   creativity and Innovation.

   The principal measure adopted by the Peruvian State has been to promote the design and
   implementation of intersectorial programs, direct at vulnerable populations in our

d) What kind of measures and viewpoints have been adopted in order to help make
   the educational System more flexible and offer other opportunities to those who
   have abandoned the system and will not be able to reach an adequate qualification

   According to the Basic Regular Education Direction, the system offers a flexible
   formative itinerary officially acknowledged, which allows student success thru
   continuity in high school education or labor formation of the educational services
   through Basic Special Education, Basic Alternative Education and Basic Regular
   Education, as well as from Bilingual and Intercultural Education.

     On the other hand, the dependence in pedagogical policies to diversify curricula
     considering the levels of attention and the levels of adaptation to individual curriculums.
Teachers and Students

  a) What kind of new teaching and learning strategies are being implemented in order
     to improve education opportunities and learning achievements while reducing
     inequities for all?

              Basic Regular Education Office

      Considering the existing diversity between classrooms for boys and girls in Elementary
      Education, a variety of activities have taken place which respond to the interest and
      needs of these boys and girls. The activities are developed while keeping in mind
      multiple intelligences, visualized during different moments or activities in the classroom
      such as:

         Rutine activities where children develop hygiene, eating, organizational, habits and
          skills as well as learning discipline
         Free time activities where children choose where they wish to play, develop skills in
          their interaction with materials and supplies found on site
         Activities where, while exploring, living and interacting with their peers, teachers,
          objects, materials and situations they develop learning,
         Literary activities which help develop love for reading
         Artistic abilities which allow the free expression of feelings using different materials
         Neuromotor activities which allow children to know their body and to express
          feelings with movement.

      Taking into acount the playfulnature of children during all the previously mentioned
      activities, games are considered strategic activities where teachers, in a creative form,
      propose situations with pedagogical intentions in order to develop different activities.
      These might be developed by all children without distinction of potentialities where the
      teacher can respect learning timing; rhythms and styles of each child, helping them
      develop autonomy and, above all, provide an emotional support brought on by physical
      and affective self-assurance

      The implementation of simultaneous and differentiated strategies, applied in Multi-grade
      Schools have been projected.

      Although not all schools share this reality, the benefits of the proposal can be applied to
      other realities since the differences are of another kind such as: Styles and rythms,
      achievement level, prerequisites, amongst others.

      We mention the main benefitis of the proposal

      1. Attention to different needs

Simultaneous and differentiated attention diminishes inequalities in the classroom by
allowing the teacher to pay attention to individual student cycle (III, IV and V). This
kind of attention is denominated “direct”. This gives teachers the possibility to identify
special difficulties and develop actions in coordination with families and the community
(the health sector for example trying to coordinate some form of learning, language or
other type of therapy) oriented towards breaching these difficulties. Similarly, it will
allow teachers recognize potentialities in individual students and oriented in order to
develop activities in and outside of the school system.

2. A space of equality, respect and solidarity between peers
A space where inequalities are overcome is being built. As long as teachers work
directly with a cycle or grade, students from other cycles or grades (indirect attention)
are working autonomously but cooperatively (in pairs or small groups). This allows
students to become promoters of their partners learning. Said activity gathers strength
when there are student monitors who have the responsibility to help fellow students in
the development of the activity related to the particular skill being reinforced in the
session. Bear in mind that children monitors are not just trained by their teachers to help
their partners but, also, this attitude is used in a calm and harmonious atmosphere of
respect and democratic coexistence.

3. Incorporation, aloration and respect for cultural differences.
Thru ASD, teachers can enrich their and their student‟s experiences throughout the
different grades, this allows students to reinforce their own culture and identity while, at
the same time be open to new ways of thinking and cultures which leads to a reduction
of inequality since students have the opportunity to share realities which go beyond their
own school or community.

4. Incorporation, valuation and respect for each students own characteristics.
Attention to students own potentialities allows access to all students. From the point of
view of capacity building, these grants students access to a personal, cognitive, and
social development without leaving out their own previous experiences, being these also
considered as valuable while they are being incorporated into the nuances of daily
classroom activities.

5. Incorporation into formal education
Students can have access to formal education from the peculiarities of a rural classroom,
where the conceptions of time, space, as well as their perception of the world and
economical activities fulfill different roles than in cities, thus, access is achieved through

As we can see, it is possible to consider the focus of inclusion thru strategies based on
differential attention, with no restriction to multigrade rural schools.

On the other hand, with the Mobilization Campaign in favor of literacy, the following
can be highlighted

   The Previous Module 1 proposal (MP1) is oriented towards reinforcing respect,
    solidarity and equality as common social praxis.
   The strategies being developed in MP1 respond to peculiarities such as: Interests and
    needs of children and adolescents; the contextualization of diverse geographical
    spaces in our Country, while incorporating different realities with out excluding any.
   MP1 employs attention and organization strategies which promote pair and group
    work, providing the valuation of the peer, the group work and democratic
   During learning sessions with MP1, skills related to gender, intercultural and social
    and personal identity and equality themes are incorporated in order to reduce the
    differences between learners.

In High School education diverse strategies are being implemented which allow students
to have the opportunity to learn to learn and avoid school desertion. Some of these
strategies are:

In the classroom:
 Promotion of active methodologies oriented at the development of cognitive and
     meta-cognitive processes which allow for autonomous learning.
 Taking into account the different learning rythms and styles of each student.
 Planning and executing activities oriented at attention of students while considering
     multiple intelligences, learning needs and local context in which the activities are
     held in order for them to link them with their daily lifes for effective learning.

In the educational Institution
 The elaboration of a flexible and diversified curriculum which allows teachers to
     build a pertinent curriculum according to the needs of their students and their local
     context. This allows students to find a relationship between school and life in the
     community. These processes associated to friendlier schools contribute in reducing
     drop out rates.
 Improved and in depth technical-pedagogical information for teachers in order to
     improve their performance. Guides and other types of literature on pedagogical
     reading, analysis and thought are handed out in the classroom.
 Texts are handed out to students with the purpose of contributing to the
     improvement of student retention.
 Creation of new pedagogical spaces by providing libraries where students can read
     either to entertain themselves or to obtain information they require. Similarly thru
     the implementation of laboratories where students can manipulate materials such as
     the human body, microscopes amongst others.
 It has also been suggested, as a strategy to improve learning, a Special Program in
     the areas of Communications and Mathematics. These programs take place in “one
     shift” educational institutions – most of which are located in rural areas – and
     consist in increasing in 3 hours the presentations on Communications and in 2 hours
     the presentations in Mathematics. For this several strategies have been suggested
     which will contribute to reinforce the stated skills.
 Also, in order to improve the habits of reading and develop the reading
     comprehension of all students in Basic Regular Education the Reading Plan (Plan

        Lector) has been instituted in all educational institutions around the Country. This is
        a strategy which involves all education agents (principals, teachers, students and
        parents) as well as a transverse treatment in all curricular areas being developed in
        the learning sessions of each area.

    A Reading Comprension camping is being pushed forward which consists in providing
    modules in order to increase the level of reading comprehension performance – taking as
    reference international standards – in students between the ages of 14 and 15 years of
    age and who are distributed along 1°, 2°, 3° and 4° grades of high school education at
    the national level. The implementation of each module begins in the third trimester of
    the present year with students from 1°, 2° and 3° grade high school. Next year, the same
    students will continue, now in 2°, 3° and 4° grade. The module is made up of the student
    texts, the teachers guide and a student workbook. The text contains activities before,
    during and after reading, as well as the reading itself; additionally there are extension
    exercises oriented at reinforcing the work done. The teachers guide contains the
    methodologies for the development of student activities and complementary information
    such as definitions and references from the lecture and vocabulary. The students
    workbook which allows the student the possibility of underlining, enumerating and
    adding footnotes in order to improve reading comprehension strategies.

           Career Technical Edcuation and Technical Education Office

    Over a decade ago teaching, as a professional activity, has made a 180° turn. This
    phenomenon is related at all levels and modules of the Peruvian Educational System
    and, also, University Education. With the advent of the new educational focus, of a
    teacher technologist, left behind by the conductive system, the education professional
    cannot go back to the classic roll of a methodological teacher, but, overcoming this
    level, he profiles himself as a strategic teacher which Peruvian Universities need. More
    than ever, superior education must aim towards the integral development of the student
    and not just to a simple transition of information, in preschool as much as in
    postgraduate, requiring the adoption of new, richer and more complex forms of teacher

    The new socio-economic context of the Country demands a radical change in curricular
    plans; where the strategies, in as much teaching as learning, occupy a privileged spot.
    And, the information required for an intentional teaching needs a design and to apply
    procedures which facilitate acquisition, which, in turn, determines the redesign of the
    instructional process. These last points, constitute the basic tools of teachers in Higher
    University Education, in order to attain the main objective: The integral formation of
    professionals who are needed for the development of the Country.

    The teaching strategies are defined as heuristic, conscious and voluntary resources or
    procedures used by teachers in order to promote meaningful learning (Monereo 1994;
    Mayer 1984; Shuell 1988; West, Farmer & Wolf 1991, referenced by Diaz & Hernandez
    199). This is to say, the use of teaching strategies facilitate a deeper learning procedure,
    either new or/and valuable information or the acquisition of professional competencies.
    They are proposed by the teacher, the planner, the materials designer or the educational
    software programmer, as constituents of the teaching strategies (Diaz & Hernandez,

       There many and diverse strategies which have proven their efficiency when employed as
       back up, in off class academic contexts and university classroom teaching dynamics
       (Diaz & Hernandez, 1999).

 i.           Strategies to activate previous knowledge and promote adequate
         expectations in students.

       The activation of previous knowledge is as useful for the teacher as for the student. The
       teacher can learn more about the student thus providing him the opportunity to interact
       with, and get to know better and deeper, his students. As for the student, this basic
       process allows him to use previously acquired knowledge to anchor new learning. Also,
       highlighting educational intentions or objectives to be achieved develops adequate
       expectations provide a sense of functional value to what is being learnt. Usually, this
       group of strategies is used at the beginning of class. Some of these strategies are:
       question planning, warm up session, brainstorming, presentation of objectives.

ii.            Strategies to orient student’s attention.

       They are teacher interventions which focalize and maintain student‟s attention during
       academic activities. Destined to promote student attention towards the points, concepts
       or ideas which are more relevant to their comprehension, codifying and learning process;
       used intermittently and alternated during class development. It incluyes: embebed
       questions, the use of clues or keys to explore the discourse structure, the use audiovisual
       materials. An important role in this area is occupied by ICT‟s.

iii.           Strategies for organizing information to be learnt.

       Helps to organize data on the material (internal connections) adequately for learning.
       Representing information written or graphically improves logical significance and
       promotes learning. It is employed in different moments. Some are: visual special
       representations such as maps or semantic networks and linguistic representations such as
       summaries or synoptic charts. Again ICT use is ever present.

iv.            Strategies to strengthen the link between previously acquired knowledge
         with new learnings.

       The integration process assure an increase in the value of learning achieved. These
       strategies are used before or after instruction. Frequently used in University Education
       are previous visual organizers (comparative and expositive) and analogies. Used
       individually or simultaneously, according to needs. There use depends on the content of
       the lesson to be learned, the tasks to be done, the lectures and the characteristics of

       The Ministry of education in the last years has started a policy of great transcendence
       thru the implementation and development of training actions thru the Programa Nacional
       de Formación y Capacitación Permanente (PRONAFCAP), in English the National
       Program of Permanent Formation and Training, directed at teachers at all levels and
       school modalities in the education system. These training actions, begining in 2007,

         have incorporated teachers from Basic Special Education, which allows them more
         opportunities to reach more varied students with special educational needs improving the
         application of “learning and teaching strategies”, for which Universities (Public and
         Private) are assuming an important role with their direct participation in this process.

  An innovative aspect oriented at improving the quality of training is the fact that,
  embedded in its design, monitoring actions and counseling in class, as an extention oof
  the training received in the universities, the monitoring is conceived as a periodic follow
  up of the participants with the purpose of recollecting meaningful information relevant
  to the strengths and weaknesses in their professional performance, thus the counselling
  is the exchanging of information between the participant and the trainer in order to
  strengthen the development of personal, social and pedagogical skills of the teacher
  while learning on the job.
          Higher Pedagogical Education Office

         The Ministry of education in the last years has started a policy of great transcendence
         thru the implementation and development of training actions thru the Programa Nacional
         de Formación y Capacitación Permanente (PRONAFCAP), in English the National
         Program of Permanent Formation and Training, directed at teachers at all levels and
         school modalities in the education system. These training actions, begining in 2007,
         have incorporated teachers from Basic Special Education, which allows them more
         opportunities to reach more varied students with special educational needs improving the
         application of “learning and teaching strategies”, for which Universities (Public and
         Private) are assuming an important role with their direct participation in this process.

         An innovative aspect oriented at improving the quality of training is the Fact that,
         embedded in its design, monitoring actions and counseling in class, as an extention oof
         the training received in the universities, the monitoring is conceived as a periodic follow
         up of the participants with the purpose of recollecting meaningful information relevant
         to the strengths and weakness in their professional performance, thus the counseling is
         the exchanging of information between the participant and the trainer in order to
         strengthen the development of personal, social and pedagogical skills of the teacher
         while learning on the job.

                Basic Alternative Education Office (EBA acronym in Spanish)

         Beginning the conversion process in the EBA and comparing traditional teaching with
         current tendencies, we found that the main purpose of the EBA had to dwell on the
         substantial change in the teacher and his attitude and pedagogical praxis.

         This forced the inclusion of alternatives in order to optimize the learning-teaching
         process. It begins by incorporating some elements to insist on improving teacher praxis,
         amongst these are:

    i.           Incorporating student‟s previous knowledge and social context as a starting
           point to count with a diagnostic evaluation which provides teachers with a real
           curricular program, which responds to the needs and demands of the students.

  ii.              Taking into consideration students as the center, which implies that they assume
            the compromise to involve them in the improvement of learning, autonomous
            development, individually as well as collectively. The fact that the student finds
            meaning, functionality and practical use to what they‟ve learnt in school; reaching
            significant fundaments in real life situations.

 iii.             Organizing educational space according to student reality. They form and
            compose work groups in function of diverse learning rhythms. It is recognized that
            EBA students are heterogeneous in nature and, consequently, the teaching process
            must be molded to troughe different learning-teaching styles and rhythms.

 iv.             The strategy is moved by team work; from group learning as a teaching strategy
            where teachers and students develop their argumentation and debating abilities.

    v.            Students are incited to participate in the curricular program, to have a clearer
            picture of what they will be achieving.

 vi.              Teachers, in the use of strategies, within teaching units, develop meaningful and
            enriching learning activities, organized sequentially and interrelated with areas

vii.              Learning Projects Usage is propelled as a strategic answer to real problems
            which students perceive as meaningful in their lives. Also, in order to perceive the
            new role teachers have; to become mediators of alternative learning models, guide
            discussions, gather information and aid in chores. And, maybe, students participate in
            planning, execution and evaluation.

        Besides, it is important to note that the curricular design based in competencies forces,
        in the advance cycles, the use of techniques and instruments which lead to the
        development of thought process, natural to a constructivist conception. We can mention
        a few:
         Conceptual maps
         Semantic networks
         Brainstorming
         Problem solving situations
         Project method
         Research activities

                 Basic Especial Education Office

The Basic Especial Education Office has:

            Adaptation of curricular elements: Skills, knowledge, attitudes, procedures,
             materials, methodologies and evaluation.

       Development of multiple intelligences: With differentiated activities which respond
        to each students learning style.
       Activity agenda at many levels recognizing the different learning rhythms of
       Interactive learning
       Tutoring and counselling of teachers by professionals who are in charge of students
        with special needs.
       The involvement of parents in their children‟s education is another strategy which
        helps achieve student learning and improve education.
       Development of strategies with the objective of improving communications between
        the involve parties.

    Thus, the National Curricular Design, regulatory and guiding document at the national
    level, assumes the principles of quality and equality, and is characterized for being
    diverse, open and flexible, allowing the possibility of adapting as an answer to special
    education needs.

    These characteristics favor the attention of students with special education needs
    associated with disabilities, talents and gifts,

           Cultural Bilingual and Rural Education Office

    The Cultural Bilingual and Rural Education Office is not applying new strategies,
    but, with its participation in PRONAFCAP, it has emphasized the need to develop a
    model of Cultural Bilingual Education of maintenance and development as an answer to
    bilingual realities, taking into consideration the importance of each language not only for
    its communicative competences, but the cognitive competences as well and the social
    insertion in an additive bilingual framework.

    As part of the Rural Areas Educational Project (PEAR), in one teacher and multi-cycle
    schools learning for boys and girls is consolidated by programming and developing
    skills and attitudes to work with the entire class (simultaneously), but with different
    levels of depth or complexity (gradually) and according to real levels of learning. criteria
    for student classroom space and student organization have been developed.

           Educational Technologies Office

    The Educational Technologies Office, implemented, up to 2007, 60 classrooms with
    pedagogical innovation in mind in 16 educational regions of which 27 correspond to
    basic special education and 33 who contain this particular area
    En cuanto la Dirección General de Tecnologías Educativas, En el aspecto tecnológico
    hasta el año 2007 se ha implementado aulas de innovación pedagógica en 60
    Instituciones Educativas de 16 regiones de las cuales 27 corresponden al nivel de
    educación básica especial y 33 contienen dentro del local dicho nivel educativo. La
    implementación incluyo 237 computadoras y la atención con el servicio de Internet a 41
    Instituciones Educativas

One Laptop Per Child program

The One Laptop Per Child program implemented by the Ministry of Education thru its
Educational Technologies Office has as a goal contributing to educational equality in
rural areas. The program seeks to better the quality of education that students receive in
rural areas, by modernizing and strengthening the role of teachers and by distributing
XO Laptops, which are portable, low cost laptops specifically designed as teaching tools
for elementary school students in developing Nations. These Laptops can withstand
intense use in school and at home 365 days a year in any climate, and location.

The program serves mainly rural areas due to the low educational level, which
demonstrates an ancient and deeply rooted social inequality problem between urban and
rural areas. Also, the present technological revolution is threatening to leave behind
those who cannot update their knowledge and skills to the ever increasing rhythm of the
technological revolution and the international knowledge society. The intervention
consist in providing students in rural areas in urgent need a modern and quality
education so that, when adults, they can take advantage of the globalized world they
have to live in, so as not to become just part of the cheap labor force.

The pedagogical proposal which backs up the program is based on the constructivism
models of self learning and learning to learn with the development of critical and
creative thought, problem solving and decision making skills, with open access to
communications, socialization, knowledge and group study networks, being able to also
use them as libraries and laboratory study equipment. With these computers, students
can create and organize individual or group activities, as well as create, access and
process written, spoken, numerical and audiovisual information which they record with
it and save it for future reference.

The pedagogical model allows for the formation of networks with peers, as well as,
facilitating research by allowing them access to the internet and millions of books,
images and documents of the inmense virtual libraries and data banks which the
Ministry of Education can enable for them thru the Educational Technologies Office and
by USB.

The strategy promotes working with parents, who will be involved in the use of these
laptops with an educational end in as much as these machines are donated to their
children for their use 24/7.

The program has reached 38,238 students and 1762 teachers in 569 one teacher and
multi-cycle schools in 20 regions of the Country. The goal for the end of 2008 is to
complete de amount of 250,000 students thru the Ministry of Education and the joint
intervention of regional States, who have proven themselves very interested in
incorporating the program into their budget.

“Educational Television” Program

                  The Program proposes the improvement of the quality of Education through the
                 adequate school use of audiovisuals media in Secondary Education, for this, it has been
                 defined that the associate components are: to have enough archives of audiovisual,
                 educational and cultural content, to intensify teachers‟ training on the use of ICTs, to
                 have enough information within the Educational Community about the advantages of
                 audiovisual media, to have enough availability of audiovisual media emission and
                 reception systems and adequate technological equipment in the educational institutions.

                 According to this, the need for the implementation of a channel network with
                 educational content transmission capacity that will cover all Secondary Educational
                 institutions with electricity basic services it has been identified.

                 To use the audiovisual educational material, production studies will be implemented,
                 collection of audiovisual material, contracting audiovisual materials production by a
                 third party, negotiate donations, agreements, audiovisual content loans.

                 In addition to this it has been identify the need for teacher, school officials and
                 specialists training and to carry out sensibilization workshops for the educational

                 In educational institutions visualization, storage and recording systems will be

                 Said Program gathers the experiences on the use of audiovisual media in countries such
                 as: Peru, National Institute for Teleducation (INTE), the Long Distance Educational
                 Program, The Program for the Improvement of the Quality of Secondary Education;
                 Mexico, with the EDUSAT Network,; Argentina with the ENCUENTRO Channel,
                 studies carried out by the Latinamerican Institute of Educational Communication (ILCE)
                 and carried out by experts in the use and integration of audiovisual media as Julio
                 Cabero Almenara3, Gabriel Salomón, Joan Ferres, José Ignacio Aguaded, among others,
                 that within their experience have carried out research on didactic uses of video, new
                 tecnologies assimilation to teaching, teachers‟ attitude towards audio visual media,
                 cognitive effects of media and teachers‟ image and teaching through mass
                 communication media.

                 Studies have established that information and communication technologies and
                 particularly audiovisuals contribute to the optimization of the teaching-learning process
                 because they get several effects with a sole intervention. More precisely:

                 They cut back the learning time and maintain or reinforce the achievements, favor the
                 development of new methodological strategies for teachers and strengthen constructivist
                 pedagogical methods (based on significative learning and social construction of

3   Julio Cabero Almenara Doctor in Philosophy and Educational Sciences, Universidad de Sevilla. Professorat the Universidad de Sevilla   .

        They offer reliable and quality information and content at low cost allowing to serve a
        greater number of students.

        In the specific case of videos, the several studies carried out by Salomón as by Cabero
        conclude that “In general, students show a high self efficiency to learn both by tv or by
        press”. Also other studies carried out by Tiffin y Rajasingham (1997), mention that
        students almost get to learn from tv programs only wi

        The specific thematic to be transmitted includes audiovisual materialarticulated with the
        themes of curricular design elaborated with a teaching approach or pedagogical design,
        to help the child learn directly from the video, requiring less teacher intervention and
        less learning time in comparison with that employed with written educational material,
        increasing teachers‟ time to deepen on proposed theme.

        It also includes content articulated with the factors mentioned in the UNESCO Report,
        and concludes that to improve the quality of education it is necessary to include material
        with content referred to several themes such as:

           Teacher training, in issues methodology themes, national curriculum design,
            evaluation methods, among others
           Headmasters training and improvement of school management
           Values, such as perseverance among others
           Students‟ attitude towards schooling
           Labor market: demands and exigencies
           Structure and regulation in support of the Education Sector
           National vision and need to improve the quality education
           Parents counseling to strengthen the support in the task of education improvement
           Information on world issues

        As web as thematic coordinated with the strategic objectives, policies and main
        measures established by the National Educational Project.

        It is to say that the control of the pedagogical value of educational videos to be
        transmitted will rest in charge of the national bureaus and area directions in the
        pedagogical management vice ministry of the Ministry of Education.

How is curriculum being designed and organized to respond to students’ diversity?

        National Bureau of Basic Regular Education

        In the level of Basic Regular Education a flexible and diversified curricular is proposed
        to allow classroom teachers to contextualize the skills and content proposed and to

    design teaching and learning strategies that respond to students‟ intellectual, emotional
    and cultural characteristics (levels and learning rhythms, knowledge and previous
    experience, etc.). Also in curriculum development the teacher must create conditions to
    allow the expression of student‟s diversity, only by this means all forms of exclusion,
    imposition and personal and cultural exclusivity will be eliminated in the classroom.

    During the process of curriculum diversification the institutions adequate and enrich the
    curriculum according to the students‟ demands, needs and interests, as well as to the
    local and regional social, economic and cultural demands.

           Bureau of Higher and Technical Education

    In Higher Education level, the creation of careers, specialties, specializations and other
    forms of professional knowledge at present is produced on the base of the existing
    social demand. That is why that, for example, facing the dynamism of the development
    of the extractive industry in our Country, during the last years, the multiplication of
    engineering careers destined to satisfy the increasing labor market has been generated by
    his situation. Similar situation occurs with other careers, medicine, to mention one, with
    great dynamism in the occupational diversification where the appearance of new
    pathologies generates immediately new medicine specialties for their treatment.
    According to this trend, Peruvian Universities is now organizing its corresponding
    curriculum plans focusing in the training of labor competencies.

    Also, the development of Higher Education teacher‟s professional activities in the
    knowledge society, modern, globalized, interconnected, has changed very much in
    relation to what used to be two or three decades before. The Peruvian Educational
    System – SEP (schooling) which till recently was considered the top in educational
    matters, has left place to the National Educational Project. As a consequence today it is
    recognized that education takes place not only within the school system (including
    universities and other educational institutions) but in the whole society.

           Bureau of Alternative Basic Education

    The student of Alternative Basic Education, shows a diversity not only socio cultural
    but of diverse geographic origin. The common denominator of this big portion of
    EBA‟s population, which starts at from nine years, is poverty that takes them to
    temporary an d low remunerated jobs, students with scarce integration to social
    organization, low self- esteem, constant discrimination, none or passive community,
    isolated from productive life and discouraged by formal education, which has got to
    reevaluate adequate methodology and management strategies.

    The EBA has a focus on a pedagogical principle to develop the learning processes, the
    centrality of the student, as it has been mentioned, as a person with particular
    characteristics, with personal life projects and projects and with different contexts.

   Because of that the starting point of curricular organization is:

      The knowledge of the person, the student: what he knows (previous knowledge),
       what he wants to learn, how does he want to learn and with what.

      The knowledge of the context: what possibilities and resources it provides to
       undertake learning processes.

   Towards the inclusion of a new learning

   The EBA, proposes a significant process of social inclusion, it visualizes the student as a
   productive citizen, a communicating, creative, participative person with practice of
   values and integral behavior.

To meet its students‟ diversity it organizes the teaching learning process: programs and
cycles, differentiated by age groups.

      PEBANA for children and adolescents from 9 to 18.
      PEBAJA for youths and adults from 18

   Each Program comprises three cycles: initial, intermediate and advanced.
   What makes this modality different is that: it does not determine the time to begin or
   finish and the transitability according to his improvements. This all in the framework of
   a flexibility which is its most relevant characteristic.

   Curriculum organization

   The National Basic Curriculum Design is a regulation and guiding document which
   provides guidelines for diversified curriculum. It is not necessary of homogeneous
   curriculums at local level because they will not respond to the pertinence of the teaching
   learning process.

   Curriculum organization is centered in: Competencies taken as knowledge to perform in
   a reflective and effective way. For these competencies learnings are developed to
   achieve them, so they will comprise the enrichment of knowledge and skills for a change
   of conduct that takes them to new practices.

   The competencies and learnings to achieve are organized in curriculum areas developed
   through curriculum programs, no matter the form of didactic unit they have, they the
   closest level of curriculum diversification.<

   At the same time the curricular programs may comprise learning sessions, these cannot
   obviate crosscutting themes as the aim of EBA is the development of the individual
   articulated with the social dynamics of the communities they belong to.

    This curricular organization is provided in its three forms:         classroom teaching,
    classroom /online teaching and online.

    We must stress that facing diversity and the characteristics of its population, the EBA
    responds significantly to the criteria of open, diversified, pertinent and flexible

    It recognizes previous experience and knowledge and promotes autonomy and
    responsibility in decision – making and conduction of self-learning projects.

           General Bureau of Special Basic Education

For General Bureau of Special Basic Education curriculum design and organization goes

       Considering an inclusive approach and diversity from the teachers‟ initial education

       Developing teaching capacities to work from knowledge of the students‟ potential,
        rhythms and learning styles.

       Developing capacity to identify the needs of students with Special Learning Needs
        (NEE, in Spanish) considering their family, school and social environment.

       Providing teachers with techniques and process strategies to develop capacities and
        competencies in the students

       Developing capacities to intervene on time and adequately, respecting the students
        natural development process

       Managing intervention strategies to respond to the orientation demands for the
        participation of parents and community

       Establish networks of learning exchange between teachers in service to share
        experiences and consolidate learnings

c) In terms of currículo time ¿how many annual hours of teaching are dedicated to learning
   to read within the first years of school? During how many years

           General Bureau of Regular Basic Education

    In the case of Early Years Education pre-reading and initial reading is adopted.

    During the morning or the afternoon according to the timetable of the Educational
    Institution or program for girls and boys, several activities or “Pedagogical moments”
    are developed. One of these is constituted by the “literary moment “ or “story time”,
    time which is the time the teacher allows his students the opportunity to relate with all

                range of literary activities such as reading, and listening to stories, poems, riddles,
                tongue twisters, rhymes and others and not only to listen to them but to create and re-
                create several situations. We could affirm that in terms of time early Years Education in
                dedicated to the achievement of capacities that will later on help both for girls and boys
                to read and write without difficulty.
                                                      Cuadro 1. Horas de lectura – Educación inicial
                             EFFECTIVE CLASSRROOM TIME                                               LITERARY ACTIVITY OR STORY TIME

                                                960 hours                                                                 120 hours

                In addition to this activity which is also a strategy of the Reading Plan which principal
                objective is that boys and girls develop communicative skills, activities such as:
                implementation of the classroom library, the traveler book, the mother‟s library among
                others, are developed, also mentioning that another important characteristic of this level
                is that its activities are integrated.

                In the case of Primary Education, the systematic learning of reading is done within the
                III Cycle which comprises 1st and 2nd grades. In this grades begins the reading and
                writing in a coordinated manner with the achievements of the Early Years level.

                Considering the National Curricular Design and the specific regulations of curricular
                time we can point out that the learning of reading and writing is a priority from the first
                grades in the framework of a communicative, textual and functional approach.

                The following chart shows an approximation of the time allowed to the learning of
                reading and complementary activities

                                           Chart 2. Horas de lectura Reading Time – Primary Education
                                                  TIME FOR LEARNING
             CLASSROOM TIME                                                              READING PLAN TIME                        ADDITIONAL TIME
                                                       TO READ
                PER YEAR
                   1100 hours                                                                40 hours mínimo                   Up to 10 hours maximun5

                When developing the several curricular areas, through the sessions and the use of school
                texts offered by the provided by the Ministry, reading comprehension is considered in a
                crosscutting way.
                On the other side, in order to meet this strategy, a majority of Educational institutions,
                has implemented their reading Plans using at least an hour a week for reading.

4   Laerning to read is promoted mainly in the areas of Communication, Mathematics, Socials and Sciences
5   Según la RM Nº 0494-2007-ED que norma el desarrollo del año escolar 2008, debe priorizarse las áreas de Comunicación en el nivel primario.According to the RM Nº 0494-
2007-Edn that regulates the development of the 2008 school year, communication areas must be a priority in primary education

   Finally, we could see that Educational Institutions use free time allowed for reading
   activities as a priority in the Communication Area or as integrative activities within their
   Educational Innovation Programs.

d) How can teachers be better repaired to enable them to meet students’ diversity of
   expectancies and needs?

   General Bureau of Basic Regular Education

   Early Years teachers, because of the age of their students need to have very special
   characteristics that make them different from any other teacher, it is because of this that
   teacher education institutions need to convene and define the profiles.- This profile
   must comprise dimensions to help to teachers‟ overall education, for example a Personal
   and axiological Dimension to enable them to develop their skills as learning mediators, a
   Research Dimension to help them contribute to problem identification and solving at
   local and national levels, a Social Dimension to promote respect to diversity of boys and
   We believe this is an important aspect that would help to improve early years teachers‟
   education can to ensure and enhance the hours of practice from the first year of studies.

   Primary Education Teachers must receive a better education considering an inclusive
   and intercultural approach.

   Articulation actions with accredited Universities and Higher Teacher Education
   Institutes would allow improving curriculum proposals and didactic models, including
   those of pre professional practice in initial education, as well as lifelong learning of
   teachers with training and port graduate studies.

   Besides this, the knowledge of children‟s characteristics and needs according to their
   development and considering different geographical and socio cultural contexts, must be

   In general teachers should have an ample knowledge on:

      National reality and specifically in their local context
      Decentralization to know the local context needs aligned to regional and national
      To grasp native languages and cultures as web as regional languages, especially
       where he will work.
      To manage social sciences, economy and production orients to improve local and
       regional development

   To be an ethical professional with solidarity values, vocation of service and be clear
    of the General Law of Education principles, especially those related to Equity and
    Inclusion in their most ample dimension.
   To have basic information on strategic and operational planning.

       Profesional
       General Bureau of Higher and Technical Education

Satisfying the increasing educational needs of our society has generated the appearance
of new careers and specialties in the educational field. And though the Peruvian State
requires education professionals, educated to meet the development of areas, subjects or
curriculum courses within the different levels modalities and forms of the Peruvian
Educational System, there also exists a demand of specialists in related activities. For
example: education management, promotion and research are areas to be covered by
education professionals, thus with a different profile, to go along with the development
of education in general , in their social role to satisfy the population‟s educational needs
without exclusion.

In this respect, many private and public universities in the Country, have been sensitive
to understand these needs and today and at present they offer new teaching careers and
specialties that in most cases do not match , and need not to match necessarily with the
State „s personnel needs. It is evident that these new specialties, offered by private and
public universities, are attractive to many users because there is a potential market in the
private sector. In any case, its development should be not only tolerated but encouraged,
as it fills a social gap, not necessarily related to formal education.

In our Country at present there are universities that provide specialized studies, oriented
to solve the problem of inclusion. The Master in Educational Sciences with mention in
Learning Difficulties awarded by the Universidad Nacional de Educación Enrique
Guzmán y Valle, is an example of post graduate studies. The title in Special Education
awarded by the Universidad Femenina del Sagrado Corazón which is entirely dedicated
to educate professionals in special education is an example of pre-graduate professional
education. We must mention that in the Education Doctorate is usual to find research
works in charge of professionals specialists in different areas of disability, conducted to
define the nature of the processes and the treatment to enable students to overcome their

       Bureau of Higher Teacher Education

In the framework of PRONAFCAP, other tracendental actions are being implemented to
enable the enhancement of educational opportunities to other students through the
creation and implementation of inclusive classrooms. This process through which
students with special educational needs associated with a minor disability have been
inserted in regular classroom of Regular Basic Education. This classrooms called
“inclusive”, have the support of a group of professionals specialists in Special Education
members of SAANEE team. This group has been incorporated in the training process

    provided by the Lifelong Education and Training National Program in order to optimize
    their competencies in the management of the EBR curriculum design and to improve the
    quality of their advisory actions to EBR inclusive teachers.

e) At the same time, to guarantee the quality of this training process, the General Bureau of
   Higher and Technical Education through the Bureau of Higher Teacher Education,
   supervises and evaluates the Lifelong Education and Training National Program
   operations. In order to achieve this, the creation of supervising teams to meet the
   Supervisions and Evaluating Plan in all levels and modalities, This teams are in charge
   of the production of regular relevant quantitative and qualitative about the fulfillment
   and quality of the educational activities in the Training Plan in charge of
   Universities.How the formal and non formal educational surroundings be organized
   more efficiently to ensure inclusión for all learners?

           Basic Regular Education Office

    In Elementary education, space, inside and out of the classroom is organizad to help in
    the development of children, since at the reasoning level they find themselves, they learn
    as much by doing as well as from reading or listening. This is why they need concrete
    materials, direct experiences during learning. Thus classrooms are organized in sectors
    which are marked spaces for materials and supplies which allow the child to interact and
    develop skills. The yard, as well as the community is considered as outside space and it
    includes all of the potential learning opportunities found in them (public places,
    institutions, factories, fields, farms, parks, homes, churches, town halls, etc.)

    In the case of inclusion for children with visual disabilities, the access to adequate
    learning is difficult if the educational institution does not count with the necessary
    resources to adapt the surroundings for these children. Effective management as well as
    intra and inter Sectorial coordination is necessary in order to have alternatives which
    allow inclusive education for all students.

   In Initial Education the recommendations are similar to formal and non formal education

    In Elementary Education, it is also important to count with study, interaction, play and
    areas with resources which allow the proper participation of students with special needs.

    In Elementary education we can talk about formal education, as well as in High school
    education, in a 100% of all institutions. Non formal education is taken care of in Local
    Management Units (UGEL) within the framework of Innovations and Inter Sectorial

    It is fundamental to consider sensibilization and training workshops, for parents and the
    community so that they understand the inclusive approach and learn to respect

differences and take on an active and more compromised role until achieving a national

In case of High School Education:

       The teacher needs the skills to identify socio economical contexts, aspirations,
    inclinations and tendencies of the local in order to find the link between formation
    and the needs of the community.
       The teacher must value the attitudes, ethnic expressions, cultural values and
    other belonging to the community where he/she is at in order to strengthen and favor
    student‟s unique identity in their medium and culture so as to make learning more
    meaningful. The school should be as an extension of their home.

       Superior and Career Technical Education Office

It is important that universities modify their infrastructure, organization and pedagogical
offer in accordance to the diverse educational needs of all students, including those who
present some kind of disabilities or groups of people who have special conditions.

The Peruvian educational system requires profound changes in areas such as conception,
attitudes, and educational practices to achieve, regardless of gender, the same learning
opportunities and the chance to fully develop their abilities and participate, equally, in
educational situations. It is imperative:

       to improve the access and modification of surroundings
       to promote the total coverage of the quotas for students with disabilities and
    social minority groups with special needs.

Finally, we suggest that intermediate management instances of the educational sector
serve educational spaces (schools), strengthen their level of articulation between local
States, civil society and other public State services and generate mechanisms of
information, education and communication at the community level in general.


          National Meeting Participants “Educational Inclusion: road towards the
         Thenatic group Nº 1
  APPROACHES, SCOPE AND CONTENT                               Thenatic group Nº 2
          Francesca Uccelli                                   PUBLIC POLICIES
                                                                Luis Guerrero
Verena Valera Rojas
AIDESEP                                          Yina Rivera Brios
                                                 Consejo Nacional de Educación
Aurora Luna
Alfabetización y Literatura – ALFALIT
                                                 Maribel Cormack Lynch
María Teresa Nunura Rodríguez                    Organización Mundial por la Educación Pre
Asociación KALLPA                                escolar

Emma Vigueras
CONADIS                                          Maria Leonor Romero
                                                 Fe y Alegría
Jane Cosar Camacho
                                                 Martha López de Castilla
Oscar Galindo                                    Instituto de Pedagogía Popular

                                                 Jessica Carballo John
Cristina del Mastro Vecchione                    Instituto Pedagógico Nacional Monterrico
CISE – Pontifica Universidad Católica del Perú

Pedro Merino Boyd                                Gaby Mata Fiallega
Concilio Nacional Evangélico del Perú            Instituto Pedagógico Nacional Monterrico

José Ramos Rojas                                 Pedro Bendezú
CONEAPAFAS                                       Oficina de Cooperación Internacional –
                                                 Ministerio de Educación
Nora Vera
Dirección de Educación Básica Especial
                                                 Elvira Tueros Way
                                                 Dirección General de Educación Básica
Ana María Robles                                 Alternativa

                                                 Concepción Saldaña Díaz
Isabel Durand                                    Dirección Regional de Educación de Ancash

Estela Solis Montoya
Asociación KALLPA

Susana Stiglich Watson
Consejo Nacional de Educación

                                            Dirección General de Educación Superior y
           Thenatic group Nº Nº 3           Técnico Profesional – Especialista de la
                                            Dirección de Coordinación Universitaria
            TRANSITIONS                     Ana Bellido Llaque
            Arturo Miranda                  Asociación Cristiana de Jóvenes

                                            Manuel Rocha Gonzales
Felix Grandez Moreno
                                            Dirección Regional de Educación de Ucayali
Mesa de Concertación de Lucha Contra la
                                            Guillermo Carcía Samamé
                                            Dirección Regional de Educación de Lima
Rosa Mercedes del Pilar Montalvo Cabrera
Ministerio de Justicia
                                            Omar Gandarillas
Elizabeth Herrera
                                            SOLARIS - Perú
Movimiento Manuela Ramos
                                            Marcela Beriche Lezama
Lola Franco Guardia
                                            Dirección de Educación Primaria
Municipalidad de Lima
                                            Gladys Mujica de Russell
Milagro Astigarraga Carbonero
                                            Asociación Proyecto Inclusión Perú
Oficina Nacional de Educación Católica
                                            Elizabeth Flores Herrera
Luis Muñoz
                                            Dirección de Educación Inicial
Sindicato Único de Trabajadores en la
Educación Peruana
                                            Bertha Lovera Romanze
                                            Dirección de Educación Primaria
Ana Maria Vilchez
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos
                                            Hugo Reynaga Muñoz
Norka Moya
Proyecto “Pueblos Indígenas y Desarrollo

Walter Inocente Matta Santa Cruz
Dirección Regional de Educación Cajamarca

Rosa Amelia Rivera Cortez
Dirección Regional de Educación de Lima

Jorge Chávez Ayala

           Thenatic group Nº 4
            Luisa Pinto Cueto

Melva Delgado Vera
Centro Peruano de Audición y Lenguaje

Maria Luz Chávez Cáceres


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